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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2012 year, number 2

First stage of the Stolypin Agrarian Reform: Institutional Aspect

N.L. Rogalina
Keywords: agrarian reform, Pyotr Stolypin, land use, commune, resettlement policy
Pages: 3-10

Abstract >>
This article analyzes the institutional conditions of the start-up phase of Stolypin's agrarian reform: legislative framework of the reform, land relations, resettlement policy, activities of the Peasant Bank and credit cooperation. Based on the wide range of documentary publications, works by agricultural economists and contemporary historical approaches the author characterizes the Stolypin reform as being complex and multidimensional. She concludes that the years 1907-1909 were formative in terms of the reform's ideology formulation and legislative framework development. They also launched the mechanism of reforms which contributed to intensification of agricultural production.

Implementation of the Stolypin Reforms in Siberia: Abolition of Peasants' Joint Responsibility for Tax Payments.

A.K. Kirillov
Keywords: Stolypin's reforms in Siberia, abolition of joint responsibility, allotment of the state quitrent tax (gosudarstvennaya obrochnaya podat'), peasants' tax distribution resolution (raskladochny prigovor)
Pages: 10-14

Abstract >>
The paper focuses on the reform implemented in Siberia in 1906 in order to establish the rule of individual responsibility for tax payments among Siberian peasants. Having been largely ignored by the researchers, this reform attracts our attention as it was shaped not only by the legislation prescribed from the imperial capital, but also by the local officials' initiative and by the Siberian peasants' attitudes. There existed a tendency of playing "hide-and-seek" with the fiscal bodies which forced the tax inspectors to insist on further improvement of the legislation. However this trend wasn't prevailing in terms of the peasants' attitude towards the tax distribution.

How Much Land Does a Farmer Need? (On the Question of Prerequisites of the Stolypin Agrarian Reform)

I.N. Slepnev
Keywords: agrarian reforms, Russian peasantry, farmers, land endowment, property, landlord estate
Pages: 14-16

Abstract >>
The paper aims at evaluating the material conditions necessary for creating the class of Russian farmers during the Stolypin's agrarian reform. With this objective in view the author traces how the level of peasants' land endowment changed after the 1861 reform. He shows that the Stolypin agrarian reform's logics and possible success were determined by the real size of peasants' land allotments in the post-reform period along with the landlords' estates acting as deterrent factor against creation of the class of independent small-scale producers.

P.A. Stolypin and A.V. Krivosheev's Journey to Siberia in 1910 from a Perspective of Summarizing Results and Proposing Further Agrarian Reforms

M.V. Shilovskiy
Keywords: migrations, land utilization, private land ownership
Pages: 16-21

Abstract >>
The article analyzes proposals made by P.A. Stolypin and A.V. Krivosheev after their journey to Siberia in 1910 from a perspective of carrying out further agrarian reforms in the region.

Stolypin's Reforms and Problems of Formation of the Institutional Framework of Cooperation in the Pre-Revolutionary Siberia

G.M. Zaporozhchenko
Keywords: Siberia, Stolypin reforms, civil society, consumer cooperatives, consumers' societies
Pages: 21-24

Abstract >>
The article investigates organizational principles of consumer cooperation in Siberia in the prerevolutionary period. It focuses on the experience of urban and worker cooperative societies; reveals the social, professional and functional aspects of their organization and management. The author concludes that despite some deformations the Siberian cooperation was based on the principles of free membership, independence and self-management which provided its efficient development and operation.

P.A. Stolypin's Viewpoint on The Catholic Question in the Russian Empire at the Beginning of the XX Century

T.G. Nedzeluk
Keywords: Chairman of the Council of Ministers, religious policy, Russian Catholic community, inspection trip
Pages: 24-28

Abstract >>
The research deals with ambiguous attitudes of the Russian Prime Minister towards the formation and activities of Catholic communities in the Russian Empire, and in particular - in Siberian Region. The paper is written on the archival materials and memoirs of Russian Catholics.

The Missing Link -- the Mesolithic Period (On the Problem of Preserving Information Traditions in the Cultures of the Post-Paleolithic Epoch of Eurasia). Part III. Systems of Time Notation in Mesolithic Cultures of North-Eastern Europe.

V.YE. Larichev
Keywords: the Mesolithic Epoch, the north-east of Europe, astronomy, calendars, primitive art, semantics of images and symbols, their interpretation, numerical records of time, protoscience<
Pages: 28-33

Abstract >>
The article is written for the purpose of executing the innovative program on information traditions in the post-paleolithic cultures of Eurasia. The author presents variants of reconstructing the time notation systems of mesolithic inhabitants of the north-eastern region of Europe based on analysis of symbolic records left on the three carriers of the calendar rank information (the so-called art objects). The latter were discovered during excavations of two settlements in the Lower Veretie (in the White Sea region) and the Osa (in the Baltic area). The results of such analysis allowed the author to come to conclusion that traditions of time notation developed by the Upper Paleolithic cultures in the north-eastern areas of Europe were preserved there in later epochs.

Wall Paintings in Bohai Tombs

V.V. Akhmetov
Keywords: Bohai, mural tomb, wall painting, Tang, Goguryeo
Pages: 33-35

Abstract >>
Bohai mural tombs are an important source of information about funeral practices of Bohai people. Wall paintings in tombs were common for the area of Far Eastern civilization. It is not surprising that tradition of tomb wall painting was a part of Bohai culture. Among the Bohai mural tombs the best preserved one is that of Princess Zhen Xiao. The analysis of wall painting in that tomb gives evidence of strong Tang culture influence. However, if we consider both wall paintings and elements of Bohai burial complexes (tombs), it becomes obvious that the original Bohai culture organically intertwined different cultural traditions.

Petroglyphs of the Lower Inegen Area in the Light of Myths and Beliefs of the Altay Hunters

YE.P. Matochkin
Keywords: petroglyphs, incuse, engraving, mistress of animals, hunter legends
Pages: 35-39

Abstract >>
The paper studies a new monument of petroglyphic art from the valley of the Lower Inegen river in Gorny Altay. These engraved and incuse petroglyphs were created in the course of several thousand years and formed a certain frieze with petroglyphic images of animals and their mythical masters. Semantics of these petroglyphs reflects the traditional ideas of hunting typical for the Turks of Southern Siberia.

Ornamental Motifs in the Artistic Bone Carvings of Ancient Turks of Southern Siberia and Central Asia

G.V. Kubarev
Keywords: ornament, artistic bone carving, ancient Turks, Central Asia, Southern Siberia
Pages: 40-45

Abstract >>
The article considers ornamental motifs which were widely known and popular among the Turkic-speaking nomads in Southern Siberia and Central Asia during the ancient Turkic epoch (VI-X centuries). The author comes to conclusion that along with imitations of knots and braidings, circular and geometrical ornaments the ancient Turks also used a variety of plant ornamental patterns in the form of serpentine tendrils, palmettes etc. as the most popular motifs in the artistic bone carving. In the second half of the first millennium the floral ornamentation not only dominated the art of ancient Turks, but also became widespread across Eurasia.

The Pottery of Koguryo

M.A. Yakupov
Keywords: Koguryo, Koguryo ceramics, Gueoidong, Monchon, Achasan, Han river
Pages: 45-51

Abstract >>
The article reviews the history of studies of Koguryo culture ceramics that has been largely neglected in the Russian historical scholarship. While completing the Master's course in archeology at the Koryo University (Korea) in 2005-2009 the author had an opportunity to examine the collections of ceramic vessels excavated from archaeological sites of Koguryo culture: Hon Rengbon 1-2, Achasan 4, Gueoidong, Shirubong, Horogoru, Engmasan-1-3. Having analyzed the collected data and published materials the author described the basic types of ceramic vessels and determined basic attributes of Koguryo ceramics.

History of Studying the Heishui Mohe Sites in the Western Amur River Region

N.L. Boldyreva, D.P. Volkov
Keywords: Amur, Primorye, the early Middle Ages, Naifeld group of Mohe
Pages: 51-59

Abstract >>
The article examines the history of archaeological research of the Heishui Mohe sites (the Naifeld group of the Mohe archaeological culture) in the astern part of Asia. The article highlights the main stages of cultural studies, reviews the major works on this issue.

The Mysterious Region: Archaeology of Central America in Russian Historiography

A.S. Kravtsova, A.V. Tabarev
Keywords: archaeology, Central America, cultures, pre-Colombian time
Pages: 59-66

Abstract >>
The article shows the current stage of research of the pre-Colombian cultures of Central America in Russian archaeological literature. This region has never been studied by Russian scholars in the course of expeditions or special research projects. The available information is quite sketchy and out of date.

Shoe Tips of Tobolsk in the XVII Century

I.V. Balyunov
Keywords: shoe tips, classification, type, chronology, Tobolsk, XVII century
Pages: 66-72

Abstract >>
The aim of the article is to study the iron shoe tips dated from the XVII century and found in the cultural layer of Tobolsk. These findings let partially characterize blacksmith and shoemaker work in Siberia's old capital. Analysis of scientific literature allows determining some problems related to classification and chronology of shoe tips in the  Moscow state and neighbouring areas. The author carried out the statistical analysis, developed classification of the Tobolsk findings and studied several published collections. All this allowed him to conclude that problems of chronology and classification of shoe tips should be studied individually for each archaeological record.

The Housing and Settlement Complex of the Buryats of the Eastern Sayan Area in the Second Half of the XIX - Early XX Centuries

A.A. Badmaev
Keywords: the housing and settlement complex, the Buryats, the Eastern Sayan area
Pages: 72-80

Abstract >>
The article deals with development of the housing and settlement complex of the Buryats of the Eastern Sayan area in the second half of the XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries. Based on the analysis of historical sources the author demonstrates that during that period of history the number of settlements increased, there appeared new forms of settlements and novelties in architecture of log yurtas, along with adoption of the Russian-Siberian type of dwellings which resulted in constructing the new hybrid types of houses.

Sacral Architecture of the Sakha: Traditions and the Present

N.K. Danilova
Keywords: Sakha Festival of Ysyakh, symbols of space, religious objects
Pages: 80-87

Abstract >>
The article concerns religious objects and buildings of the Festival of Ysyakh focusing on the problem of spiritual development of space, correlation between ritual objects and mythological worldview. Based on various sources, the article considers symbolical and functional significance of Yasyakh' buildings.

Siberian Nature in the Mirror of Peasant Memoirs (Specific Features of Ecological Consciousness of the Siberian Rural Population)

G.V. Lyubimova
Keywords: naive literature, peasant memoirs, agrarian modernization, ecological consciousness, Siberian rural population
Pages: 87-93

Abstract >>
The author undertakes examination of peasant autobiographies in order to analyze patterns their perception of the natural environment. Peasant handwritten autobiographies explore views and opinions of the rural population through the period of modernization in Siberia in the XIX and XX centuries. They also show transformation of these traditional views from considering the nature a source of material wealth to acknowledging exhaustibility of its resources.

The Notion of Soul in the Even and Evenk Traditions

G.N. Varavina
Keywords: indigenous numerically small peoples of the North, Tungus-speaking ethnic groups, spiritual culture, conceptions of soul, semantics of thread and hair
Pages: 93-100

Abstract >>
The article provides a valuable overview of the traditional concepts of human nature shared by the Tungus-speaking ethnic groups (Evens and Evenks). The author reviews evidence gained from ethnographic and folklore research findings in an effort to describe traditional concepts of soul and relevant ritual practices.

The Phenomenon of Women's Pogo Pectoral In the Cultural and Historical Heritage of Khakass Republic

M.V. Moskvina, E.V. Samushkina
Keywords: cultural and historical heritage, symbolization of ethnicity, women's adornment, pogo
Pages: 100-107

Abstract >>
The authors study a traditional Khakass women's breast adornment (pogo), its semantics, symbolism and place in the structure of cultural and historical heritage of the Khakass  Republic. The authors conclude that pogo has become a part of heraldic art and symbolizes the polyethnic Khakass society.

Hospitality in the Kazakh Culture in the Context of Conspicuous Consumption. Traditions and the Present

I.V. Oktyabrskaya, Z.K. Suraganova
Keywords: Kazakh culture, conspicuous consumption, visiting, traditions and the present
Pages: 107-117

Abstract >>
The article studies the forms of visiting in the traditional and modern Kazakh culture. The research is based on concepts and practices of conspicuous consumption and gift exchange. The authors argue that the norms and standards of visiting, which remained steady for centuries, are a form of social reproduction both from socioeconomic and mythical-ritual perspectives.

The Republic of Korea's Strategy for Interaction with the Korean Diaspora

YE.V. Kim
Keywords: the Republic of Korea, Korean diaspora, repatriation
Pages: 117-126

Abstract >>
The paper evaluates the Republic of Korea's strategy for interacting with Korean diaspora communities. The author defines diaspora as an institutionalized community of immigrants with high level of integration into the receiving society and collective memory of the historical homeland; offers general and specific characteristics of the most numerous groups of the Korean diaspora. The novelty of research is determined by the original sources allowing to trace evolution of the Republic of Korea's policy towards diaspora.

The Notion of Crane in the Khakass Tradition

V.A. Burnakov
Keywords: crane, Khakass, mythological and ritual system
Pages: 126-133

Abstract >>
The article concerns the image of crane in mythological and ritual system of the Khakasses. Based on the literature, archival and field materials, the author considers the connection of this bird with concepts of man's soul and death. The author also analyzes the links of the image of crane and its nest with concepts of home and womanliness.

Heirs of Glory of Siberian Pathfinders (Cossacks' Sons in the XVII Century)

A.A. Lutsidarskaya
Keywords: Siberian Cossacks, garrisons, special, social group
Pages: 133-141

Abstract >>
In the XVII century the grown-up sons of the Siberian Cossacks formed a special social group. In cases of emergency they served as a potential military force for Siberian garrisons. Some of the Cossacks' sons took the positions of their fathers or other kins in case of the latter's resignation or death. But the large majority of the Cossacks' sons were engaged in farming and trade. Gradually they dissolved among the other social groups, joining the ranks of peasants and small commodity producers.

On the Activities of the Liquidation Committee of the Trans-Baikal ossack Army in 1920-1921.

S.N. Savchenko
Keywords: Far Eastern Republic, East Trans-Baikal Regional People's Revolutionary Committee, Trans-Baikal Cossack Army, the liquidation committee
Pages: 141-145

Abstract >>
This article studies activities of a special committee authorized to transfer the property of the Trans-Baikal Cossack Army to the relevant organizations of the Far Eastern Republic in 1920-1921. The author shows the committee's role in liquidation of the Cossack self-government bodies; analyzes its formal and actual place in the administrative system; demonstrates problems of its interaction with the local and central authorities.

Subsistence Farms of Enterprises and Organizations of Western Siberia in the second half of the 1970s - first half of the 1980s

D.S. Orlov
Keywords: agriculture, agrarian policy, subsistence farms, Western Siberia
Pages: 145-148

Abstract >>
The paper considers the main trends in development of subsistence farms of industrial enterprises and organizations in Western Siberia. The author concludes that subsidiary plots appeared as a result of inconsistent policy of the Soviet government attempting to solve the problem of food shortage in this period of history.