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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2005 year, number 6

1.
An Approach to Modeling a Regional Ecosystem and Spatial Relations of its Components Based on Integration of Interdisciplinary Information

N. D. ZOLNIKOV, A. A. AIRIJANTS, A. Yu. KOROLYUK, U. V. MARTYSIEWICH

Abstract >>
An approach to spatial analysis and modeling of relations between the components of a regional ecosystem on an example of the Altai eco-region is described. Problems of preliminary treatment of heterogeneous geographical data are considered for making them fit for a conjugate spatial analysis. A special attention is paid to problems of unification of thematically diversified information. Possibilities of realization of multiple parameter complex analysis of information files within the framework of region
																								



2.
Middle-Scale Mapping of Vegetation in the Mountains of South Siberia

V. P. SEDELNIKOV, E. I. LAPSHINA, A. Yu. KOROLYUK, V. I. VALUTSKY, N. B. YERMAKOV, E. A. YERSHOVA, N.I. MAKUNINA, T. V. MALTSEVA

Abstract >>
Results of elaboration of ecological-phytocoenological map of South Siberia (M 1: 1000000) are discussed. A legend for the mountain territories is given, it contains the information about vegetation map units and ecological conditions (St > 10
																								



3.
Comparative Characteristics of Distribution and Spatial Heterogeneity of Ant and Mammal Population of the Nort-East Altai (a Cartographic Analysis)

Yu. S. RAVKIN, S. V. CHESNOKOVA, V. A. YUDKIN, L. V. OMELCHENKO, I. N. BOGOMOLOVA, Yu. F. MARIN, Yu. P. MALKOV, K. V. TOROPOV, E. A. GORBUNOVA

Abstract >>
With the help of cluster analysis and construction of graphs on the results of censuses of ant nests and existence energy of mammals, classifications of their communities and species were made by similarity of distribution. On the basis of these classifications, eight maps were drawn up for whose units characteristics of population of animal groups analyzed are presented. Changes of population density and species abundance by altitude zones were followed up. The force and commonness of coupling between the heterogeneity of physiognomy of community and environmental factors were estimated. Similarity and differences in the distribution and ecological habitat requirements of the animal groups studied were determined.
																								



4.
Geomorphological Mapping of Ecosystems of the Mouth of the Chuya River on the Basis of GIS Technologies

A. A. MISTRYUKOV, P. Yu. SAVELYEVA

Abstract >>
On the basis of GIS technologies, a large-scale geomorphological map is drawn up. Characteristics of the region relief are given, 16 morphological complexes of mesorelief are distinguished on the basis of decoding high resolution space photographs, aerial photographs and field observations and literature sources. As a result of a complex analysis, eight stages of development of the territory relief are distinguished. Thanks to the GIS possibilities, the results of the analysis are presented in digital form. Perspectives of use of GIS technologies in geo-morphological studies are considered.
																								



5.
Ecological State of Soils of the Altai Region: Pollution with Radioactive Cesium

I. N. MALIKOVA, V. D. STRAKHOVENKO, F. V. SUKHORUKOV, A. Yu. DEVYATOVA

Abstract >>
Based on long-term studies (1992-2004), characteristics of modern pollution of the Altai region soils with radioactive cesium are given. It is demonstrated that the main evidence of former local precipitations is the presence of representative (informative) points of testing with residual radio-cesium resources abnormal with respect to the global background. The modern accumulation of 137Cs in subordinate landscapes and on geochemical barriers is rather limited. The most efficient process of its secondary redistribution at present are forest fires.
																								



6.
Structure of Vegetation of Steppe Hills in the Altai Piedmonts

A. Yu. KOROLYUK, A. V. YEGOROVA, I. E. SMELYANSKY, N. V. FILIPPOVA

Abstract >>
The phytocenotic diversity of steppe piedmonts of the Altai is described. Plant communities were ordinated along the humidity gradient. The results of ordination of the communities were used for analysis of the structure of vegetation of steppe hill massifs. Distribution of steppe vegetation upon ideal hill was simulated, and typification of the main patterns of distribution was made.
																								



7.
Geoinformation Management of Hydroeconomic and Hydrological Estimation for Ecological Forecasts

O. V. LOVTSKAYA, S. G. YAKOVCHENKO, I. V. ZHERELINA, V. A. ZHOROV, I. C. POSTNOVA

Abstract >>
On the example of the upper Ob basin and adjacent territories, the main geoinformation resources necessary for water management and hydrological calculations are characterized. It is noted that they should include heterogeneous cartographic and attributive data. The composition of these data and demands of their quality are determined. Examples of the use of the data for composing registers of water bodies, determining the basin administration structure of the territory, calculating the parameters of water catchment areas for estimation of peak flow, evaluation of components of water and water management river budget, calculation of territory flooding and destruction of hydraulic works.
																								



8.
A Geoinformation Cartographic Model of Soil Diversity of Steppe Intermontane Hollows of the Mountainous Altai

L. Ju. DITZ, S. A. MILLER

Abstract >>
Construction of a cartographic information model of soil diversity using GIS technologies is most possible on the basis of a digital model of the relief and data of remote probing of the Earth. Modern computer-aided approaches are an extension of the traditional comparative geographical method of soil mapping and increase the informativeness of maps. Mountainous ecosystems having a rich soil diversity under the conditions of hollows isolated by mountain ridges are very sensitive to man's influence, pollution, soil erosion and earth creeps. Therefore, for ecological soil monitoring, a comprehensive use of modern computer-aided technologies is badly needed
																								



9.
Development of a System of Comprehensive Description of Testing Grounds for Interpretation of Spacecraft Survey Data

N. N. DOBRETSOV, I. D. ZOLNIKOV, A. Yu. KOROLYUK, A. A. MISTRYUKOV, B. A. SMOLENTSEV, E. N. SMOLENTSEVA, U. V. MARTYSIEVICH, N. I. MAKUNINA, T. V. MALTSEVA

Abstract >>
The first results of interdisciplinary studies of standard testing grounds in the territory of the Altai - Sayan ecological region for subsequent interpretation of remote probing data are described. It is demonstrated that spectral characteristics of spacecraft survey influence differently the components of geo-landscape (geology, relief, loose cover of quaternary deposits, soils, vegetation). Regular relationships between various components of terrestrial ecosystems have been analyzed. A system of comprehensive interdisciplinary description of standard testing grounds for treatment of materials of spacecraft survey of the Earth for solution of geo-ecological tasks has been developed and tested.
																								



10.
Modern Priorities of Development of Monitoring of Boreal Ecosystems by the Data of Spacecraft Observations

S. A. BARTALEV, A. S. ISAEV, E. A. LUPIAN

Abstract >>
The processes of global changes of climate and biosphere are tightly associated and manifest themselves maximally in the boreal zone of the planet, in particular in Eurasia. Spacecraft methods of remote observation of the Earth permit at present practising a regular monitoring of key characteristics of the state and the time course of changes of terrestrial geosystems necessary for a better estimation and understanding of mechanisms and forecast of future climatic and biospheric changes. In the paper, the priority trends of spacecraft monitoring of terrestrial ecosystems are analyzed, modern possibilities of its practical realization are considered on the basis of the currently used spacecraft instruments of the Earth observation and methods of analysis of data obtained with their help. The main possibilities of the system of monitoring the state and the time course of changes of terrestrial ecosystems now being created in Russia are presented which make it possible to obtain estimates of many important characteristics that reflect the structure of the vegetable cover, the scales of damage of vegetation by fires and forest felling, and regimes of use of agricultural lands in North Eurasia or the boreal zone of the planet.
																								



11.
Radiation Influence of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Ground on South Siberia (Experience of Long Term Studies in East and Middle Siberia and Comparison of the Results with Materials on West Siberia)

V. I. MEDVEDEV, L. G. KORSHUNOV, B. P. CHERNYAGO

Abstract >>
On the basis of published data on the Altai region and Altai National Republic, including new materials of measurement beta-activity precipitations at 24 meteorological stations of Khakasia, Tyva, Buryat Republic, Irkutsk region and the south of Krasnoyarsk region, data of geological expeditions on recording increases of the radiation background, and instrumental measurements of sediment density and soil content of man-made radionuclides, a general picture of radiation influence of nuclear tests in the Semipalatinsk testing ground on South Siberia has been obtained.
																								



12.
Radiation Influence of the Subterranean Nuclear Explosion Cipher "Rift-3" on the Territory and Population of the Osinsky District of the Irkutsk Oblast

V. I. MEDVEDEV, L. G. KORSHUNOV, V. V. KOVALENKO, N. I. MATOROVA, A. N. KARCHEVSKY, L. P. OSIPOVA, V. A. BOGDANOV

Abstract >>
Based on the results of radiography of annual rings of trees, a detailed specific radio-ecological testing of soils and measurement of irradiation doses by EPR of tooth enamel of inhabitants of the influence zone of the object "Rift-3", it is established that the given subterranean nuclear explosion was accompanied by release of radio inert gases onto the earth surface. Along the valley of the Obusa river where the explosion was made, the local aureole of residual radiation contamination of soils with cesium 137, strontium 90 and plutonium was mapped. It is established that the population of living area found within the influence zone of "Rift 3" received due to the nuclear test irradiation doses of 5 c3v, and those who lived in points nearest to the object received more than 25 c3v.
																								



13.
Diversity of Parasite Systems with Participation of Small Mammals and Ixodes persulcatus Schulze in the North Urals

N. N. LIVANOVA, V. A. RAR, S. G. LIVANOV, Ya. P. IGOLKINA

Abstract >>
Blood and spleen tissue samples of small mammals and imagines of Ixodes persulcatus Schulze were analyzed by the results of field studies carried out in June - July 2004 on the northern border of the taiga tick living area (North Ural district, 60
																								



14.
Experience of Analysis of Mountain Faunas of Pale-arctic on the Example of Lepidoptera of the Arctiinae Subfamily (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae)

V. V. DUBATOLOV

Abstract >>
With the help of cluster analysis (factor classification), montane Lepidoptera faunas of the Arctiinae subfamily of Palearctic were compared. Totally, 87 mountain faunas from the Pyrenees and Atlas in the West to the Chukotka in the East, the Himalayas and South China in the South. It was found that the faunas of the mountains of China and South-East Himalayas was much richer than those at respective latitudes of the west of Eurasia, which may be associated with the absence of considerable latitudinal borders in East Asia. All the mountain faunas studied are classified into 13 types that form 7 super types at the similarity level of 15 %.
The most different from all of them was the fauna of the Tibetan highland which is proposed to distinguish as a high-rank zoogeographic choron, maybe as a special subprovince. The fauna of Arctiinae subfamily of the mountains of East Asian (Manchurian, or Palearchearctic) subfamily of Palearctic has an obviously greater similarity to the fauna of other parts of Palearctic. The Arctiinae fauna of the Caucasus is not specific.
																								



15.
Woodland Belts as a Factor of Improvement of Ecological Conditions in the Steppe Kulunda

Ya. N. ISHUTIN

Abstract >>
The current state of forest protection plantations in the Altai region is analyzed, and forest management measures for protection of the existing forest belts and creation of new ones for improvement of ecological conditions in steppe Kulunda are planned.