

2011 year, number 4
V.M. Fomin, V.F. Chirkashenko, V.F. Volkov, A.M. Kharitonov
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS chirkash@itam.nsc.ru, volkov@itam.nsc.ru
Keywords: supersonic flow, sonic boom, tandem configuration, numerical calculation, wind tunnel, measurements in the near zone
Pages: 509522
Abstract >>
Results of numerical and experimental investigations of the sonic boom parameters for two configurations of civil supersonic transport are presented. Numerical modelling is performed by a combined method based on calculating the spatial flow in the near zone of the aircraft configuration and subsequent determination of disturbed flow parameters at large distances from the examined model. Numerical results are compared with experimental sonic boom parameters measured in the near zone and with results of their recalculation to large distances within the framework of the quasilinear theory. This validation allows the degree of adequacy of the inviscid Euler model for solving the posed problem to be determined. Reasons for certain disagreement between the calculated and experimental data are discussed. The analysis confirms the possibility of attenuating the sonic boom generated by supersonic transport with an unconventional configuration based on a tandem arrangement of two wings on the fuselage.

M.S. Ivanov, D.V. Khotyanovsky, A.A. Shershnev, A.N. Kudryavtsev, A.A. Shevyrin, S. Yonemura, YE.A. Bondar
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS bond@itam.nsc.ru
Keywords: highaltitude aerothermodynamics of space vehicles, direct simulation Monte Carlo method, slip and temperature jump, model kinetic equation of relaxation type
Pages: 523534
Abstract >>
The rarefaction effects in the problem of hypersonic flow around a profile with blunted leading edge are studied in the flow regimes when the edge bluntness radius is comparable with the mean free path in the free stream. The flow around a cylindrically blunted thick plate at zero incidence was modelled numerically in the transitional regime by using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, the finitedifference solution of the kinetic equation of the relaxation type (the ellipsoidal statistical model), and the solution of the Navier ⎯ Stokes equations. It is shown that for the Knudsen numbers in terms of the bluntness radius below 0.1, the Navier ⎯ Stokes equations can be applied successfully for viscous flow description behind the shock wave provided that the initial rarefaction effects are taken into account via the slip and temperature jump boundary conditions on the plate surface. For Knudsen number of about 0.5, the rarefaction effects are more appreciable; in particular, a substantial anisotropy of the distribution function takes place, but the Navier ⎯ Stokes equations yield, as before, a qualitatively correct result. The initial stage of the boundary layer development in the edge vicinity has been studied. In the considered range of Knudsen numbers, the entropy layer near the edge is comparable with the boundary layer thickness. As the distance from the leading edge increases one observes the absorption of the entropy layer by the boundary layer. In the studied parameter range, the interaction between the boundary and entropy layers leads to a flow stability increase

A.V. Bilsky^{1}, V.A. Lozhkin^{2}, D.M. Markovich^{3}, M.P. Tokarev^{1}, M.V. Shestakov^{1}
^{1} Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS ^{2} Novosibirsk State University ^{3} Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS; Novosibirsk State University dmark@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: measurement of velocity field in the flow volume, optic tomography, flat jet
Pages: 535545
Abstract >>
The optic noncontact method of velocity field measurement in the flow volume is considered in this paper for the purposes of hydroaerodynamic experiment. The essence of this method is measurement of particles motion in the flow during short periods between laser pulses. This study offers and implements several algorithmic optimizations, allowing data processing time reduction. It is shown that application of threshold background filtering on the recorded projections (particle images) and fast estimation of initial intensity distribution in the volume allows increasing the speed of tomographic reconstruction algorithm two or three times. Reconstruction accuracy and errors in determination of particle shift were studied in this work using artificial images. The described tomographic method for the velocity field estimation in the flow volume was used for diagnostics of a turbulent submerged jet flowing into a narrow channel. The application of developed approaches in experiment allowed us to obtain spatial distribution of the average velocity field and instantaneous velocity fields in the measurement area.

V.M. Kulik
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS kulik@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: compliant coating, turbulent flow, twodimensional model of deformation, pulsations of pressure and velocity, optimal parameters
Pages: 547560
Abstract >>
Influence of elasticity module of coating material on the parameters of hard compliant coatings deformation has been analysed. Calculation using twodimensional model has shown that maximum coating deformation is achieved at the ratio of flow rate U to the parameter = (E/3ρ)^{0.5} approximately equal to 2.5, however, velocity of wall surface motion has first local maximum at ≈ 1. The range of coating parameters' values at which compromise between its hardness and intensity of interaction with turbulent flow is provided has been determined. For rubbery materials with Poisson coefficient of about 0.5, correlations of the flow velocity and parameter shall be in the range 1÷1.5. It is shown that at such parameters, the mean square value of the coating surface deflection/inflection is less than the viscous sublayer thickness, its correlation with the wavelength is very small and equals (1÷5)·10^{−4}. Such form of deformed surface fundamentally differs from the parameters of the wave wall in Kendall's experiments which results are used for calculation of inverse influence of wall deformation on the flow. It was assumed that solid compliant coatings do not cause instability of interaction with the ambient flow. Analysis of the coating surface motion rate has shown that its mean square value is 5÷6 % of the value of the dynamic flow velocity at wide change of elasticity modulus of the coating material from 0.01 to 10 MPa. This is proved by the earlier proposed mechanism of drag reduction based on the change of the picture of Reynolds stress generation in the vicinity of the compliant wall. The performed analysis allowed explaining comparatively low drag decrease in the experiments with solid compliant coatings. The valuerealized in these studies was from 0.06 to 0.3 that was much lower than the optimal value.

B.K. Jha, A.O. Ajibade
Ahmadu Bello University basant777@yahoo.co.uk, olubadey2k@yahoo.com
Keywords: free convection, viscous dissipation, periodic heat input
Pages: 561571
Abstract >>
This article investigates the natural convection flow of viscous incompressible fluid in a channel formed by two infinite vertical parallel plates. Fully developed laminar flow is considered in a vertical channel with steadyperiodic temperature regime on the boundaries. The effect of internal heating by viscous dissipation is taken into consideration. Separating the velocity and temperature fields into steady and periodic parts, the resulting second order ordinary differential equations are solved to obtain the expressions for velocity, and temperature. The amplitudes and phases of temperature and velocity are also obtained as well as the rate of heat transfer and the skin friction on the plates. In presence of viscous dissipation, fluids of relatively small Prandtl number has higher temperature than the channel plates and as such, heat is being transferred from the fluid to the plate.

M.V. Mironova^{1}, N.N. Kortikov^{2}
^{1} OJSC Power machines  LMZ ^{2} St. Petersburg State Technical University m.mironova@rambler.ru
Keywords: conjugate heat transfer, nonisothermality, disc rotation, Brun number
Pages: 573578
Abstract >>
A derivation of the conjugation criterion for a rotating disc is reported. Characteristics of conjugate heat transfer on a single disc and in a cavity formed by two discs, one rotating and the other stationary, are analysed.

N.I. Pecherkin^{1}, A.N. Pavlenko^{2}, O.A. Volodin^{1}
^{1} Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS ^{2} Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS; Novosibirsk State University pecherkin@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: heat transfer at film flow, wave processes, evaporation, binary mixtures, freons, structured surfaces
Pages: 579589
Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of experimental investigation of heat transfer and hydrodynamics of falling films of binary mixtures of R21 and R114 freons on the surfaces with complex configuration. The vertical tubes of 50mm diameter with the smooth and structured surfaces, made of D16T alloy, were used as the working sections. The range of film Reynolds number at the inlet to the working section was Re =10÷155. The image of wave surface of the falling liquid film was visualized and recorded by a highspeed digital video camera. At evaporation the heat transfer coefficients on the smooth and structured surfaces are determined by the liquid flow rate and weakly depend on the heat flux. At low liquid flows, the heat transfer coefficients on the structured surface decrease in comparison with the smooth surface because of liquid accumulation and enlargement of efficient thickness in microtexture channels. At high liquid flows, a change in the structure of the wave film surface leads to an increase in heat transfer coefficients in comparison with the smooth surface.

S.P. Aktershev, V.V. Ovchinnikov
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS sergeyaktershev@mail.ru
Keywords: boiling up, superheated liquid, vapor cavity, propagation of evaporation front, numerical simulation
Pages: 591602
Abstract >>
Boiling up of metastable liquid on the surface of a cylindrical heater is studied at high superheating, when the evaporation front is formed. Boiling up begins with formation of a spherical bubble on the heater wall. Evaporation fronts propagating along the heater with the constant velocity are formed due to development of interfacial instability. The mathematical model describing the growth of a spherical bubble and vapor cavity behind the evaporation front is developed. Results of numerical simulation agree with available experimental data.

S.P. Rusin
Joint Institute for High Temperatures sprusin@rambler.ru
Keywords: temperature, emissivity, thermal radiation spectrum, spectral window
Pages: 603614
Abstract >>
Computer simulation of emitted radiation intensity spectrum of tantalum object was carried out. Simulation measurements occurred in a narrow spectral window, which moved along the spectrum with the given step. In this way, spectral ranges at which the dependence of the emissivity (or its logarithm) on the wavelength is the simplest and fairly accurate, in particular linear, were sought for. In the case of successful search for the specified spectral range, the required temperature was determined in the spectral window with the least squares technique. If the emissivity (or its logarithm) is linearly dependent on the wavelength then the alternative estimation of the true temperature is possible. In this case, the required temperature is determined via the change of the convexity of the spectral emissivity dependence at selection of its numerical value from the values lower than the true temperature value to the values higher than the true temperature value. This approach is simple, does not require solution of the system of equations and can significantly narrow temperature range to which the true temperature belongs.

A.V. Fedoseev^{1}, G.I. Sukhinin^{2}, T.S. Ramazanov^{3}, S.K. Kodanova^{3}, N.H. Bastykova^{3}
^{1} Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS ^{2} Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS; Novosibirsk State University ^{3} AlFarabi Kazakh National University fedoseev@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: dusty plasma, nonlocal selfconsistent kinetic model, Boltzmann equation, DC glow discharge
Pages: 615627
Abstract >>
The effect of dust particle concentration on gas discharge plasma parameters was studied through development of a selfconsistent kinetic model which is based on solving the Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function. It was shown that an increase in the Havnes parameter causes an increase in the average electric field and ion density, as well as a decrease in the charge of dust particles and electron density in a dust particle cloud. Selfconsistent simulations for a wide range of plasma and dust particle parameters produced several scaling laws: these are laws for dust particle potential and electric field as a function of dust particle concentration and radius, and the discharge current density. The simulation results demonstrate that the process of selfconsistent accommodation of parameters of dust particles and plasma in condition of particle concentration growth causes a growth in the number of highenergy electrons in plasma, but not to depletion of electron distribution function.

A.A. Mikhalchenko^{1}, E.V. Kartaev^{1}, V.I. Kuzmin^{1}, V.I. Nalivaiko^{2}, P.A. Chubakov^{2}
^{1} Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS ^{2} Institute of Automation and Telemetry SB RAS
Keywords: lowtemperature plasma, atomic spectroscopy, molecular spectroscopy, electron temperature, vibrational temperature, rotational temperature, modelling of the molecular emission spectrum of nitrogen
Pages: 629641
Abstract >>
Results of application of a method for measuring the distribution of temperature in a nitrogen plasma jet emanating from a dc plasma torch with sectioned interelectrode insert from the relative intensities of the molecular emission bands of nitrogen in the N_{2}^{+}(B^{2}Σ_{u}^{+} − X^{2}Σ_{g}^{+}) first negative and N_{2}(C^{3}П_{u}^{+} − B^{3}П_{g}^{+}) second positive systems are reported. The emission spectra were registered using a smallsize spectrometer with mediumrange spectral resolution enabling a contour analysis of rovibrational bands in molecular emission spectra. The obtained distribution of temperature was compared with the distribution that was determined from the emission lines due to copper atoms and with the meanmass plasma temperature of the air plasma jet.

R.M. Urusov, F.R. Sultanova, T.E. Urusova
Institute of PhysicalTechnical Problems and Materials Science of the National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyz Republic urusov_rus@mail.ru
Keywords: electric arc, numerical modelling, twodimensional unsteady mathematical model, conjugate heat exchange with the treated product
Pages: 643660
Abstract >>
The twodimensional mathematical model in the approximation of a partial local thermodynamic equilibrium of plasma and the technique for numerical computation of the unsteady electric arc characteristics, including the conjugate heat exchange of the electricarc plasma flow with the treated product (anode) are considered. The results of overall testing of the numerical algorithm point to the correctness of the model and computational technique. The results of the computation of the arc characteristics from the conventional ignition moment until the passage to stationary regime are presented. It is found that a single thermal torus, which scatters fairly quickly in the ambient medium, forms around the arc column.

O.I. Verba, E.P. Raschektaeva, S.V. Stankus
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS stankus@itp.nsc.ru
Keywords: thermal conductivity, refrigerant R409A, vapor phase
Pages: 661664
Abstract >>
Thermal conductivity of refrigerant R409A in vapor phase was studied in the range of temperatures 306425 K and pressures 0.12−1.33 MPa. Measurements were performed with the stationary method of coaxial cylinders. Uncertainty of experimental data on thermal conductivity was 1.5−2.5 %, and errors of temperature and pressure measurements did not exceed 0.05 K and 4 kPa, respectively. Approximating dependence of thermal conductivity on pressure and temperature was obtained. Thermal conductivity on dew line and in ideal gas state was calculated.

B.I. Mikhailov
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS mikhailov@itam.nsc.ru
Keywords: steamvortex plasma torch, startup, water steam, starting air, tube steam generator, hydrodynamic pulsations, damper, heating, watersteam mode
Pages: 665667
Abstract >>
We propose a new optimal method of steamvortex plasmatorches startup; this method completely prevents the danger of water steam condensation in the arc chamber and all undesirable consequences of it.

