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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2012 year, number 1

1.
Russian Experience of Exploration and Development of the Arctic Territories

A.I. Timoshenko
Keywords: Arctic, historical experience, regional policy
Pages: 3-7

Abstract >>
The paper discusses importance of historical studies devoted to the Russian experience of exploration and development of the Arctic Zone and the Northern Sea Route from the ancient times to the present day. History of high-latitude regions of Russia is presented as an integral part of the grandiose process of Russian colonization of Eurasia and creation of the largest country in the world.
																								



2.
Initiation of the Arctic Studies in M.V. Lomonosov's Works

D.A. Shirina
Keywords: North, Arctic, Academy of sciences, history of science
Pages: 7-11

Abstract >>
The main task of this article is to reveal and investigate the heritage of M.V. Lomonosov demonstrating his role in initiating the Arctic and Northern studies. The undertaken research allowed presenting to the scientific community a thesis about the significance of the area to the development of the Russian state and formation of scientific foundations of the northern sea navigation.
																								



3.
On the Problem of Alcoholizing the Chukotka Native Population and by Americans in the Late XIX — Early XX Centuries

A.A Yarzutkina
Keywords: trade relations, Chukotka native inhabitants, American merchants, alcoholic drinks
Pages: 11-14

Abstract >>
This article clarifies the role of the alcoholic drinks in trade relations between Chukotka native inhabitants, American entrepreneurs and Russian Cossacks at the end of the XIX century — the beginning of the XX centuries. Having analyzed economic behavior of trade participants, as well as state policy directed against alcoholizing of the native population in the most remote part of the Russian empire, the author concludes that alcohol played a special role in trade relations in the Chukotka peninsula, and that it was an integral part of trade relations absorbed into local culture.
																								



4.
Petroleum Potential of the Arctic Region of Siberia According to Geological Investigations in the 1920–1940s

M.V. Komgort
Keywords: Arctic region of Siberia, Northern Sea Rout, history of petroleum exploration
Pages: 14-17

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the first scientific forecast of the Siberia's Arctic regions petroleum potential and geological exploration results in the 1920–1940s. It shows the role of Glavsevmorput (Chief directorate of the Northern Sea Route) in organizing the Arctic oil exploration. The author presents conclusions made by geologists on the petroleum potential of the Arctic region as well as their arguments for further geological exploration in other regions.
																								



5.
V.N.Saks — Initiator of the Arctic Studies in the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences

N.A. Kupershtokh
Keywords: Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciencies V.N. Saks, Arctic studies, Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences
Pages: 17-21

Abstract >>
The article considers activities of the Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences V.N.Saks as one of initiators of integrated Arctic studies in the Institute of Geology and Geophysics in the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In the course of conducting scientific research he obtained important results in such fields as stratigraphy, paleontology, paleobiogeography, sedimentology, paleogeography, paleoclimatology and petroleum geology.
																								



6.
Population of Yamal during the Period of Industrial Development (1959-1989)

G.G. Kornilov
Keywords: historical demography, industrial development, population, North, Yamal
Pages: 21-25

Abstract >>
The paper addresses a problem of integrated study of demographic development of the Yamal-Nenets district in the 1960–1980s. For the first time in historiography the author presents data on changes in structure and population dynamics in Yamal, basic vital rates; he also uses mass sources to design times series estimating birth rate and death rate, nuptiality and divorce rates, migration processes (in general and from the point of view of rural and urban population). The research shows correlation between demographic processes in Yamal and general political, social and economic situation; gives the original periodization of the population development in the district.
																								



7.
International Scientific Cooperation in Studying the Indigenous Peoples of Yakutia in the Late XIX Century

A.A Suleymanov
Keywords: Arctic, Yakutia, indigenous peoples, scientific cooperation, international project, expedition
Pages: 25-29

Abstract >>
The paper deals with international research initiatives devoted to studying the indigenous peoples of Yakutia, living in the Arctic regions. It is noted that scientific studies resulted in defining two oppositely directed factors which affected the activity of indigenous peoples — the desire to strengthen the role of the elements of traditional way of life along with growing influence of various modernization and assimilation processes.
																								



8.
The Tyumen Sector of the Arctic Zone: a New Stage of Development.

Y.P. Karpov
Keywords: Arctic, Yamal, strategy, integral development, natural gas industry
Pages: 29-33

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes contradictions in social and economic development in the northern areas of the Tyumen Region; shows the need for conceptual shift in determining goals and prospects of its development. Special attention is paid to areas of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District (YNAD) where unique gas fields were discovered after the Great Patriotic War. The author studies the industrialization's effect on other spheres of activities in the region, shows how the old traditional culture of the northern population conflicted with the new industrial culture; describes methods of settling this conflict; considers prospects for the Yamal's development in the 2010s, the role of the peninsula in the Federal Project «Industrial Urals — Polar Urals», social and environmental aspects of the new stage of the Arctic Zone's industrial development.
																								



9.
Rule-Making Activities of the Russian Government as an Instrument of Evaluation of the Arctic Region Policy

V.V. Arteyev
Keywords: Arctic region, Far Northern Areas, rule-making activities, legislative acts, regional development
Pages: 33-41

Abstract >>
The paper addresses a problem of rule-making activities of the Russian government as an instrument of evaluation of the Arctic region policy. The author shows changing nature of the government's rule-making activities since early 1990s; increasing number of legislative acts dealing with the Arctic region; shifting priorities from solving concrete social and economic problems to general issues of national security and military strategic task of strengthening the state boundaries.
																								



10.
Defense of Southern Boundaries of Western Siberia by the Russian Soldiers in the Late XVI - First Third of the XVII Centuries

YU.S. Khudjakov
Keywords: Western Siberia, Siberian Tatars, Russian Cossacks and Service People, level of development of military science
Pages: 41-45

Abstract >>
This article analyzes the level of military science development among Russian soldiers and Siberian Tatars as well as the military factor's role in defense of southern boundaries of Western Siberia from the Turkic and Mongolian nomads in the end of the XVI — first third of the XVII centuries when there was a real threat of the Siberian Tatar Khanate's restoration. The author considers the role of the Tatar nobility and military groups of service Tatars in defending the southern borders of Russian possessions in the steppe areas of Western Siberia. The fact that some Tatars remained faithful to the Russian state allowed local authorities to succeed in resisting numerous attacks of the Turkic and Mongolian nomads during this period of history.
																								



11.
Critical Study of Official Acts as Historical Sources in the Russian Science in the First Half of the XIX Century

K.B. Umbrashko
Keywords: A.-L. Schloezer, historians of the second row, official acts as historical sources, criticism, new trends, critical study
Pages: 45-48

Abstract >>
The article analyzes different variants of critical study of official acts as primary historical sources by the Russian historians in the first half of the XIX century. The main attention is paid to scientific work of the less well known historians: A.Z. Zinoviev, V. Vinogradov, A.F. Fedotov and others. The author considers their scientific theories concerning the Russian official acts as historical sources; shows the prominent German scholar  A.-L. Schloezer's impact on the Russian historians. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate what was new in studying the official acts as historical sources in the Russian science of the first half of the XIX century.
																								



12.
Recruit's First Steps: from the Place of Residence to the Duty Station (XIX Century)

V.I. Bayandin
Keywords: Recruiting Statute of 1831, Russian Army, Siberian recruits, recruitment, parties of recruits
Pages: 48-52

Abstract >>
The article deals with the problem of recruitment in Russia. It shows how recruits were sent to the military recruitment office (rekrutskoye prisutstviye), which was responsible for their delivery. The author studies the routes followed by the parties of recruits in Siberia as well as points of their destination.
																								



13.
Rural Intelligentsia's Influence on Modernization Processes in the Agrarian Sector of Western Siberia (1880–1914)

JU.V Druzhinina
Keywords: rural intelligentsia, agriculture, animal husbandry, beekeeping, enlightenment, cooperative societies, artel
Pages: 52-56

Abstract >>
The article characterizes activities of intelligentsia which influenced the processes of modernization in the agricultural sector in Western Siberia: dissemination of agricultural knowledge among farmers; introduction of effective methods of livestock-breeding and field-crop cultivation, organization of agricultural societies, artels, co-operatives. Rural intelligentsia in the region contributed in initiating some positive changes in the economic activities of the peasantry.
																								



14.
Local Press as a Communicative Tool of the Siberian Society and Judicial Authorities in the Late XIX — Early XX Centuries

I.G. Adonyeva
Keywords: communication, judicial authority, modernization, lawyers, civil society, Western Siberia
Pages: 56-59

Abstract >>
The paper highlights the role of the official and unofficial periodicals in Western Siberia as an instrument of interaction between the local society and judicial authorities. It shows that owing to the printed media such interaction was differently directed. The author describes distinctive features of the articles which dealt with the judicial bodies, their addressees and addressants. The author determines goals pursued by the participants of this communication process: informing the local population about administered justice, explanation of its limitations, as well enlightenment and education. The author notes evolution of this form of communication between the local population and judicial authorities (via periodicals) in the wake of legal reforms.
																								



15.
Sanitary-Educational and Medical Activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Villages of the Tomsk Province in the Second Half of the XIX - Early XX Centuries

V.A. Zverev, E.V. Karavayeva
Keywords: Russian Orthodox Church, Tomsk`s diocese, church's clergy, medical activity, sanitary enlightenment, agricultural population, missionaries, sanitary-hygienically culture, church's education<
Pages: 59-64

Abstract >>
The paper sums up basic results of the studying on factors, forms and results of sanitary-educational and medical activities of the Russian Orthodox Church among the population of the Tomsk province in the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries. The authors reveal the range of responsibilities assigned to the Orthodox priests by the Russian imperial authorities in terms of sanitary-educational and medical work among the villagers; describe the conditions and forms of personnel training provided by the ecclesiastical authorities of the Tomsk diocese for such work in villages; determine lines of activities, forms and results of work performed by the bishops, rural and monastic clergy and directed towards developing the scientific medicine in the countryside and health education of the rural population; establish main historical stages of such activities.
																								



16.
Mass Political Work of Political Organs of the West Siberian Military District with the Population of Siberia (1920–1923)

N.M. Shcherbin
Keywords: political authorities, military party organizations, mass-political work
Pages: 64-68

Abstract >>
The paper investigates the mass political work of the Red Army political organs and party organizations in the West Siberian military district in the final stage of the Civil War and the early years of the postwar period. The author exposes main forms and methods of this work, shows their evolution depending on the tasks formulated by the military command and Soviet authorities at the local level.
																								



17.
Famine of 1946–1947 in Western Siberia: the Demographic Aspect

V.B Laperdin
Keywords: historical demography, famine, mortality, fertility, nuptiality
Pages: 74-78

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the famine of 1946–1947 in Western Siberia and its impact on the demographic subsystem of the society. The post-war crisis resulted in the negative change in fertility, nuptiality and mortality dynamics, as well as in the structural characteristics of mortality. Demographic processes stabilized after the famine ended.
																								



18.
Social and Psychological Adaptation of Repatriates in the Postwar Germany

N.M Markdorf
Keywords: adaptation, post-traumatic stress syndrome, prisoners of war, interned, Germany, Siberia
Pages: 78-82

Abstract >>
The paper considers the problem of social and psychological adaptation of prisoners of war who returned from the USSR and were interned in the postwar Germany. The author concludes that adaptation was painful due to the post-traumatic stress syndrome and diseases they had in camps , so it complicated their life in the postwar period. This article is written on memoirs published in Germany as well as on unpublished manuscripts sent to the author by the former German prisoners of war.  Moreover, the author also used some works by contemporary Russian scholars.
																								



19.
Nechkina M.V. — Historiographer of V.O. Kliuchevsky

E. N. Chornaya
Keywords: Kliuchevsky, historiography of national history, historiographical views, M. V. Nechkina, archives of a scholar
Pages: 82-84

Abstract >>
The paper traces evolution of M.V.Nechkina's views on the scientific heritage of the Russian historian V.O. Kliuchevsky. The author analyzes published works by M.V. Nechkina Russian History from the Standpoint of Economic Materialism (Historiographic Essay), Vasiliy Osipovich Kliuchevsky. History of Life and Scientific Work. Based on M.V. Nechkina's diaries the author reconstructs the plan of her unpublished monograph about V.O.Kliuchevsky written in the 1920s.
																								



20.
Shock Units in the Russian Army of Admiral A.V. Kolchak (1919)

D.G Simonov
Keywords: Civil War, Russian Army, corps, division, regiment
Pages: 84-87

Abstract >>
The article deals with organization and operational use of the shock units in Admiral Kolchak's Russian army. The author concludes that despite their pompous name these military units demonstrated low military efficiency and did not perform the assigned tasks.
																								



21.
The Special Troika of the OGPU's Plenipotentiary in the Siberian Region in 1930

A.G Teplyakov
Keywords: Siberia, the peasantry, Zakovskiy, Plenipotentiary of OGPU, troika, repressions
Pages: 87-92

Abstract >>
The article deals with activities of a punitive agency — the Special troika in the Siberian OGPU Plenipoteniary, headed by a prominent chekist L.M. Zakovskiy and founded in February 1930 with the purpose of organizing a mass terror in villages swept by the broad anti-government protests. The paper analyzes the personal staff of the Special troika, stages of the repressive and punitive activities as well as statistics indicating that in the first months of 1930 troika acted with cruelty, similar to the period of1937–1938.
																								



22.
Siberian Defense Industry's Role in Production of the Rocket and Space Equipment During the Cold War (1946–1965)

I.M. Savitskiy
Keywords: research institutes, engineering departments, missiles, technics, devices, Siberia
Pages: 92-95

Abstract >>
The paper considers the work of governmental, scientific, research and development organizations in the sphere of rocket industry. The author analyzes organization of production of surface-to-air and sea-launched missiles in Siberia, as well as spacecrafts, rocket fuel and many other kinds of equipment, including electronic and semi-conductor devices.
																								



23.
Main Directions of Siberian Museums' Adaptation to Globalization

O.N Shelegina
Keywords: globalization, museums of Siberia, museumification of heritage sites, computerization, integration, international museum community
Pages: 95-98

Abstract >>
The paper highlights the main directions of the Siberian museums adaptation to globalization: museumification of the material and non-material heritage with the purpose of preservation of regional identity, ethnic and cultural tourism development; formation of the modern discourse of science, culture and education providing the efficient socio-cultural adaptation of population; using information technologies for integration into the socio-cultural space and international museum community