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Thermophysics and Aeromechanics

2004 year, number 1

One hundred years of motor-driven flight. Prospects of civil aircraft (review)

S.T. Kashafutdinov
Chaplygin Siberian Aeronautical Research Institute, Novosibirsk, Russia
Pages: 3–11

Abstract >>
The history of aviation origin is briefly reviewed. Capabilities, advantages, and drawbacks of various flying vehicles are analyzed. Ways for aircraft development and improvement are suggested. Decision-making criteria in civil aircraft design are evaluated. Improvement of aircraft performance, reduced ecological hazards, and increased flight safety are identified as the main goals determining the progress of today

Experimental investigation of a streaky structure varicose instability in a swept wing boundary layer

Yu.A. Litvinenko1,2, G.R. Grek1, V.V. Kozlov1, L. Loefdahl2, and V.G. Chernoray1,2
1Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Chalmers Technological University, Goetenburg, Sweden
Pages: 13–21

Abstract >>
The investigation results of the controlled experiment of a streaky structure varicose instability in a swept wing boundary layer are presented. The picture of a streaky structure spatial evolution and secondary high-frequency disturbances generated on it is obtained using hot-wire measurements. It is shown that exactly a varicose instability is realized. It has been found that the secondary disturbance increases owing to instability of mean velocity distribution on normal to the wall caused by the streaky structure development. The following features of a varicose breakdown of a longitudinal stationary streaky structure are presented: structure modulation in the longitudinal direction by a secondary disturbance frequency, downstream excitation of new streaky structures, formation and development of nonstationary structures localized in space. In contrast to the boundary layer flow of the unswept wing models, where these structures resemble classical horseshoe structures or lambda-vortices, only one vortex remains on a swept wing from the two making the vortex structure because of the crossflow.

Development of a stationary streaky structure in a separation bubble

A.V. Boiko and A.V. Dovgal
Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Pages: 23–30

Abstract >>
Streaky structures as specific formations that can be involved in turbulization of a shear flow have been experimentally modelled and studied at laminar boundary layer separation. General properties and individual features of the disturbances have been determined in two different regimes of their generation.

The influence of real gas properties on integral aerodynamic forces at subsonic flow speeds

A.S. Petrov
Zhukovsky Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute, Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, Russia
Pages: 31–47

Abstract >>
An expression for the resultant vector of aerodynamic forces acting on a flat body in flow of viscous, compressible and heat-conducting gas at subsonic speeds is obtained with the aid of the Euler momentum theorem and Zhukovsky method. This expression enables the investigation of the nature of the aerodynamic forces as well as the influence of real gas properties on aerodynamic drag and lift. In particular, it has been shown that all the

Development of periodic disturbances on a streaky structure in hypersonic shock layer on surface of compression

V.M. Aniskin and S.G. Mironov
Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Pages: 49–60

Abstract >>
In the present work, results are reported of an experimental study of controlled periodic disturbances developing on a streaky structure in the shock layer of a model two-dimensional surface of compression. The experimental procedure was based on monitoring the electron beam induced fluorescence of nitrogen. Data were obtained concerning the streamwise phase velocity of density waves, the spatial distribution of shock-layer disturbances, and the rate of growth and transverse-wavenumber spectrum of density waves.

Unsteady vapor expansion into vacuum from a flat surface

G.A. Lukianov
St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Russia
Pages: 61–74

Abstract >>
Unsteady expansion of the vapor into vacuum from a flat surface was studied by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The vapor was considered as monoatomic gas (the model of hard spheres). The flow structure and its parameters in the ranges of flow modes from free-molecular to continual were investigated. The main attention is paid to the structure of the Knudsen and subsonic layers.

Dynamic and thermal parameters of a jet blown in normally to a cross flow

K.G. Dobroselsky
Amur State University, Blagoveshchensk, Russia
Pages: 75–82

Abstract >>
The interaction between turbulent air flow and normally blown-in low-head axisymmetric jet was studied experimentally. Empirical dependencies were obtained for description of geometry of the dynamic and thermal boundary layers of a jet in cross flow. It was shown that for the initial path the jet is asymmetric in the vertical plane relative to the jet axis; the jet becomes almost cocurrent to the main flow even at small distance from the source. The jet in a cross flow has a higher ejection performance in comparison with submerged or cocurrent types of jets.

Numerical simulation of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers influence on laminar heat transfer in in-line tube banks of different density

S.A. Isaev 1 , P.A. Baranov 1 , N.A. Kudryavtsev 1 , and T.A. Baranova 2
1 Academy of Civil Aviation, St. Petersburg, Russia
2 Lykov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, Minsk, Belarus
Pages: 83–101

Abstract >>
A retrospective analysis of the works on numerical simulation of laminar flow and heat transfer through in-line tube banks, whose feature is the application of periodic boundary conditions, is given. An original procedure for correction of the bulk mean temperature is proposed. A multiblock factored algorithm for solving the Navier

Deformation of a viscoelastic coating under the action of convective pressure pulsation

V.M. Kulik and S.V. Rodyakin
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Pages: 103–114

Abstract >>
The method for measurement of complex compliance of viscoelastic coatings based on direct determination of deformation amplitude and pulsation pressure was suggested. The value of dynamic deformation was ~ 0.02 %. The frequency range was 200 Hz – 2 kHz. Complex compliance of a viscoelastic coating measured experimentally was compared with calculation made on the basis of measured modulus of elasticity and loss factor of the coating material. Resonance frequency did not depend on the ratio between the contact area diameter and coating thickness. According to suggested explanation, coating deformation is defined by a stationary wave with oscillation node on solid basement and loop on the coating outside. Analysis showed that to obtain maximal coating deformation under the action of pulsation pressure, two conditions should be satisfied: influence frequency should be equal to resonance frequency of the coating (time factor), and the length of convective pressure wave should be equal to quadruplicated thickness of the coating (spatial factor).

About the shape of equilibrium liquid bridge between two horizontal cylinders

L.I. Maltzev and V.I. Zuikova
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Pages: 115–120

Abstract >>
Results of theoretical analysis for the equilibrium shape of liquid bridges produced by capillary ponderable liquid between two stacked cylinders are presented. The algorithm was developed to calculate the shape of bridge interface and numerical examples are given.

Two-temperature model of heat and mass exchange at the bubbles formation on orifices of gas distribution grates of bubbling devices

M.I. Shilyev, A.V. Tolstykh , A.N. Derenok, and E.M. Khromova
Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Russia
Pages: 121–130

Abstract >>
A two-temperature physical and mathematical model is developed for the process of heat and mass exchange between water and humid air at the stage of bubbles formation on the orifices of gas distribution grates of bubbling devices. The results of a numerical realization of the model have shown an insignificant variation of fluid temperature during the time from the bubble formation until its separation. It is also found that in most cases the fluid temperature in the bubbly layer (the temperature of gas-liquid layer) differs from the cooling liquid temperature. The two-temperature model enables the determination of cooling liquid temperature in the bubbly layer and then its importance at the computations conducted within the framework of the one-temperature model.

Boiling crisis at various regime parameters and forced movement of underheated liquid in a vertical tube

R.F. Kelbaliev, D.Mamedova, and M.Z. Iskanderov
Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Baku, Azerbaijan
Pages: 131–136

Abstract >>
Experimental results on boiling crisis in the range of pressures close to the critical ones are presented for significant underheating of toluene at the tube inlet and compared with data obtained for water. Dependencies of the critical heat flux on the regime parameters are determined. The feature of boiling crisis in the range of pressures close to the critical ones is revealed. Equations for calculation of the critical heat flux at

Limiting duration of a liquid flow undergoing solidification in a plane-slot channel

P.S. Karabanov1 and V.A. Fukin2
1Novosibirsk Technological Institute
of the Moscow State University of Design and Technology, Russia
2Moscow State University of Design and Technology, Russia
Pages: 137–144

Abstract >>
The problem of the limiting duration of a liquid flow undergoing solidification in a plane-slot channel is solved. An analysis of solidification characteristics and an estimate of the limiting duration of the liquid flow are given. A comparison of experimental and analytical results showed a good agreement between them and has defined the scope of applicability of computed data.

Thermal properties and eutectic crystallization in lead

S.V. Stankus, R.A. Khairulin, and P.V. Tyagel’sky
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Pages: 145–151

Abstract >>
Thermal properties of eutectic Pb83Mg17 alloy were studied in solid and liquid states at the temperatures of up to 825 K by sample exposure by a narrow beam of gamma-radiation. Changes of specific volume at melting-crystallization were determined for the first time. Distribution of density over the sample height was measured. It is shown that eutectic alloy of Pb(Mg system is exposed to segregation. Non-equilibrium crystallization of a liquid alloy to metastable phases was found out. Density changes and characteristic temperatures of this process were determined. Volumetric alterations at transition of non-equilibrium inclusions to the equilibrium state were measured.

Criterial estimation of thermal stability of ceramic nozzle of argon burner

B.P. Romanov, G.G. Volokitin, N.I. Kuzmenko, and V.Yu. Evtyushkin
Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Russia
Pages: 153–155

Abstract >>
Criterion estimation of the spallation failure of a ceramic nozzle of an argon burner was performed near the nozzle outlet. An expression has been obtained for the size of a critical spallation failure fragment Lcr including the material constant