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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2002 year, number 1

Closed-State Principle and Criteria of Optimal Nature Management and Sustainable Development



In connection with the development of an ecological crisis and with the awareness of its consequences, the concept of "sustainable development" has been put forward. However, no project or plan of such development has been proposed so far.
In the present work, an approach to creation of a scientific concept of sustainable development is proposed. The approach is based on the "closed state" principle. In accordance with this principle, any system with the chemical transformations going in it can exist during an infinite time only if a complete substance cycle exists within it due to free energy supplied to it from outside.
The problem of possibility of attaining a global closed state of the biosphere together with the technosphere remains disputable; however, the higher the closeness of the system is, the longer existence of the civilization may be planned. In order to approach the global closed state, it is necessary to develop adequate criteria of optimality and estimation of newly created technologies and reconstruction of the old ones, to be able to analyze the openness of at least the main mass flows in the bio-and technosphere, to develop working models. The developed models have to be checked with the help of artificial experimental biosphere.