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Thermophysics and Aeromechanics

2011 year, number 2

Climbing to stars (to the 50th anniversary of Gagarin's space flight)

A.I. Maksimov
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS
Keywords: astronautics, cosmonautics, pioneers of rocket engineering, liquid-propellant rocket engine, ballistic missile, launcher, spacecraft, reentry capsule, manned flight
Pages: 163-201


Development of cosmonautics and preparation to the first manned space flights are briefly observed. Details of the development of the first Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile R-7, which served as a basis for creating Sputnik, Vostok, Voskhod, Molniya, and Soyuz launchers, are given. The contributions of the outstanding designers of space engineering, W. von Braun, S.P. Korolev, V.P. Glushko, and academician M.V. Keldysh, to the development of astronautics and first manned space missions are demonstrated. A list of test launches and manned flights of Vostok and Mercury spacecrafts and the basic characteristics of Vostok, Redstone, Atlas-D, Voskhod, and Soyuz launchers are presented.