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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2004 year, number 1

1.
Natural Halogenated Sesquiterpenes from Marine Organisms

VALERY M. DEMBITSKY1 and GENRICH A. TOLSTIKOV2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Natural Products,
School of Pharmacy, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
P. O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel), E-mail: dvalery@cc.huji.ac.il
2Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail:
Pages: 1-12

Abstract >>
Natural halogenated sesquiterpenes from marine organisms form a large group of natural compounds. The structures of more than 200 compounds are considered, and their biological activity is described.
																				  																		



2.
Natural Chlorine-Containing Xanthones

VALERY M. DEMBITSKY1 and GENRICH A. TOLSTIKOV2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy,
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
P.O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel), E-mail: dvalery@cc.huji.ac.il
2Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail:
Pages: 13-18

Abstract >>
Chlorine-containing xanthones were found in fungi, higher plants, and lichens. The structures of more than 70 compounds are considered, and data about their biological activity are given.
																				  																		



3.
Man-Caused Pollution under Gold Mining and the Reaction of Ecosystems in the Permafrost Zone

SVETLANA YU. ARTAMONOVA1 and VITALIY A. DANILOV2
1Trofimuk United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Prospekt Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630060 (Russia), E-mail:
Pages: 19-32

Abstract >>
Pollution of the ecosystems of downstream tailing dumps of gold extracting factories in the permafrost zone is considered. Primary and secondary toxic effects of cyanide technologies are distinguished. The conclusion is made that the ecological risk of pollution with heavy metals and arsenic is the most significant. Geological environment is of great importance in formation of man-caused anomalies: silicate medium prospers their expansion, carbonate one decreases man-caused effect on conjugate ecosystems. The data on the reaction of ecosystems to man-caused pollution are obtained using bioindicative method of fluctuating skewness. When pollution of ecosystems occurs, fluctuating skewness of vegetation increases, or, in other words, reaction to pollution is reflected on their physiologo-morphological level.
																				  																		



4.
Nitrogen Compounds in the Lipids of the Recent Sediments (for the Lake Utichye-3 in Khakassia as an Example)

EUGENIA B. GOLUSHKOVA, TATIANA A. SAGACHENKO, VALENTINA N. BURKOVA and TATIANA V. PETRENKO
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Prospekt Akademicheskiy 3, Tomsk 634021 (Russia), E-mail: dissovet@ipc.tsc.ru
Pages: 33-38

Abstract >>
The distribution and composition of nitrogen-containing organic compounds of lipids in the recent sediments of continental origin are investigated for the Lake Utichye-3 as an example. It is established that nitrogen compounds are represented in free lipids mainly by basic and neutral components. It is shown that secondary and/or tertiary aliphatic amines and main amino acids are present in the composition of the bases.
																				  																		



5.
Synthesis of High-Purity Bismuth(III) Tartratahydrotartrate Trihydrate

VERONIKA I. EVSEENKO, OLGA A. LOGUTENKO and YURI M. YUKHIN
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia), E-mail: yukhin@solid.nsk.su
Pages: 39-45

Abstract >>
Bismuth (III) tartratahydrotartrate trihydrate [Bi(C4H4O6)(C4H5O6)]. 3H2O was synthesized by the interaction of oxohydroxobismuth (III) nitrate trihydrate with the solutions of tartaric acid and investigated by means of X-ray phase analysis, thermogravimetry, electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis. Expediency of obtaining high-purity bismuth (III) tartratahydrotartrate trihydrate from metal bismuth with preliminary oxidation of the latter by the oxygen of the air, dissolution of the resulting Bi2O3 in nitric acid (1 : 1) and purification of bismuth from extrinsic metals by means of its precipitation in the form of oxohydroxobismuth (III) nitrate trihydrate at pH ~ 0.9 by adding ammonium carbonate solution, followed by subsequent treatment of the formed oxohydroxobismuth (III) nitrate trihydrate with tartaric acid solution at a temperature of (20 ± 3) oC, tartrate ion to bismuth molar ratio of 2.1, and concentration of hydrogen ions 0.2
																				  																		



6.
Catalytic Synthesis of 1,4-Naphtho- and 9,10-Anthraquinones According to the Diene Synthesis Reaction for Pulp and Paper Industry

ELENA G. ZHIZHINA1, KLAVDIY I. MATVEEV1 and VLADIMLEN V. RUSSKIKH2
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: zhizh@catalysis.nsk.su
2Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Pages: 47-51

Abstract >>
It was established that the adducts of the diene synthesis of 1,4-benzo- and 1,4-naphthoquinones with butadiene get oxidized by Mo
																				  																		



7.
Investigation of Complex Formation of the Modifications of Hydrolytic Lignin with Metal Ions

MAQSUD JA. JUMANIYAZOV1, AMANULLA F. KHODJAYEV2 and BALTABAY D. DYUSEBEKOV2
1Urgench State University, Ul. Kh. Alimjana 14, Urgench (Uzbekistan)
2Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry,
Academy of Sciences of Republic of Uzbekistan,
Ul. Kh. Abdullaeva 77a, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)
Pages: 53-59

Abstract >>
Soluble modifications of lignin were obtained by means of alkaline and oxidative processing of nitro lignin. Using mono- and triethanolamine as alkaline reagents, we obtained lignin compounds of the type of quaternary ammonium salts. Complex compounds of zinc (II), iron (III), nickel (II) and copper (II) with nitroligninmono- and triethanolammonium were synthesized. The composition, structure and thermal stability of the new modifications of nitrolignin and its metal complexes were established with the help of IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis and derivatography.
																				  																		



8.
About the Possibility of Water Purification from Dissolved Organic Admixtures by Means of Freezing

NIKOLAY L. LAVRIK
Institute of Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch
of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Institutskaya 3,
Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: lavrik@ns.kinetics.nsc.ru
Pages: 61-65

Abstract >>
The efficiency of freezing-unfreezing procedure for purification of tap water about 200 ml in volume from soluble organic admixtures at a temperature of
																				  																		



9.
The Main Mineralogical Types of Nephrolyths

ELENA N. NIGMATULINA1, ELLA V. SOKOL1, NATALYA V. MAKSIMOVA1, ALEXANDER YU. CHIGLINTSEV2 and YAROSLAV L. LUKYANOV3
1Trophimuk United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: sokol@uiggm.nsc.ru
2Municipal Hospital No. 6, Ul. Rumyantseva, Chelyabinsk 450048 (Russia)
3Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch
of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Akademika Lavrentyeva 15, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Pages: 65-79

Abstract >>
A collection of 123 nephrolyths extracted from patients living in the territory of the South and Middle Urals has been studied. The in-depth phase-morphological description of the 6 most widespread mineralogical nephrolyth types is given. The majority of the specimens studied represent zonal matter characterized by the particular sequence of alternating or changing mineral zones. The information on the quantitative relationship between mineral phases in the concrements is for the first time presented in the form of conventional formulae similar to the crystallochemical formulae of minerals. An integrated application of the modern analytical methods (X-ray analysis, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and two X-ray spectrum microanalysis methods, namely, energy dispersive and electron probe microanalysis) has made it possible to obtain radically new information about the peculiarities of internal structure, micromorphology and chemical composition of nephrolyths.
																				  																		



10.
Cobalt-Nickel Separation in Hydrometallurgy: a Review*

DOUGLAS S. FLETT
St. Barbara Consultancy Services, 17 Foster Close,
Stevenage, Herts, SGI 4SA (UK), E-mail: doug.flett@lineone.net
Pages: 81-91

Abstract >>
The separation of cobalt from nickel in aqueous solution has always been a problem for hydrometallurgists. Their adjacent positions in the transition metal series in the periodic table result in aqueous chemical behaviour that is too similar for development of easy separation routes. Traditionally cobalt and nickel were separated by processes based on selective oxidation and/or precipitation of cobalt from either sulphate or chloride solution and such processes are still in use today. However, the process of solvent extraction provides the high degree of separation and yields demanded by industry nowadays. While alkylamines are the extractants of choice for separation of cobalt from nickel from chloride liquors, for weakly acidic sulphate liquors the alkyl phosphorous acids have found significant commercial application at various locations around the world. Because of the high nickel to cobalt ratio encountered in liquors produced in sulphate-based high nickel matte leach processes or those produced in the acid pressure leaching of nickel laterites, very high separation factors (>1000) are required. That is why the dialkyl phosphinic acid CYANEX 272 has become the reagent of choice for such duties. This paper reviews the chemistry of cobalt-nickel separation from aqueous solutions and comments on the implications of this chemistry in hydrometallurgical applications. Description of selected applications is given and discussed.
																				  																		



11.
Clean Technology in the Metallurgical Industry*

FATHI HABASHI
Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Laval University, Quebec City,
G1K 7P4 (Canada), E-mail: Fathi.Habashi@gmn.ulaval.ca
Pages: 93-98

Abstract >>
In the middle of the 1960s environmental groups started pressing for cleaner environment. The metallurgical industry responded in a variety of ways. The steel industry closed open hearth furnaces and switched over to other cleaner technology. The aluminium industry switched over from Soderberg to pre-baked electrodes in the electrolytic cells. The copper industry abandoned the reverberatory furnace to a flash smelting technology. Tall stacks were constructed to dispose of SO2, but the zinc industry eliminated SO2 emissions completely by using pressure leaching technology which may well be applied to other nonferrous industries. Some other measures taken are reviewed.
																				  																		



12.
Electrochemical Study of Tantalum Plating in LiF

M. MEHMOOD1,2, N. KAWAGUCHI1, Y. SATO1, T. YAMAMURA1, M. KAWAI3 and K. KIKUCHI4
1Department of Metallurgy, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University,
Aoba-ku, Sendai 980
Pages: 99-104

Abstract >>
Investigation into electrodeposition of tantalum has been performed in LiF
																				  																		



13.
Electrochemical Processing of Rare-Earth and Rare Metals by Using Molten Salts*

TSUTOMU YAMAMURA, MAZHAR MEHMOOD, HIDEKI MAEKAWA and YUZURU SATO
Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980
Pages: 105-111

Abstract >>
The electrochemical processing of rare-earth chlorides such as LaCl3, CeCl3, NdCl3, SmCl3 and DyCl3 in alkali chloride baths has been investigated in NaCl, KCl and eutectic LiCl
																				  																		



14.
Associated Rhenium Extraction in Complex Processing of Productive Solutions of Underground Uranium Leaching*

ALEXANDER M. CHEKMAREV1, IRINA D. TROSHKINA1, YURI V. NESTEROV2, ANDREW B. MAIBORODA1, OLGA N. USHANOVA and NIKOLAY S. SMIRNOV1
1Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology,
Miusskaya Pl. 9, Moscow 125190 (Russia), E-mail: chekmarv@rctu.ru
2Atomredmedzoloto JSC, Ul. B. Ordynka 24/26, Moscow 125190 (Russia)
Pages: 113-117

Abstract >>
The possibility of associated rhenium extraction during complex processing of productive solutions of underground uranium leaching (UL), by means of precipitation and membrane methods with the use of cationic water-soluble polyelectrolites (PE) is shown. High-molecular nitrogen-containing substances are used as PE ( BA series; as well as pilot models, developed in the Mendeleyev Russian Chemical and Technological University). It has been established that rhenium extraction from sulphuric productive solutions of UL with the use of complexation
																				  																		



15.
"Chemistry for Sustainable Development": Bibliometric Portrait

INNA V. ZIBAREVA andВ BORIS G. DERENDYAEV
Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Prospekt Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia),
E-mail: zib@nioch.nsc.ru
Pages: 119-128

Abstract >>
A bibliometric analysis of the journal "Chemistry for Sustainable Development" within the period of 1993