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ECO journal (ECOnomics and industrial Engineering)

2019 year, number 3

Heat Supply of Consumers under Market Conditions: Current Status and Development Trends

V. A. Stennikov1, A. V. Penkovskii1
Melentiev Energy Systems Institute SB RAS
Keywords: теплоснабжение, конкуренция, естественная монополия, «Единая теплоснабжающая организация», «Единый закупщик», экономические отношения, альтернативная котельная, heat supply, competition, natural monopoly, Unified heat supply organization, Single buyer, economic relations, alternative boiler

Abstract >>
The article reviews models and methods for managing heat supply of consumers in a market economy. Principal organizational forms of heat supply systems are described in the form of the ‘Unified heat supply organization’ model and the ‘Single buyer’ model that may be deployed in cities and towns of the Russian Federation. The authors analyze different types of competition in the heat market and describe their possible effects. For district heating in large cities of the Russian Federation, the authors point out negative consequences from introduction to the heat market of a new organization model based on the ‘alternative boiler’ method.

Heat Supply Reform: Consequences for the Consumers in the Far East

S. N. Naiden, O. V. Dyomina
Institute Far Eastern Branch RAS, Khabarovsk
Keywords: население, система теплоснабжения, тариф на тепловую энергию, цена «альтернативной котельной», Дальний Восток, population, district heating system, heat energy tariff, the price of heat-only boilers, the Russian Far East

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The article overviews necessity of state regulation of heat energy supply and attempts to evaluate efficiency of suth regulation from the point of view of consequences for population as its main consumer. The author defines specific of features population that determine their behaviour as heat energy consumers. The population is only a receiver of heat supply and is limited in managing the volume of its consumption. The article estimates income possibilities of the population to pay for heat supply based on the example of southern regions and cities of the Far East. Even with in regulated tariffs the burden of payment on population remains high, especially for low-income groups, which is explained by both high tariff in the region and levels of consumption. Introduction of the new tariff regulation method based on the price of an “alternative boiler room” in the largest heat supply systems of the Far East will increase payments 1.7-3.1 times. This will potentially lead to growth of enterprises’ debt and higher volume of social support from the budget.

Concessions in Heat Supply: Investment Instead of Subsidies

V. I. Nefedkin1,2, O. P. Fadeeva1,2, D. R. Ginzburg3
1National Research Novosibirsk State University
2Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
3Concession Solutions LLC
Keywords: теплоснабжение, концессия, Новосибирская область, Маслянино, Обь, государственно-частное партнерство, проектное финансирование, heat supply, concession, Novosibirsk region, Maslyanino, Ob’, public-private partnership, project financing

Abstract >>
The article discusses a wide range of heat supply problems in Russia and the Novosibirsk region. It explores opportunities and limitations associated with use of concessions as a tool to improve efficiency and reliability of heat supply, especially in those localities that are not attractive to large energy companies. The study of heat supply concessions in the Novosibirsk region as well as interviews with participants and initiators of projects allow drawing conclusions from initial practical results and related issues. Modernization projects of district heating systems in Maslyanino and Ob’ were selected as cases for consideration. The first results of these projects showed that small-scale investment from federal and regional budgets made it possible to eliminate subsidies to local heat supply organizations. However, the possibilities of reproducing this experience are limited for a number of institutional and economic reasons. The greatest risks for potential concessionaires arise from the practice of tariff regulation based on “economically reasonable costs” and high transaction costs of transferring private enterprises to operation of centralized heating systems previously served by municipal unitary enterprises. The authors suggest new financing tools for concessions that can increase the attractiveness of such projects for private investors and significantly reduce the need for continuous grants from regional and local budgets to support loss-making municipal enterprises.

Alternative Boiler as a Mechanism for Solving Existing Problems of Heat Supply Abstract

S. V. Bukharov
Association "NPPA"
Keywords: теплоснабжение, Единая теплоснабжающая организация, Единый закупщик, тарифное регулирование, альтернативная котельная, heat supply, Unified heat supply organization, Single buyer, tariff regulation, alternative boiler

Abstract >>
According to a long-standing tradition of our journal, we try to complement opinionsof scientists on various problems of economy with a point of view of experts.In this set of articles and opinions on problems of domestic heat supply, we asked S.V. Bukharov, a representative of energy business, to take part in our discussion. He has over 15 years of experience in financial and economic management of power engineering (Novosibirskenergo Group, TGK-13, Association NP Market Council and others).As a consultant, he participated in preparation of materials for the Government of the Russian Federation concerning a decision to include the workers' village of Linevo of the Iskitimsky District of the Novosibirsk Region into a heat supply price zone.The article describes possible implications for the industry as a whole and consumers as part of transition to a new market model - an “alternative boiler”, including a description of smoothing mechanisms for consumers of price implications arising from the transition. He also shares his professional opinion on possibilities of implementing this model.

Principal Trends and Scenarios of Global Power Industry Development

L. V. Kalimullin
The University of Management TISBI, Kazan
Keywords: развитие, прогноз, сценарии, технологии, энергетические компании, возобновляемые источники энергии, накопители энергии, development, forecast, scenarios, technologies, energy companies, renewable energy sources, energy storage

Abstract >>
This article reviews development trends of global and Russian electric power industry. Among the principal trends there are energy security, shifts of market product structure, emergence of new technologies and equipment and establishment of international standards. Three road maps of industry development are considered: conservative, optimistic and that of advanced technology. The scenarios make reference to progressive evolutionary industry development and leading-edge engineering growth with faster growth of new technologies, innovative solutions and infrastructure risks reduction. Power energy evolution can be described by an increasing role of engineering competences, renewable energy, smart grid innovative solutions and energy storage systems. These factors, along with other technological solutions that change basic operation characteristics of the energy system, will bring about a new power system architecture and economy.

The Population’s Standards and Quality of Lives in the Republic of Buryatia

D. B. Dugarzhapova
Buryat Science Center SB RAS, Ulan-Ude
Keywords: уровень и качество жизни населения, региональная экономика, дифференциация доходов, покупательная способность, прожиточный минимум, среднедушевые доходы, the level and quality of life, regional economy, income differentiation, purchasing power, subsistence minimum, average per capita incomes

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The article presents a comparative analysis of socio-economic indicators of the level and quality of life in the Republic Buryatia. The differentiation of those in 2012-2016 is considered through the system of social standards. The author analyses changes in the population’s monetary incomes and singles out features of their use. The growth in average per capita incomes is combined with a slight reduction of income-disparity and high heterogeneity in the welfare of the population. The author notes that these negative trends and patterns in the incomes formation are due to low wages of certain categories of employees and high unemployment in Buryatia. This indicates the need to establish a stimulating regional policy, which would help develop various economic activities with a view to narrow the gap between individual incomes of different population groups.

Pension Reforms in Russia and Post Soviet Union Countries: 1991-2018 Years

V. D. Roik
All-Russian Research Institute of Work Ministry of Labour and Social Protection
Keywords: пенсионная система, институты пенсионного страхования, страны СНГ, пенсионный возраст, pension system, institutes of pension insurance, post Soviet Union countries, retirement age

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Pension reforms in the CIS countries have been going on since 1991. Transition of former USSR countries towards market economy and shifts in the social order called for radical transformation of all basic state institutions and social security mechanisms that provide for elderly citizens. The process entailed establishment of obligatory and voluntary pension insurance.Mechanisms of social and corporate insurance have been built with obligatory insurance payments of the employers and workers that helped balance the budgets of pension funds. Information systems have been created to take care of insurance rights and simplify the procedure of pension calculation. The majority of the Commonwealth countries raised the retirement age, introduced the institute of funded pensions, and created funds of non-state pension insurance. However, effectively functioning institutes of pension insurance and the national systems of pension insurance and state social security are yet to be completed. Another factor is the insufficient scope of pension insurance relative to the independently employed and people occupied in the informal sector. Thus, by the end of 2017, pension insurance in the Commonwealth countries covered no more than 40-50% of the total number of economically active population.In this regard, many Commonwealth countries are developing programs that will grant social payments to pensioners at the level of basic social income. The article reviews issues of system transformation in the field of pension insurance in the attempt to reveal typical problems and propose measures for their solution.

Problems of the Russian Oil Industry through the Prism of a Petrol Station

V.A. Krykov, A.N. Tokarev, V.V. Shmat
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
Keywords: нефтегазовый сектор, нефть, цены на нефтепродукты, налоги, издержки, бензин, нефтяные компании, государственное регулирование, биржа, oil and gas sector, oil, prices for oil products, taxes, costs, gasoline, oil companies, state policy, commodity exchange

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Reliable supply of consumers with petroleum products at affordable prices has traditionally been one of the most discussed problems of the Russian economy. This problem directly affects interests of a large number of car owners, and indirectly (through a system of inter- sectoral relations) almost the entire population of the country. Interest in this topic rises dramatically in periods of shortage of oil products and / or a sharp rise in their prices. But the “fuel” question is only a visible part of problems that have accumulated in the Russian oil and gas sector and our domestic economy as a whole. The article identifies a range of sectoral problems that perpetuate crises of fuel supply with uncanny recurrence. Each failure to resolve those problems will require more effort later and incur higher cost, while their complexity gets more exacerbated.

Problems of Transformation of the Behavioral Model of Generation Z

E. S. Vasiutina1, L. V. Matraeva1, N. A. Korolkova2
1Russian State Social University
2LARIUM Consulting
Keywords: теория поколений, экономическая модель поведения, поколение Z, ценностные установки, трансформационные сдвиги, theory of generations, the economic model of behavior, generation Z, value settings, transformational shifts

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The article discusses features of formation and development of the modern generation from a point of view of theory of generations of Howe N. and Strauss W. The analysis is based on a large-scale sociological study conducted in 2016 by Sberbank of Russia that served to identify directions of transformational changes in the behavioral model as well as causes and consequences for development and effectiveness of government regulation in various sectors of economy. The authors evaluate key elements such as information processing, self-perception, value settings, frustrations, fears and expectations from the future generation Z, underlying problems that cannot be resolved in the current institutional environment of economic policy.

Economic and Geographical Features of the Domestic Fuel and Energy Industry in the Historical Context

H. S. Simonov
Keywords: топливно-энергетические ресурсы, географическое размещение топливных баз, топливно-энергетический баланс, транспортная инфраструктура топливно-энергетической промышленности, реформа электроэнергетики, энергоемкость валового внутреннего продукта (ВВП), fuel and energy resources, geographical location of fuel bases, fuel-energy balance, transport infrastructure of the fuel and energy industry, power industry reform, energy intensity of gross domestic product (GDP)

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The author of the article analyzes the importance of transport component in the price of energy resources in different historical periods of domestic energy industry. According to economic and geographical features of predominant production (in tons of conventional fuel), these periods are divided into: “Donetsk-Baku”, Donetsk-Volga-Ural” and “West-Siberian”. The author argues that development opportunities of “Giant energy” critically depend on geographical location of main fuel bases and cost of production and delivery of all used energy resources to places of their consumption. The relevance of approaches of Soviet leaders to solve the problem of permanent deficit of energy resources is illustrated by: 1) transfer of most energy-intensive industries to the sources of cheapest energy; 2) transfer of energy from energy surplus regions to energy-deficient regions with the help of long-range overhead lines; 3) saving of energy due to energy-saving technologies and economic incentives. It is suggested that the tremendous transport infrastructure of the fuel and energy industry of the former USSR continues to send distorted signals with pricing errors to the electricity market.

There is Such Science «The Baikal studies»

V. I. Zorkaltsev1, E. N. Kuzevanova2
1Irkutsk Scientific Center SB RAS
2The Baikal Museum of ISC SB RAS
Keywords: эколого-экономические проблемы, Байкальская природная территория, экологическое образование, экология, учебники по Байкаловедению, Baikal, biology, ecological education, ecology, textbooks of the Baikal studies

Abstract >>
The history of formation, the main components, the non-standard methods of teaching the new school discipline «The Baikal studies» are outlined. The article is formed in the interview with the editorial board member of the journal with the organizer of this academic discipline, the author of a number of textbooks, scientific and popular publications about Baikal, a specialist in Baikal, candidate of biological sciences, deputy director of the Baikal Museum of the SB RAS, Elena Nikolaevna Kuzevanova. A brief description of the history of the study of Baikal is given. Ecological and economic problems of Lake Baikal are discussed. Analogies are being made between the laws of ecology and the models of the economy. The possibilities of financing measures to improve the ecological situation in the Baikal natural territory at the expense of rental income from natural resources of Lake Baikal are estimated. It is concluded that Baikal already at the present time is fully capable of «self-financing» - the rental revenues received from the hydroelectric power of the Angara River are estimated at more than 120 billion rubles. in year. The necessity and possibility of consistent coexistence of ecological and economic efficiency of people's life on the Baikal coast is discussed.

Sino-Russian Cross-Border Cooperation on Higher Education in the Context of the Belt and Road Initiative

Xueqiu Liang
Russian Institute of Heilongjiang Academy of Social Sciences, Harbin, China
Keywords: «Один пояс - один путь», китайско-российское трансграничное сотрудничество, высшее образование, the Belt and Road, Sino-Russian Cross-Border Cooperation, Higher Education

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China and Russia are two neighboring major world powers as well as important nodes along the routex of the Belt and Road Initiative. In the context of a comprehensive strategic partnership, it is becoming more and more urgent and important to improve the results of Sino- Russian cooperation on cultural education, especially in the field of higher education, thus strengthening the cultural and technological potential of the two countries. It is shown that a comprehensive and institutionalized mode of cooperation on education between China and Russia has been established and great achievements have been made. A reasonable analysis has been carried out on the basic status, necessity of cooperation, current problems and countermeasures in educational exchanges between China and Russia with reference to the strengthening of efforts on educational cooperation with Russia.