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Journal of Mining Sciences

2018 year, number 6

Effect of Thermal Memory in Acoustic Emission in Fossil Coal after Pre-Disintegration by Cryogenic Treatment

E. A. Novikov, V. L. Shkuratnik, M. G. Zaitsev
National University of Science and Technology, Moscow, 119049 Russia
Keywords: термостимулированная акустическая эмиссия, антрацит, каменный и бурый уголь, криогенное воздействие, акустико-эмиссионные эффекты памяти, эффект Фелисити, структура, свойства, Thermally stimulated acoustic emission, anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite, cryogenic treatment, memory effects in acoustic emission, Felicity effect, structure, properties

Deformation of Ponderable Rock Mass in the Vicinity of Straight Finite-Line Crack

M. V. Kurlenya, V. E. Mirenkov
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: трещина, деформирование, аналитическое решение, теория, порода, вес, обратные задачи, Crack, deformation, analytical solution, theory, rock, weight, inverse problems

Abstract >>
Deformation of rock mass with crack is considered in the context of failure control. The classical analytical solutions obtained for imponderable rock mass with crack give infinite values of stresses at tips, which disagrees with the reality. The phenomenological theory is proposed for calculating total displacements in the vicinity of crack based on the qualitative differences in the weight actions: tension takes place above the crack while compression arises under it. The dimensionless parameter characterizing ratio of the upper edge displacement of the crack to its lower edge displacements and applied to describe behavior of rocks is substantiated.

Geomechanical Modeling to Evaluate Technology Parameters for Coal Mining in the Interaction Zone of Longwall Face and Gate Roadway

V. M. Seryakov1, S. V. Rib2, V. V. Basov2, V. N. Fryanov2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Siberain State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 Russia
Keywords: очистной забой, угольные шахты, механизированная крепь, напряжения, смещения, горная выработка, массив горных пород, остаточная прочность, передовая выработка, породный прослоек, Longwall face, coal mines, powered roof support, stresses, displacements, roadway, rock mass, residual strength, gate roadway, dirt bed

Abstract >>
The results of numerical modeling to evaluate geomechanical behavior of rocks in the vicinity of a fully mechanized longwall face and a gate roadway during gradual narrowing of a coal pillar between them are presented. Variants of longwall face passing of diagonal cut-through are discussed for coal seams of complex structure and various thickness. The regularities of redistribution of stresses, strains, and residual strengths of coal and rocks under variation in coal seam thickness, pillar width and location of dirty bed are determined. The recommendations on the technology for mining coal pillars as their width is decreased and for stability of gate roadways are substantiated to ensure trouble-free operation of fully mechanized longwall faces.

Two Characteristic Functions of Sulphide Ore Behavior under Biaxial Compression

A. I. Chanyshev1,2, I. M. Abdulin1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, Novosibirsk, 630099 Russia
Keywords: математические модели деформирования, разрушения горных пород, собственный тензорный базис, экспериментальные данные, сульфидная руда, Mathematical models of deformation, rock failure, eigen tensor basis, experimental data, sulphide ore

Abstract >>
Two curves are plotted for the behavior of sulphide ore using a tensor basis. The directions of universality of these functions, i.e. independence of stress type, are determined in the tensor space. The curves are used in description of rock dilatancy and different resistances to compression and tension.

Water Saturation Influences on Engineering Properties of Selected Sedimentary Rocks of Pakistan

Y. Majeed, M. Z. Bakar Abu
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, 54890 Pakistan
Keywords: предел прочности на сжатие, предел прочности на растяжение, плотность горной породы, объем порового пространства, пористость, водонасыщенность, корреляция, Uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, rock density, rock porosity, pore space volume, water saturation, correlation

Abstract >>
Geomechanical properties of host rock are generally affected by the variation of moisture content present in its fabric or matrix. This study is focused to evaluate the influence of water saturation on the mechanical and physical properties of 34 sedimentary rock units selected from different geological formations in Pakistan. The laboratory testing program comprised the determination of physico-mechanical rock properties of both air-dry as well as fully water saturated rock specimens. Further thin section analyses of all rock samples were also performed to explain their petrography. According to the statistical analyzes overall reductions of around 40% and 50% were found in UCSsat and BTSsat values, respectively, measured on saturated rock samples in comparison to their corresponding dry strength values, i.e. UCSdry and BTSdry. Linear correlations were found between ultrasonic wave velocities as well as density of both dry and saturated rock samples. In addition, the dry and saturated UCS values were exponentially related with the rock porosity. Multiple regression technique was also utilized to develop a predictive linear model of UCSsat with geotechnical rock properties in the dry condition and petrographical characteristics of rock samples. Finally the validity of multiple regression model developed in this study and an existing correlation for the conversion of UCSdry into UCSsat was statistically assessed.

Combined Effect of Loading Rate and Water Content on Mechanical Behavior of Natural Stones

E. Ozdemir, D. E. Sarici
Inonu University, Malatya, 44280 Turkey
Keywords: порода, предел прочности при одноосном сжатии, скорость нагружения, степень насыщения, Rock, uniaxial compressive strength, loading rate, saturation degree

Abstract >>
Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) is considered to be the most widely used mechanical property to detect and classify rocks. However, tests are generally performed under dry conditions and standard loading rates. On the other hand, in the land environment neither the saturation degree of rocks is zero nor the loading rate is constant. In this study, three different sedimentary rocks in the Eastern Anatolia Region (Turkey) were used for determination of the effects of saturation degree on mechanical properties and combined effects of saturation degree and loading rates on UCS. For this purpose, point load strength, Schmidt and Shore hardness, ultrasonic wave velocity, and Brazilian tensile strength tests were carried out on oven-dried, 35, 70, 100 saturated specimens, and UCS tests were carried out in 0, 35, 70 and 100% saturation degrees and 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kN/s loading rates. Test results showed that increasing water content led to decreasing mechanical properties up to 40-50%, respectively, from dry to saturated conditions. Water absorption had an important effect on Brazilian and point load strength. Internal pressure caused by water effected tensile stress more. It was seen that saturation and loading rate increased with the UCS-increasing saturation rate and caused a buffer effect in low porosity rocks.

A Method for Selecting Similar Materials for Rocks in Scaled Physical Modeling Tests

X. M. Shi, B. G. Liu, Y. Y. Xiang, Y. Qi
Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, 100044 China
Keywords: физическое моделирование, горная порода, эквивалентный материал, независимые критерии, регрессионный анализ, Physical modeling test, rock, similar material, orthogonal test, regression analysis

Abstract >>
The physical modeling test using similar materials to simulate the strata and structures is one of the main research approaches in geotechnical and mining engineering. One of the key techniques in a physical modeling test is to simulate the strata with appropriate similar materials. The most common similar material to simulate rocks is composed of quartz sand and barite, bonded with cement, gypsum or lime. This study classified the materials into Li-Gy material and Ce-Gy material according to different bonding materials. For each type of the similar materials, large numbers of specimens with different compositions were tested according to the following orthogonal rules to obtain the properties and analyze the changes with different compositions. Relations between the compositions and the properties of the similar materials were obtained through the multiple regression analysis. Based on the test results and the regression equations, a method for selecting appropriate similar materials to simulate rocks was proposed and a Python script for implementation was developed. A calculation example was given to illustrate the effectiveness and expediency of this method.

Principles of Designing Air-Driven Hammer with Compound Piston for Driving Rods into Soil

I. V. Tishchenko, V. V. Chervov
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: пневмомолот, импульсное воздействие, многомассовый ударный механизм, составной ударник, упругий клапан, амплитуда ударного импульса, частота ударов, Air-driven hammer, impulse function, multi-mass hammering mechanism, compound piston, elastic valve, impact pulse amplitude, impact frequency

Abstract >>
Improvability of air-driven pulse-generating mechanisms for operation in mineral mining and construction is discussed. An impact system with two mobile masses incorporated in a common housing is proposed for vibro-percussive driving of structural iron into elastoplastic soil. Experimental prototype of the air hammer with the compound piston based on the air distribution circuit with elastic valve in the back stroke chamber of the piston is described. The test data of operation cycle of the piston in case of different variants of settings are presented. The possibility to exert influence on the nature and frequency of impacts is demonstrated.

Modeling Impact Energy Transfer through Closed Chamber Filled with Fluid

V. E. Erem’yants, B. S. Sultanaliev, kyzy Nazira Melis
Institute of Machinery Science, Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, Bishkek, 720055 Kyrgyz Republic
Keywords: молот, поршень, камера с жидкостью, инструмент, удар, давление, объемный модуль упругости, утечки, алгоритм расчета, Hammer, piston, chamber with fluid, tool, impact, pressure, bulk modulus of elasticity, leaks, calculation algorithm

Abstract >>
Different models of a hammering system with impact energy transfer in a close chamber filled with fluid are analyzed. It is proved that the piston and the tool in the model can be represented by solid nondeformable bodies while the fluid-filled chamber by an inertialess elastic element. Based on the analyses, the forces in the fluid-filled chamber and at the tool-and-rock contact, as well as the impact energy transfer coefficient are related with the chamber parameters and the contact stiffness between the tool and rocks. The algorithm is proposed to calculate such system dynamics with regard to fluid leaks, variable viscosity and bulk modulus of elasticity.

Evaluation of Pick Layout on the Performance of Bolter Miner Cutting Head

Qiao Shuo1,2, Wang Ailun1,2, Xia Yimin1,2, Lin Laikuang2, Liu Zaizheng3, Liu Jinshu3
1Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 China
2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 China
3China Railway Construction Heavy Industry Co., LTD, Changsha, 410100 China
Keywords: расположение резцов, проходческий комбайн, метод конечных элементов (МКЭ), резание углепородного массива, неравномерность нагрузки, Pick layout, bolter miner, FEM, coal-rock cutting, load fluctuation

Abstract >>
A bolter miner is a new type of mining machinery with cutting and anchoring functions. In order to study the best pick layout of bolter miner cutting head, three kinds of pick layouts were designed. The evaluation of the cutting head on the cutting performance under the condition of different rotational speeds and pick layouts was intensively studied by simulations and experiments. And the reality of the simulation is verified by cutting experiments. The aim of this research is to provide theoretical guidance for the design of bolter miner cutting head.

Features of Modern Approach to Selection of Haulage Systems for Open Pit Diamond Mines in Yakutia

V. L. Yakovlev1, I. V. Zyryanov2, A. G. Zhuravlev1, V. A. Cherepanov1
1Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
2Yakutniproalmaz Institute, ALROSA, Mirny, 678174 Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia
Keywords: транспортная система карьера, промышленный транспорт, вскрытие, область применения транспорта, алмазорудные месторождения криолитозоны, Open pit mine hualage system, industrial transport, opening, tansport application domain, dimond deposits in the permaforst zone

Abstract >>
The results of the work on the scientific and technical framework of the open pit mine haulage machinery design for the national standard initiated by ALROSA Group in 2015 are presented. The experience of design and operation of haulage systems at open pit diamond mines in the permafrost zone is analyzed. Favorable operating conditions of haulage systems are determined with regard to peculiarities of open pit diamond mines. The sequential shaping of a haulage system all through the life of an open pit mine is substantiated. Application of such approach requires information technologies of transport system design, including computer modeling and multipath analysis under variability of numerous factors.

Assessment and Prediction of Slope Stability in Kentobe Open Pit Mine

O. G. Besimbaeva, E. N. Khmyrova, F. K. Nizametdinova, E. A. Oleinikova
Karaganda State Technical University, Karaganda, 100027 Republic of Kazakhstan
Keywords: геомеханическая модель, коэффициент запаса устойчивости, прочностные характеристики горных пород, расчеты устойчивости бортов карьера, обеспечение устойчивости бортов, Geomechanical model, stability factor, strength characteristics of rocks, pitwall slope stability calculation, pitwall stabilization

Abstract >>
Slope stability is assessed in Kentobe open pit barite mine located in the east of the Atasui ore province. The estimated characteristics of rock mass strength are evaluated using two techniques: by VNIMI procedure and in RockLab environment. Slope stability assessment involved a computer program developed at the Karaganda State Technical University. For the calculation, in the mine layout, such details as inhomogeneity of pitwall rock mass, depth of mining, presence of weakening surfaces, etc. were specified. The calculations showed that the preset slopes of benches, safety berms and pit walls failed to ensure stability. The stability of slopes to be preserved requires flattening of the overall angle to 34° in the south-west pit wall and to 31° in the north-east pit wall. The stability factors in this case will be 1.24 and 1.21, respectively.

Finding Solution to the Problems of Ore Mining and Processing Using Information Technologies

E. V. Gromov, V. V. Biryukov, A. M. Zotov
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: комплексное освоение месторождений, Арктическая эона РФ, экологические ограничения, информационные технологии, компьютерное моделирование, геотехнология, автоматизация и роботизация горных работ, обогащение полезных ископаемых, Integrated mineral resources management, Russian Arctic territory, environmental constraints, information technologies, computer modeling, geotechnology, mining automation and robotization, mineral dressing

Abstract >>
Specificity of using information technologies to improve safety and efficiency of integrated mineral mining is described. The results of works on creation of information resources for keeping and processing of data on rare earth and rare metal raw materials are presented. The application of the integrated approach to mineral mining under environmental constraints is described in terms of the Partomchorr deposit located in the Russian region of the Arctic. Low-waste technologies are substantiated for ore mining, processing and piling, as well as for mine waste management. The most important avenues of research in the area of automation and robotization of mining are identified.

Distribution of Methane Concentration in the Ventilating Area of the Longwall

S. Wasilewski, P. Jamroz
Strata Mechanics Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, 30-059 Poland
Keywords: Mine ventilation, methane concentration, longwall

Abstract >>
The paper presents an analysis of experimental data that include space-time distributions of methane concentration at the shearer-exploited longwall. The main objective of the observation was to identify the sources of methane emission and determine the methane distribution along the longwall and the adjacent workings. At present, numerical simulation methods are used more and more extensively while testing the air parameters in mine workings. The conducted analysis was also aimed at preparing input data for verification of numerical models of the longwall area as well as a simulation of the algorithm for controlling the shearer operating at the longwall being exploited in the seam exposed to methane hazards. The object of observation was longwall 841a, seam 405/2 in the Bielszowice mine. In the area of the longwall nine methane detectors (including two in the longwall) were located and used as common protection against methane hazard. As part of the experimental research, 10 additional methane detectors were located in the longwall and the adjacent workings (including 4 in the longwall).

Effect of Chemical and Phase Compositions on Absorption and Flotation Properties of Tin-Sulphide Ore Tailings with Dibutyl Dithiocarbamate

T. N. Matveeva, V. A. Chanturia, N. K. Gromova, L. B. Lantsova
Academician Melnikov Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: сульфидные оловянные руды, хвосты обогащения, флотация, ксантогенат, дибутилдитиокарбамат, Tin sulphide ore, tailings, flotation, xanthate, dibutyl dithiocarbamate

Abstract >>
Using UV-visible spectrophotometry, it is found that old tailings of Solnechny Mining and Processing Plant are characterized with high absorptive capacity relative to sodium dibutyl dithiocarbamate (DBDTC) and require high consumption of collecting agents in flotation. The optical and scanning electron microscopy tools revealed gypsum-cemented finely dispersed fractions (smaller than 20 μm) coating larger mineral particles (60-80 μm). Minerals are represented by chalcopyrite, pyrrhotine, pyrite, sphalerite, jamesonite and cassiterite; rocks are quartz and silicates. A feature of these old tailings is supergene mineralization and sulphide oxidation products. Alongside with cassiterite, varlamovite is present, which is a typical product of alteration of tin sulfosalts from stannite group. New experimental data on flotation of Solnechny MPP tailings with DBDTC are obtained. The flotation experiments show that DBDTC addition to butyl xanthate (at a ratio of 1:3) enables increased recovery of copper, lead, zinc and silver in bulk concentrate and reduces loss of these minerals in slime.

Connection between Hydrocarbon Radical Structure and Collecting Abilities of Flotation Agent

S. A. Kondrat’ev, D. V. Sem’yanova
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: оксигидрильные и катионные реагенты-собиратели, структура и состав углеводородного радикала, Hydroxide and cation colleting agents, structure and composition of hydrocarbon radical

Abstract >>
Structural features of hydrocarbon fragment of collecting agents for nonsulphide minerals, which show high recovery of useful components, are discussed. Introduction of nitrogen or oxygen atoms in collector molecule weakens hydrophobic properties of mineral coating. Decrease in the free surface energy at the mineral-liquid interface in the thermodynamic formulation of the problem on formation of flotation aggregate reduces the likelihood of such formation. The causes of increased collecting ability of flotation agent with polar groups in the hydrocarbon fragment are disclosed based on the mechanism of physically adsorbed collectors and kinetics of formation of flotation aggregate. The kinetic approach to description of flotation event demonstrates functional purpose of electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon chain of collecting agent molecule. The reason of preferring introduction of nitrogen or oxygen atoms in hydrocarbon fragment of collector molecule near a hydrophilic group is found. High surface pressure and spreading rate of an agent film are governed by the developed hydrocarbon fragment of the collector molecules, sufficient concentration of the agent at the mineral surface and by the high surface tension of bubbles in flotation.

Increasing Flotation Efficiency of Rebellious Copper-Nickel Sulphide Ore in the Pechenga Field

E. V. Chernousenko, Yu. N. Neradovsky, Yu. S. Kameneva, I. N. Vishnyakova, G. V. Mitrofanova
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: медно-никелевые руды, раскрытие минералов, режим рудоподготовки, флотация, Copper-nickel ore, mineral dissociation, pre-treatment mode, flotation

Abstract >>
Results of research into low-grade rebellious copper-nickel ore are presented. The mineralogical analysis reveals features of material composition, which affect processing properties of the ore-fine primary dissemination, essential serpentinization and substitution of insets by magnetite, as well as considerable fine difficult-to-dissociate epigenetic impregnation. The main causes of insufficient nickel recovery in the accepted modes of processing are determined. With a view to increasing concentration efficiency of this ore, different modes of milling and flotation are considered. Ways of improving processing performance of this type ore are identified.

Modeling of Objects and Processes within a Mining Technology as a Framework for a System Approach to Handling Problems in Mining

S. V. Lukichev, O. V. Nagovitsyn
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: горно-геологическая информационная система, проектирование, планирование, горные работы, системный подход, базы данных, компьютерное моделирование, Mining geology information system, design, planning, mining, system approach, data base, computer modeling

Abstract >>
The modern trends of advance in the area of information support tools for the mining industry call for an integrated solution of technological problems based on a common software platform meant to ensure prompt development of a new functional or adaptation of the existing one to mining conditions. In this case, of key importance becomes the integration and progression philosophy of an information system implementing functions of the platform. On the strength of more than 20 years of experience gained in development of MINEFRAME mining geology information system (MGIS), it can be stated that the optimum way is creating an object-targeted platform capable to model and control mining and geological objects with granting application program designers an access to the basic functional of MGIS. Implementation of this approach allows solving such important problems as stabilization of program support operation by means of screened access to software tools of the basic level as well as acceleration of MGIS functional development owing to the option of application program design using library of procedures and functions of the platform.