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Thermophysics and Aeromechanics

2011 year, number 4

1.
Effect of the supersonic transport configuration on the sonic boom parameters

V.M. Fomin, V.F. Chirkashenko, V.F. Volkov, A.M. Kharitonov
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS
chirkash@itam.nsc.ru, volkov@itam.nsc.ru
Keywords: supersonic flow, sonic boom, tandem configuration, numerical calculation, wind tunnel, measurements in the near zone
Pages: 509-522

Abstract >>
Results of numerical and experimental investigations of the sonic boom parameters for two configurations of civil supersonic transport are presented. Numerical modelling is performed by a combined method based on calculating the spatial flow in the near zone of the aircraft configuration and subsequent determination of disturbed flow parameters at large distances from the examined model. Numerical results are compared with experimental sonic boom parameters measured in the near zone and with results of their recalculation to large distances within the framework of the quasi-linear theory. This validation allows the degree of adequacy of the inviscid Euler model for solving the posed problem to be determined. Reasons for certain disagreement between the calculated and experimental data are discussed. The analysis confirms the possibility of attenuating the sonic boom generated by supersonic transport with an unconventional configuration based on a tandem arrangement of two wings on the fuselage.
																								



2.
Rarefaction effects in hypersonic flow about a blunted leading edge

M.S. Ivanov, D.V. Khotyanovsky, A.A. Shershnev, A.N. Kudryavtsev, A.A. Shevyrin, S. Yonemura, YE.A. Bondar
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS
bond@itam.nsc.ru
Keywords: high-altitude aerothermodynamics of space vehicles, direct simulation Monte Carlo method, slip and temperature jump, model kinetic equation of relaxation type
Pages: 523-534

Abstract >>
The rarefaction effects in the problem of hypersonic flow around a profile with blunted leading edge are studied in the flow regimes when the edge bluntness radius is comparable with the mean free path in the free stream. The flow around a cylindrically blunted thick plate at zero incidence was modelled numerically in the transitional regime by using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, the finite-difference solution of the kinetic equation of the relaxation type (the ellipsoidal statistical model), and the solution of the Navier ⎯ Stokes equations. It is shown that for the Knudsen numbers in terms of the bluntness radius below 0.1, the Navier ⎯ Stokes equations can be applied successfully for viscous flow description behind the shock wave provided that the initial rarefaction effects are taken into account via the slip and temperature jump boundary conditions on the plate surface. For Knudsen number of about 0.5, the rarefaction effects are more appreciable; in particular, a substantial anisotropy of the distribution function takes place, but the Navier ⎯ Stokes equations yield, as before, a qualitatively correct result. The initial stage of the boundary layer development in the edge vicinity has been studied. In the considered range of Knudsen numbers, the entropy layer near the edge is comparable with the boundary layer thickness. As the distance from the leading edge increases one observes the absorption of the entropy layer by the boundary layer. In the studied parameter range, the interaction between the boundary and entropy layers leads to a flow stability increase
																								



3.
Optimization and testing of the tomographic method of velocity measurement in the flow volume

A.V. Bilsky1, V.A. Lozhkin2, D.M. Markovich3, M.P. Tokarev1, M.V. Shestakov1
1 Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
2 Novosibirsk State University
3 Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS; Novosibirsk State University
dmark@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: measurement of velocity field in the flow volume, optic tomography, flat jet
Pages: 535-545

Abstract >>
The optic noncontact method of velocity field measurement in the flow volume is considered in this paper for the purposes of hydroaerodynamic experiment. The essence of this method is measurement of particles motion in the flow during short periods between laser pulses. This study offers and implements several algorithmic optimizations, allowing data processing time reduction. It is shown that application of threshold background filtering on the recorded projections (particle images) and fast estimation of initial intensity distribution in the volume allows increasing the speed of tomographic reconstruction algorithm two or three times. Reconstruction accuracy and errors in determination of particle shift were studied in this work using artificial images. The described tomographic method for the velocity field estimation in the flow volume was used for diagnostics of a turbulent submerged jet flowing into a narrow channel. The application of developed approaches in experiment allowed us to obtain spatial distribution of the average velocity field and instantaneous velocity fields in the measurement area.
																								



4.
Peculiarities of deformation of compliant coatings with increased strength

V.M. Kulik
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
kulik@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: compliant coating, turbulent flow, two-dimensional model of deformation, pulsations of pressure and velocity, optimal parameters
Pages: 547-560

Abstract >>
Influence of elasticity module of coating material on the parameters of hard compliant coatings deformation has been analysed. Calculation using two-dimensional model has shown that maximum coating deformation is achieved at the ratio of flow rate U to the parameter = (E/3ρ)0.5 approximately equal to 2.5, however, velocity of wall surface motion has first local maximum at ≈ 1. The range of coating parameters' values at which compromise between its hardness and intensity of interaction with turbulent flow is provided has been determined. For rubbery materials with Poisson coefficient of about 0.5, correlations of the flow velocity and parameter shall be in the range 1÷1.5. It is shown that at such parameters, the mean square value of the coating surface deflection/inflection is less than the viscous sublayer thickness, its correlation with the wavelength is very small and equals (1÷5)·10−4. Such form of deformed surface fundamentally differs from the parameters of the wave wall in Kendall's experiments which results are used for calculation of inverse influence of wall deformation on the flow. It was assumed that solid compliant coatings do not cause instability of interaction with the ambient flow.
Analysis of the coating surface motion rate has shown that its mean square value is 5÷6 % of the value of the dynamic flow velocity at wide change of elasticity modulus of the coating material from 0.01 to 10 MPa. This is proved by the earlier proposed mechanism of drag reduction based on the change of the picture of Reynolds stress generation in the vicinity of the compliant wall. The performed analysis allowed explaining comparatively low drag decrease in the experiments with solid compliant coatings. The valuerealized in these studies was from 0.06 to 0.3 that was much lower than the optimal value.
																								



5.
Effect of viscous dissipation on natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

B.K. Jha, A.O. Ajibade
Ahmadu Bello University
basant777@yahoo.co.uk, olubadey2k@yahoo.com
Keywords: free convection, viscous dissipation, periodic heat input
Pages: 561-571

Abstract >>
This article investigates the natural convection flow of viscous incompressible fluid in a channel formed by two infinite vertical parallel plates. Fully developed laminar flow is considered in a vertical channel with steady-periodic temperature regime on the boundaries. The effect of internal heating by viscous dissipation is taken into consideration. Separating the velocity and temperature fields into steady and periodic parts, the resulting second order ordinary differential equations are solved to obtain the expressions for velocity, and temperature. The amplitudes and phases of temperature and velocity are also obtained as well as the rate of heat transfer and the skin friction on the plates. In presence of viscous dissipation, fluids of relatively small Prandtl number has higher temperature than the channel plates and as such, heat is being transferred from the fluid to the plate.
																								



6.
Conjugate heat transfer on a non-isothermal rotating disc

M.V. Mironova1, N.N. Kortikov2
1 OJSC Power machines - LMZ
2 St. Petersburg State Technical University
m.mironova@rambler.ru
Keywords: conjugate heat transfer, non-isothermality, disc rotation, Brun number
Pages: 573-578

Abstract >>
A derivation of the conjugation criterion for a rotating disc is reported. Characteristics of conjugate heat transfer on a single disc and in a cavity formed by two discs, one rotating and the other stationary, are analysed.
																								



7.
Heat transfer at evaporation of falling films of Freon mixture on the smooth and structured surfaces

N.I. Pecherkin1, A.N. Pavlenko2, O.A. Volodin1
1 Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
2 Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS; Novosibirsk State University
pecherkin@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: heat transfer at film flow, wave processes, evaporation, binary mixtures, freons, structured surfaces
Pages: 579-589

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of experimental investigation of heat transfer and hydrodynamics of falling films of binary mixtures of R21 and R114 freons on the surfaces with complex configuration. The vertical tubes of 50-mm diameter with the smooth and structured surfaces, made of D16T alloy, were used as the working sections. The range of film Reynolds number at the inlet to the working section was Re =10÷155. The image of wave surface of the falling liquid film was visualized and recorded by a high-speed digital video camera. At evaporation the heat transfer coefficients on the smooth and structured surfaces are determined by the liquid flow rate and weakly depend on the heat flux. At low liquid flows, the heat transfer coefficients on the structured surface decrease in comparison with the smooth surface because of liquid accumulation and enlargement of efficient thickness in microtexture channels. At high liquid flows, a change in the structure of the wave film surface leads to an increase in heat transfer coefficients in comparison with the smooth surface.
																								



8.
The boiling up model for highly superheated liquid with formation of evaporation front

S.P. Aktershev, V.V. Ovchinnikov
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
sergey-aktershev@mail.ru
Keywords: boiling up, superheated liquid, vapor cavity, propagation of evaporation front, numerical simulation
Pages: 591-602

Abstract >>
Boiling up of metastable liquid on the surface of a cylindrical heater is studied at high superheating, when the evaporation front is formed. Boiling up begins with formation of a spherical bubble on the heater wall. Evaporation fronts propagating along the heater with the constant velocity are formed due to development of interfacial instability.  The mathematical model describing the growth of a spherical bubble and vapor cavity behind the evaporation front is developed. Results of numerical simulation agree with available experimental data.
																								



9.
Determination of temperature and emissivity of opaque heated bodies via thermal radiation spectrum: simulation of measurements in spectral window

S.P. Rusin
Joint Institute for High Temperatures
sprusin@rambler.ru
Keywords: temperature, emissivity, thermal radiation spectrum, spectral window
Pages: 603-614

Abstract >>
Computer simulation of emitted radiation intensity spectrum of tantalum object was carried out. Simulation measurements occurred in a narrow spectral window, which moved along the spectrum with the given step. In this way, spectral ranges at which the dependence of the emissivity (or its logarithm) on the wavelength is the simplest and fairly accurate, in particular linear, were sought for. In the case of successful search for the specified spectral range, the required temperature was determined in the spectral window with the least squares technique. If the emissivity (or its logarithm) is linearly dependent on the wavelength then the alternative estimation of the true temperature is possible. In this case, the required temperature is determined via the change of the convexity of the spectral emissivity dependence at selection of its numerical value from the values lower than the true temperature value to the values higher than the true temperature value. This approach is simple, does not require solution of the system of equations and can significantly narrow temperature range to which the true temperature belongs.
																								



10.
Interaction between glow discharge plasma and dust particles

A.V. Fedoseev1, G.I. Sukhinin2, T.S. Ramazanov3, S.K. Kodanova3, N.H. Bastykova3
1 Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
2 Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS; Novosibirsk State University
3 Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
fedoseev@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: dusty plasma, nonlocal self-consistent kinetic model, Boltzmann equation, DC glow discharge
Pages: 615-627

Abstract >>
The effect of dust particle concentration on gas discharge plasma parameters was studied through development of a self-consistent kinetic model which is based on solving the Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function. It was shown that an increase in the Havnes parameter causes an increase in the average electric field and ion density, as well as a decrease in the charge of dust particles and electron density in a dust particle cloud. Self-consistent simulations for a wide range of plasma and dust particle parameters produced several scaling laws: these are laws for dust particle potential and electric field as a function of dust particle concentration and radius, and the discharge current density. The simulation results demonstrate that the process of self-consistent accommodation of parameters of dust particles and plasma in condition of particle concentration growth causes a growth in the number of high-energy electrons in plasma, but not to depletion of electron distribution function.
																								



11.
Determination of temperature in a plasma jet emanating from a plasma torch with sectioned inter-electrode insert from the molecular emission spectrum of nitrogen

A.A. Mikhalchenko1, E.V. Kartaev1, V.I. Kuzmin1, V.I. Nalivaiko2, P.A. Chubakov2
1 Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS
2 Institute of Automation and Telemetry SB RAS
Keywords: low-temperature plasma, atomic spectroscopy, molecular spectroscopy, electron temperature, vibrational temperature, rotational temperature, modelling of the molecular emission spectrum of nitrogen
Pages: 629-641

Abstract >>
Results of application of a method for measuring the distribution of temperature in a nitrogen plasma jet emanating from a dc plasma torch with sectioned inter-electrode insert from the relative intensities of the molecular emission bands of nitrogen in the N2+(B2Σu+ − X2Σg+) first negative and N2(C3Пu+ − B3Пg+) second positive systems are reported. The emission spectra were registered using a small-size spectrometer with medium-range spectral resolution enabling a contour analysis of ro-vibrational bands in molecular emission spectra. The obtained distribution of temperature was compared with the distribution that was determined from the emission lines due to copper atoms and with the mean-mass plasma temperature of the air plasma jet.
																								



12.
Numerical modelling of unsteady heating and melting of the anode by electric arc. Part 1. Mathematical model and computed characteristics of the arc column

R.M. Urusov, F.R. Sultanova, T.E. Urusova
Institute of Physical-Technical Problems and Materials Science of the National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyz Republic
urusov_rus@mail.ru
Keywords: electric arc, numerical modelling, two-dimensional unsteady mathematical model, conjugate heat exchange with the treated product
Pages: 643-660

Abstract >>
The two-dimensional mathematical model in the approximation of a partial local thermodynamic equilibrium of plasma and the technique for numerical computation of the unsteady electric arc characteristics, including the conjugate heat exchange of the electric-arc plasma flow with the treated product (anode) are considered. The results of overall testing of the numerical algorithm point to the correctness of the model and computational technique. The results of the computation of the arc characteristics from the conventional ignition moment until the passage to stationary regime are presented. It is found that a single thermal torus, which scatters fairly quickly in the ambient medium, forms around the arc column.
																								



13.
Experimental study of thermal conductivity of refrigerant R-409А in vapor phase

O.I. Verba, E.P. Raschektaeva, S.V. Stankus
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
stankus@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: thermal conductivity, refrigerant R-409A, vapor phase
Pages: 661-664

Abstract >>
Thermal conductivity of refrigerant R-409A in vapor phase was studied in the range of temperatures 306-425 K and pressures 0.12−1.33 MPa. Measurements were performed with the stationary method of coaxial cylinders. Uncertainty of experimental data on thermal conductivity was 1.5−2.5 %, and errors of temperature and pressure measurements did not exceed 0.05 K and 4 kPa, respectively. Approximating dependence of thermal conductivity on pressure and temperature was obtained. Thermal conductivity on dew line and in ideal gas state was calculated.
																								



14.
Optimization of steam-vortex plasma-torch start-up

B.I. Mikhailov
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS
mikhailov@itam.nsc.ru
Keywords: steam-vortex plasma torch, start-up, water steam, starting air, tube steam generator, hydrodynamic pulsations, damper, heating, water-steam mode
Pages: 665-667

Abstract >>
We propose a new optimal method of steam-vortex plasma-torches start-up; this method completely prevents the danger of water steam condensation in the arc chamber and all undesirable consequences of it.