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Russian Geology and Geophysics

2007 year, number 1

1.
Preface

Sklyarov E.V.
Pages: 3-4

																								



2.
A -TYPE LEUCOGRANITE MAGMATISM IN THE EVOLUTION OF CONTINENTAL CRUST ON THE WESTERN MARGIN OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON

A.E. Vernikovskaya a , V.A. Vernikovsky a , E.B. Sal'nikova b , A.B. Kotov b , V.P. Kovach b , A.V. Travin a , and M.T.D. Wingate c
a Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 prosp. Akad. Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
b Institute of Geology and Geochronology of Precambrian, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 nab. Makarova, St.Petersburg, 199034, Russia
c Tectonics Special Research Centre, School of Earth and Geographical Sciences, University of Western Australia,
35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
Keywords: Leucogranites, A-type granites, anorogenic and collisional granites, U-Pb and Ar-Ar geochronology, Neoproterozoic, Yenisei Ridge
Pages: 3-16

Abstract >>
We discuss problems of the origin, settings, and age of Neoproterozoic A -type leucogranites widespread in the Yenisei Ridge. Combined analysis of geological, petrological, and geochemical (including isotope) data shows that some granitoids (Glushikha complex) were formed at the postcollisional stage (750-720 Ma), and others (Tatarka complex), in an anorogenic environment (680-630 Ma). The anorogenic complex contains diverse igneous rocks, including alkaline varieties and carbonatites. Leucogranites form separate plutons within different igneous complexes. They have high contents of potassium (up to ultrapotassic composition in the Glushikha complex), iron, and fluorine and are depleted in europium. Postcollisional granitoids show the highest concentrations of Rb, Th, and U, extremely low concentrations of Ba and Sr, whereas anorogenic granitoids are rich in Ta, Nb, Y, Sm, and HREE. The obtained data point to the augmented mantle contribution to the formation of continental crust of the Yenisei Ridge between 750 and 630 Ma. We also report new results of U-Pb zircon dating, including SHRIMP and Ar-Ar data.
																								



3.
SIGNATURE OF PRECAMBRIAN EXTENSION EVENTS IN THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN CRATON

D.P. Gladkochub a , T.V. Donskaya a , A.M. Mazukabzov a , A.M. Stanevicha, E.V. Sklyarov a , and V.A. Ponomarchuk b
a Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 128 ul. Lermontova, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
b Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 prosp. Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Dike swarm, rifting, passive margin, Precambrian, supercontinent, Rodinia, Siberian craton, Paleoasian Ocean
Pages: 17-31

Abstract >>
We investigate extension events in the southern Siberian craton between 1.8 and 0.7 Ga. Signature of Late Paleoproterozoic within-plate extension in the Northern Baikal region is found in 1674 ± 29 Ma dike swarms. A Mesoproterozoic extension event was associated with intrusion of the 1535 ± 14 Ma Chernaya Zima granitoids into the Urik-Iya graben deposits. Neoproterozoic extension recorded in the Sayan-Baikal dike belt (740-780 Ma dike complexes) was concurrent with the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent and the initiation of the Paleoasian passive margin along the southern edge of the Siberian craton. The scale of rifting-related magmatism and the features of the coeval sedimentary complexes in the southern Siberian craton indicate that Late Paleoproterozoic and Early Mesoproterozoic extension did not cause ocean opening, and the Paleoasian Ocean opened as a result of Neoproterozoic rifting.
																								



4.
NEOPROTEROZOIC EVOLUTION OF RODINIA: CONSTRAINTS FROM NEW PALEOMAGNETIC DATA ON THE WESTERN MARGIN OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON

D.V. Metelkin, V.A. Vernikovsky, and A.Yu. Kazansky
Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 prosp. Akad. Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Neoproterozoic, paleomagnetic pole, Siberian craton, Rodinia
Pages: 32-45

Abstract >>
The paper summarizes paleomagnetic results obtained from the Neoproterozoic rocks of the western margin of the Siberian craton. On the basis of the obtained paleomagnetic poles and available paleomagnetic data for the Precambrian of Siberia, a new version of the Neoproterozoic segment of the apparent polar wandering path (APWP) is proposed for the craton and is compared with the Laurentian APWP. The superposition of these paths suggests that in the Neoproterozoic the southern margin of the Siberian craton (in modern coordinates) faced the Canadian margin of Laurentia. Most likely, in the end of the Mesoproterozoic and during the Neoproterozoic the Siberian craton and Laurentia were connected to form the supercontinent Rodinia. At 1 Ga the western margin of the Siberian craton was a northern (in modern coordinates) continuation of the western margin of Laurentia. The available paleomagnetic data on Laurentia and continental blocks of Eastern Gondwana (Australia, Antarctica, India, South China) and the proposed APWP trend allowed a new model for the breakup of this segment of Rodinia. Analysis of a total of the data available suggests that strike-slip movements on the background of the progressive opening of the oceanic basin between Siberia and Laurentia were predominant in the south of the Siberian craton during the Neoproterozoic. Similar kinematics is typical of the western margin of Laurentia, where strike-slip motions are probably associated with the progressive opening of the ocean basin between Laurentia and eastern Gondwana.
																								



5.
NORTHERN SEGMENT OF THE PALEOASIAN OCEAN: NEOPROTEROZOIC DEPOSITION HISTORY AND GEODYNAMICS

A.M. Stanevich a , A.M. Mazukabzova, A.A. Postnikovb, V.K. Nemerov c , S.A. Pisarevsky d , D.P. Gladkochub a , T.V. Donskaya a , and T.A. Kornilova a
a Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 128 ul. Lermontova, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
bInstitute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 prosp. Akad. Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
c Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 1a ul. Favorskogo, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
dThe University of Western Australia, 35, Stirling Highway, 6009, Crawley, Australia
Pages: 46-60

Abstract >>
We suggest new age constraints for regional stratigraphic units and a model of the Neoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of the southern Siberian craton proceeding from our data on genesis and lithology of sedimentary and volcanosedimentary complexes and their correlation combined with published geochronological and chemostratigraphic evidence. Large-scale rifting events in the region may have occurred between 1000 and 850 Ma in the east and between 780 and 730 Ma in the west. The latter time span correlates with the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. The interval of 780-680 Ma corresponding to the deposition of the Dalnyaya Taiga regional stratigraphic unit was marked by the onset of collision and the development of an island arc and a back-arc basin in the eastern part of the territory. The basal strata of the Baikal and Oselok Groups and their equivalents presumably deposited at about 730 Ma, and their signature of glacial events correlates with the global Sturtian Glacial. The deposition of the Zhuya unit between 680 and 630 Ma was associated with development of a foreland basin which gave way to a system of orogenic foredeeps in the Early Vendian (since 630 Ma). Our studies furnish new data on the stratigraphy of the Baikal Group and shed more light on its complex structure and ambiguously interpreted deposition sequence.
																								



6.
PRECAMBRIAN TERRANES IN THE SOUTHWESTERN FRAMING OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: ISOTOPIC PROVINCES, STAGES OF CRUSTAL EVOLUTION AND ACCRETION-COLLISION EVENTS

O.M. Turkina a , A.D. Nozhkin a , T.B. Bayanova b , N.V. Dmitrieva a , and A.V. Travin a
a Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 prosp. Akad. Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
bGeological Institute, Kola Science Center of the RAS, 14 ul. Fersmana, Apatity, 184200, Russia
Keywords: Precambrian terranes, Central Asian Fold Belt, isotopic provinces, crustal growth, collision, accretion
Pages: 61-70

Abstract >>
We studied geology and main rock assemblages of the Precambrian Kan, Arzybei, and Derba terranes of the Central Asian Fold Belt which border the Siberian craton in the southwest. The Precambrian terranes include three isotopic provinces (Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, and Neoproterozoic) distinguished from the Sm-Nd isotope compositions of granitoids, felsic metavolcanics, and metasediments. The terranes formed in three stages of crustal evolution: 2.3-2.5, 0.9-1.1, and 0.8-0.9 Ga. Proterozoic juvenile crust was produced by subduction-related magmatism; it was originally of transitional composition and transformed into continental crust by potassic plutonism as late as the Late Vendian-Cambrian. Terrigenous sediments in the Arzybei and Derba terranes vary in T (DM) Nd model ages from 1.0 to 2.0 Ga. The Nd ages of the underlying metavolcanics and lowest T (DM) of metasediments indicate that terrigenous sedimentation started in the Neoproterozoic. It was maintained by erosion of Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic crust and, to a lesser extent, of Early Precambrian rocks on the craton margin or in Paleoproterozoic terranes. Ar-Ar dating of amphiboles and biotites from metamorphic rocks and U-Pb dating of zircons from granitoids yielded 600-555 and 500-440 Ma, respectively, corresponding to the Vendian and Early Paleozoic stages of nearly synchronous metamorphism and plutonism. Accretion and collision events caused amalgamation of the Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, and Neoproterozoic terranes in the Vendian and their collision with the Siberian craton. The lateral growth of the paleocontinent completed in the Late Ordovician.
																								



7.
LATE CAMBRIAN-ORDOVICIAN TECTONICS AND GEODYNAMICS OF CENTRAL ASIA

N.L. Dobretsov, M.M. Buslov
Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 prosp. Akad. Koptyuga, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Accretion-collision processes, Gondwana-derived microcontinents, island arc, orogen, mantle plume
Pages: 71-82

Abstract >>
In the Late Cambrian-Ordovician, Gondwana-derived microcontinents such as Kokchetav, Altai-Mongolian, Tuva-Mongolian, and Barguzin, as well as the Kazakhstan-Tuva-Mongolian island arc or a system of island arcs were involved in intense accretion-collision processes in similar geodynamic settings on a vast territory of Central Asia - from West Kazakhstan to Lake Baikal. The processes were likely to be the result of a large rebuilding of the Earth's crust possibly related to the increased mantle impact on the lithosphere as they were simultaneous to the opening of the Uralian and Mongolian-Okhotsk (Turkestan) Oceans. The 970-850 Ma breakup of Rodinia and the 760-700 Ma important tectonic events were followed by the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician plume magmatism impulse at 500-480 Ma, which led to the opening of new oceans and accelerated the accretion of the Gondwana-derived blocks to the island arc and subsequent formation of an extended - more than 6000 km long - Kazakhstan-Baikal orogenic belt.
																								



8.
HIGH-PRESSURE COMPLEXES OF CENTRAL ASIAN FOLD BELT: GEOLOGIC SETTING, GEOCHEMISTRY, AND GEODYNAMIC IMPLICATIONS

N.I. Volkova a and E.V. Sklyarov b
a Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 prosp. Akad. Koptyuga, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
b Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 128 ul. Lermontova, Irkutsk 664033, Russia
Keywords: Blueschist, geochemistry, subduction, accretion, geochronology, Central Asian Fold Belt
Pages: 625-628

Abstract >>
Blueschists are constituents of subduction-accretion complexes, where they occur either as separate tectonic slabs, slices, and lenses, or as exotic blocks in a melange. Often associated with ophiolites, blueschists are commonly metamorphosed members of ophiolite sections. Along with ophiolite, a typical component of high-pressure belts is alkaline ocean-island basalt comprehensively studied in the Uimon zone of Gorny Altai and Chara zone of Eastern Kazakhstan. This suggests active plume magmatism in the Early Paleozoic evolution of the Paleoasian Ocean. As inferred from sutures with high-pressure rocks, different parts of Paleoasian Ocean were closing successively.
																								



9.
DZHIDA ISLAND-ARC SYSTEM IN THE PALEOASIAN OCEAN: STRUCTURE AND MAIN STAGES OF VENDIAN-PALEOZOIC GEODYNAMIC EVOLUTION

I.V. Gordienko a , A.V. Filimonov a , O.R. Minina a , M.A. Gornova b , A.Ya. Medvedev b , V.S. Klimuk a , A.L. Elbaev a , O. Tomurtogoo c
a Geological Institute, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6a ul. Sakhyanovoi, Ulan Ude, 670047, Russia
b Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 1a ul. Favorskogo, 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
c Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, National Academy of Mongolia, 63 prosp. Mira, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Keywords: Island arc, oceanic islands, back-arc basins, oceanic crust, spreading, subduction, collision, sedimentation, magmatism, Paleoasian Ocean
Pages: 91-106

Abstract >>
We propose a model of the geodynamic evolution of the Dzhida island-arc system of the Paleoasian Ocean margin which records transformation of an oceanic basin into an accretion-collision orogenic belt. The system includes several Vendian-Paleozoic complexes that represent a mature oceanic island arc with an accretionary prism, oceanic islands, marginal and remnant seas, and Early Ordovician collisional granitoids. We have revealed a number of subunits (sedimentary sequences and igneous complexes) in the complexes and reconstructed their geodynamic settings. The tectonic evolution of the Dzhida island-arc system comprises five stages: (1) ocean opening (Late Riphean); (2) subduction and initiation of an island arc (Vendian-Early Cambrian); (3) subduction and development of a mature island arc (Middle-Late Cambrian); (4) accretion and formation of local collision zones and remnant basins (Early Ordovician-Devonian); and (5) postcollisional strike-slip faulting (Carboniferous-Permian).
																								



10.
TYPES OF PALEOISLAND ARCS AND BACK-ARC BASINS IN THE NORTHEAST OF THE PALEOASIAN OCEAN ( from geochemical data )

V.A. Makryginaa, V.G. Belichenko b , and L.Z. Reznitsky b
a Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 1a ul. Favorskogo, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
b Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 128 ul. Lermontova, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
Keywords: Geochemistry of metavolcanics and metasediments, terranes, island arcs, back-arc basins
Pages: 107-119

Abstract >>
Based on a comparative study of geochemistry of metavolcanics and metasediments of two large terranes, Baikal-Muya and Khamar-Daban-Ol'khon, as well as of the Baikal-Patom passive margin and Olokit accretionary wedge, we have recognized volcanosedimentary series accumulated in the settings of island arcs of different maturities and fragments of volcanosedimentary complexes of back-arc and fore-arc basins. Metabasalts of the Medvezhy and Tyya Formations in the basement of passive-margin sequence and the Olokit Group are similar in geochemistry to plateau basalts and mark the beginning of rifting on the platform periphery. The abundance of metavolcanics and turbidites in the Olokit Group permits this structure to be considered an accretionary wedge of the Baikal-Muya island arc. According to the metavolcanics composition, the Baikal-Muya terrane formed in the environment of oceanic ensimatic island arcs and back-arc and inter-arc basins with the minimum amounts of sediments and contains ophiolite slices. The geochemistry of metavolcanics and metasediments of the Ol'khon, Talanchan, and Slyudyanka complexes evidences their formation in the environment of ensialic back-arc sediment-rich basin (Slyudyanka, Ol'khon, and Svyatoi Nos series), mature island arc (Anga-Talanchan paleoarc, Anga and Talanchan Groups), and fore-arc basin (Khangarul' Group). According to chemistry and evolution history, all these complexes must be assigned to the Khamar-Daban-Ol'khon terrane.
																								



11.
LATE PALEOZOIC GRANITOIDS OF WESTERN TRANSBAIKALIA: MAGMA SOURCES AND STAGES OF FORMATION

A.A. Tsygankova, D.I. Matukov b , N.G. Berezhnaya b , A.N. Larionovb,V.F. Posokhov a , B.Ts. Tsyrenov a , A.A. Khromov a , and S.A. Sergeev b
a Geological Institute, Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6a ul. Sakh'yanovoi, Ulan Ude, 670047, Russia
b Isotope Research Center, All-Russian Geological Research Institute, 74 Sredny prosp., Saint Petersburg, 199106, Russia
Keywords: Granitoids, geochronology, Late Paleozoic, crust protoliths, Angara-Vitim batholith, western Transbaikalia
Pages: 120-140

Abstract >>
Geochemical and geochronological studies of the main types of granitoids of the Angara-Vitim batholith (AVB) and granites of the Zaza complex in western Transbaikalia were carried out. U-Pb (SHRIMP-II) and Rb-Sr dating yielded the age of autochthonous gneiss-granites of the Zelenaya Griva massif (325.3 ± 2.8 Ma), quartz syenites of the Khangintui pluton (302.3 ± 3.7 Ma) and intruding leucogranites of the Zaza complex (294.4 ± 1 Ma), monzonites of the Khasurta massif (283.7 ± 5.3 Ma), and quartz monzonites of the Romanovka massif (278.5 ± 2.4 Ma). The U-Pb and Rb-Sr dates show that the Late Paleozoic magmatism in western Transbaikalia proceeded in two stages: (1) 340-320 Ma, when predominantly mesocratic granites of the Barguzin complex, including autochthonous ones, formed, and (2) 310-270 Ma, when most AVB granitoids formed. We suggest that at the early stage, crustal peraluminous granites formed in collision geodynamic setting. At the late (main) stage, magmatism occurred in postorogenic-extension setting and was accompanied by the formation of several geochemical types of granitoids: (1) typical intrusive mesocratic granites of the Barguzin complex, similar to those produced at the first stage; (2) melanocratic granitoids (monzonitoids, quartz syenites), which were earlier dated to the early stage of the AVB evolution; (3) leucocratic medium-alkali (peraluminous) granites of the Zaza intrusive complex; and (4) some alkali-granite and syenite intrusions accompanied by alkaline mafic rocks. The diversity of granitoids that formed at the late stage of magmatism was due to the heterogeneous composition of crust protoliths and different degrees of mantle-magma participation in their formation.