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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2003 year, number 3

1.
Mononitration of Benzene on Solid Catalysts without Using Sulphuric Acid

OLEG V. BAKHVALOV
Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy
of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: bakhval@nioch.nsc.ru
Pages: 439-449

Abstract >>
A review of scientific and patent literature reflecting the newest methods of benzene nitration on solid catalysts for the purpose of obtaining nitrobenzene. The published research results are analysed from the viewpoint of possibility of using them for development of a new technology for obtaining nitrobenzene on the basis of heterogeneous catalytic nitration of benzene.
																				  																		



2.
Natural Halogenated Alkaloids

VALERY M. DEMBITSKY1 and GENRICH A. TOLSTIKOV2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy,
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P. O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)
E-mail: dvalery@cc.huji.ac.il
2Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: gtolstik@nioch.nsc.ru
Pages: 451-466

Abstract >>
Structures of more than 230 natural halogenated (chlorine-, bromine- and iodine-containing) alkaloids isolated from cyanobacteria, plants, fungi, sea algae and invertebrates, and data on their biological activity are presented.
																				  																		



3.
Nature and Regularities of the Effect of Mechanochemical Activation on Catalytic Activity

ROMAN A. BUYANOV and VICTOR V. MOLCHANOV
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: buyanov@catalysis.nsk.su
Pages: 467-470

Abstract >>
Changes in thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of catalytic processes under mechanochemical activation of catalysts (mechanochemical catalysis) are considered. It is shown that the activity of catalysts should increase under the mechanochemical activation, while selectivity can vary depending on the relations between the changes in the target reaction and side processes. The considered phenomena are formulated as a new research area which is at the very beginning of its development.
																				  																		



4.
Natural Zeolites as Petroleum Product Adsorbents

VALENTINA N. GERASIMOVA
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademicheskiy 3, Tomsk 634055 (Russia)
E-mail: ger@mail.tomsknet.ru
Pages: 471-478

Abstract >>
Physicochemical and adsorption properties of natural zeolites of the Sakhaptinsk (Krasnoyarsk Territory), Kholinsk (Chita Region) and Khonguruu (Yakutia) deposits have been studied. Changes in the zeolite characteristics in contact with alkaline and acid solutions have been established. The efficiency of the zeolites studied in the process of adsorption of petroleum products from gaseous and aqueous media has been compared. A correlation between the adsorption activity and efficiency of natural adsorbent zeolites with Na, K-components and molar Si/Al ratio in their composition has been found. The results obtained have made it possible to recommend the zeolites studied for development of adsorbent materials.
																				  																		



5.
Use of Hydrolyzed Lignin for Obtaining Composite Materials

INNA B. KAPUSTINA, VLADIMIR P. YAKIMTSOV and VALENTINA I. KAZAZYAN
Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research
Pages: 479-482

Abstract >>
Possibility of obtaining a composite material from the wastes of yeast hydrolysis product
																				  																		



6.
Soft Mechanochemical Synthesis of Dispersed Zirconium Titanate

LEMBIT G. KARAKCHIEV, EUGENE G. AVVAKUMOV, OLGA B. VINOKUROVA, ALEXEY A. GUSEV and NIKOLAY Z. LYAKHOV
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Kutateladze 18,
Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia); E-mail: root@solid.nsk.su
Pages: 483-487

Abstract >>
An amorphous compound, obtained by mechanical activation of a mixture of hydrated zirconium and titanium dioxides, under annealing at 600 °C forms crystalline zirconium titanate. Similarity between the soft mechanochemical synthesis and sol-gel procedure for obtaining dispersed zirconium titanate is demonstrated.
																				  																		



7.
Application of Mechanical Activation to Decomposition of Toxic Chlorinated Organic Compounds

KIRILL G. KOROLEV1,3, ANTONINA I. GOLOVANOVA2, NINA N. MALTSEVA2, OLEG I. LOMOVSKIY1,3, VYACHESLAV L. SALENKO3 and VLADIMIR V. BOLDYREV1,3
1Novosibirsk State University,
Centre for Research and Advanced Education "Molecular Design and Ecologically Safe Technologies",
Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia); E-mail: korolyov@mill.solid.nsc.ru
2Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskiy Pr. 31, Moscow 117907 (Russia)
3Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy
of Sciences, Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia)
Pages: 489-496

Abstract >>
The possibilities of the application of mechanochemical method for performing dechlorination process with chlorinated aromatic compounds and polyvinylchloride are considered. On the basis of spectral investigations, we proposed possible mechanism and the composition of products of mechanochemical dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds. Mechanochemical transformation of hexachlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and octachloronaphthalene, o-nitrochlorobenzene in the presence of alkaline agents proceeds with the formation of phenols and naphthols. This process can be represented as nucleophilic substitution in the aromatic ring. It is demonstrated that the intensity of mechanical action affects the relations between the main products of o-nitrochlorobenzene transformation. Under high-intensive mechanical action, the major product of the interaction of o-nitrochlorobenzene is 2-nitro-3-chlorophenol; under soft conditions, it is o-nitrophenol.
																				  																		



8.
Use of Chromium-Containing Sewage Water Slime in the Technology of a New Abrasive Material

LYUBOV' F. KOROLEVA (CHEKHOMOVA)
Institute of Engineering Science, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Komsomolskaya 34, Yekaterinburg GSP-207, 620219 (Russia); E-mail: lq@imach.uran.ru
Pages: 497-501

Abstract >>
A technology for recycling of chromic waste to obtain abrasive material for polishing has been proposed whose introduction will efficiently solve the ecological problem of the region. The abrasive material obtained has a polishing ability which exceeds by 5
																				  																		



9.
Modification of Native Graphite from Russian and Ukrainian Deposits by Intercalation and Flash-Pyrolysis

BORIS N. KUZNETSOV1, MAXIM L. SHCHIPKO1, TAMILA P. MILOSHENKO1, ANATOLIY M. ZHIZHAEV1, ALEXEY V. RUDKOVSKIY1, MIKHAIL V. SAVOSKIN2, ALEXEY M. YAROSHENKO2, SVETLANA B. LYUBCHIK2 and TATIANA G. SHENDRIK2
Pages: 503-509

Abstract >>
The investigation of obtaining thermoexpanded graphite from native graphite samples of four deposits in Russia and Ukraine involving various procedures of intercalation and pyrolysis is described. It is established that the most promising raw material for the production is graphite from Zavalye (Ukraine) and Kyshtym (Russia). Intercalation of these samples with chloric, nitric, acetic acids and chromic anhydride followed by thermal treatment in the steady mode allows obtaining carbon materials with the bulk density about 1 kg/m3. It is demonstrated that pyrolysis of the same intercalated samples in a flow reactor results in obtaining carbon materials with substantially smaller specific volume, but they possess a number of technological advantages in comparison with those obtained under steady conditions.
																				  																		



10.
High-Purity Organosilicon Precursors for Plasma Chemical Deposition of Thin Dielectric Coatings

RUDOLF G. MIRSKOV, VLADIMIR I. RAKHLIN and MICHAIL G. VORONKOV
Favorskiy Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Favorskogo 1, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia); E-mail: mir@irioch.irk.ru
Pages: 511-515

Abstract >>
Ecologically safe methods of obtaining high-purity liquid organosilicon compounds containing Si
																				  																		



11.
Extraction-Pyrolytic Method of Obtaining Functional Oxide Materials

TAMARA N. PATRUSHEVA1, ANATOLIY I. KHOLKIN2 and DMITRIY V. YURIEV1
1Krasnoyarsk State Technical University,
Ul. Kirenskogo 26, Krasnoyarsk 660074 (Russia); E-mail: pat@ire.krgtu.ru
2Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marxa 42, Krasnoyarsk 664049 (Russia)
Pages: 517-525

Abstract >>
Development of functional electronics as an alternative to the circuit engineering is tightly connected with solution of a number of problems in the field of material science and technology. Semiconductor complex oxides, magnetic, sensor and radiation-generating materials, ferro-, piezo- and pyroelectrics acquire a great importance in the modern world, since they play the role of "clever" materials. Their necessity is increasing as the most advanced branches of science and technology, in particular electronics, computer engineering, medicine, laser and photochemical engineering, are developing. Among the methods of obtaining complex oxide materials, very promising are those of solutions to which the sol-gel method belongs. Mixing the initial components in a solution and their subsequent thermal treatment result in obtaining homogeneous materials and decreasing the temperature and temporal parameters of synthesis. This makes it possible to introduce chemically active and easily fusible components, e. g., lead and bismuth, into the complex oxide composition. An important role in the stabilization of the characteristics of functional materials is played by their purity factor. The absence of admixtures and the homogeneity of phase composition ensure the maximal characteristics and brusque transitions realized in the work of functional materials. In order to obtain homogeneous, pure and morphologically uniform functional oxide materials, the authors propose an extraction-pyrolytic technology.
																				  																		



12.
Highly Mineralized Natural Brines

ALEXANDER D. RYABTSEV, NATALIA P. KOTSUPALO, ALEXANDER A. KURAKOV, LARISA T. MENZHERES and ELENA V. MAMYLOVA
Ekostar-Nautech Ltd., P.O. Box 86, Novosibirsk 630075 (Russia); E-mail: kotsu@mail.nsk.ru
Pages: 527-535

Abstract >>
A technology for obtaining magnesium oxide from brines on the background of prevalent amount of calcium chloride is proposed. The possibility of a combined obtaining magnesium and calcium compounds in the form of magnesia and calcium chloride hexahydrate is demonstrated. It is recommended to use concentrated calcium chloride solutions for preparation of drilling fluids.
																				  																		



13.
Spherulites of Calcium Oxalate in Uroliths: Morphology and Formation Conditions

ELLINA V. SOKOL1, ELENA N. NIGMATULINA1, NATALYA V. MAKSIMOVA1 and ALEXANDER Yu. CHIGLINTSEV2
Trofimuk United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3,
Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia); E-mail: sokol@uiggm.nsc.ru
2Municipal Clinic No. 6, Ul. Rumyantseva, Chelyabinsk 450048 (Russia)
Pages: 535-545

Abstract >>
Among the mineral phases composing human uroliths, the most widespread are spherulite aggregates of calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4 . H2O). The morphology of these aggregates and their formation conditions have been studied. They are regular products of crystallization under the conditions of high supersaturation existing in the kidney. Formation of CaC2O4 . H2O crystals takes place mainly by means of heterogeneous nucleation, and their growth goes in kinetic regime. Destruction of oxalate concrements by means of distance shock-wave lithotrypsy (DSWL) creates many problems to medical men and patients due to anatomic peculiarity of the spherulite aggregates. In these, nuclei of two types
																				  																		



14.
Solvent Extraction Concentrating of Palladium by Organic Sulphides from Acidic Nitrate-Nitrite Solutions for Increasing Ecological Safety of the Utilization of Spent Nuclear Fuel

VLADIMIR V. TATARCHUK1, IRINA A. DRUZHININA1, TAMARA M. KORDA1, EDOUARD V. RENARD2and VLADISLAV G. TORGOV1
1Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: tat@che.nsk.su
2Bochvar All-Russian Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Ul. Rogova 5, Moscow 123060 (Russia)
Pages: 547-555

Abstract >>
In connection with search for methods to recover fission palladium from highly active liquid wastes from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, new results were obtained on palladium solvent extraction by organic sulphides from model (in the absence of radiation) nitrate-nitrite solutions containing also a number of accompanying elements (Ag, Ru, Rh, Te, Se, Sb, Mo, Zr, Fe, Ni). It is shown that within the investigated ranges of the acidity of aqueous phase (0.5