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ECO journal (ECOnomics and industrial Engineering)

2018 year, number 11

The KUZBASS-2035 Strategy: In Harmony with Coal

V. A. Kryukov1, Yu.A. Fridman1, E. Yu. Loginova1, G. N. Rechko1
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
Keywords: Кузбасс, сырьевой регион, модельная территория, сырьевые отрасли, угольная промышленность, стратегия и институты развития, угледобыча, драйверы роста, Kuzbass, resource region, model territory, raw materials industries, coal industry, development strategy and institutions, coal mining, growth drivers

Abstract >>
The article claims that Kuzbass as a resource region, needs to build its economy on the principles of resource regions’ development with regard to local peculiarities. Authors analyze the possibilities of innovative transformation of the coal industry, approve its high potential to be a driver of innovative development of the overall economy in Kuzbass. The principal directions of this influense through coal industry are allocated. The prospects of formation of a carbon-chemical cluster are considered. The potential of other sectors that can have a significant impact on overall economic growth (oil refining, methane recovery, tourism, agriculture, knowledge economy, etc.) is discussed. The article shows that, in order to meet all the goals and objectives of the long-term Kuzbass-2035 Strategy, the region requires a model of sequential and methodical creation of high-tech economy based on using the region’s potential and competitive advantage to full advantage.

The Priority Action Program for Social and Economic Recovery of Kuzbass Region

V. V. Ivanter, A. N. Klepach, D. B. Kuvalin, A. A. Shirov, K. V. Yankov
Institute of Economic Forecasting RAS
Keywords: экономика Кузбасса, структурные сдвиги, стратегия социально-экономического развития региона, прогноз регионального развития, Kuzbass economy, structural changes, strategy of regional social and economic development, forecast of regional economic development

Abstract >>
The article is dedicated to social and economic development of Kuzbass region on a short-term and medium-term horizon. Main problems and economic potential of the region are briefly analyzed. Program for primary actions targeted at a breakthrough in the regional economy and social sphere is initiated. Targets, key directions and measures of the program are defined. Predictive model evaluations for targeted scenario of Kuzbass development are presented.

Kemerovo Region-2035: Old Problems and a New Future

A. Yu. Prosekov, E. A. Fedulova, S. A. Kononova, A. O. Rada, T. A. Alabina
Kemerovo State University
Keywords: Кемеровская область, стратегическое планирование, экономическое пространство, диверсификация, человеческий капитал, стратегический анализ, сценарии, стратегические цели, реализация стратегии, Kemerovo region, strategic planning, economic space, diversification, human capital, strategic analysis, scenarios, strategic goals, strategy implementation

Abstract >>
The article describes the strategic positions of the Kemerovo region in the national economic space at the time of a new cycle of strategic planning, assesses the results of the implementation of the previous strategy of the region, calculated before 2025. Formulation of conclusions about the loss of leadership positions of the region, strategic risks of economic reversal and reduction of human capital. The objective necessity of strategic decisions for reaching the trajectory of sustainable development is argued. The process and peculiarities of the development of the Strategy of social and economic development of the Kemerovo region until 2035 are revealed. The main directions and development goals of the Kemerovo region, reflected in the draft Strategy, are presented; the methodology of strategic forecasting of key socio-economic indicators is disclosed. The variants of development are highlighted and the formulated strategic vision of the future region is shown. The mechanisms for implementing the Strategy, opportunities and risks are described. The key innovative drivers of economic and social development acceleration (neo-industrialization, introduction of digital technologies in agro-industrial complex, foreign tourism, export of medical services) are determined.

Small Business and Non-Oil Exports

I. A. Kudryashova, E. N. Balaganskaya, L. I. Voronina
Russian University of Economics named after G. V. Plekhanov, Kemerovo
Keywords: Экспортный потенциал региона, внешняя торговля, несырьевой неэнергетический экспорт, «экологоемкость» регионального экспорта, бизнес-миграция МСП, Export potential of the region, foreign trade, non-resource non-energy exports, «environmental intensity» of regional exports, business migration of SMEs

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of the study of the dynamics, commodity and geographical structure of exports of the Kemerovo region in the light of all-Russian comparisons over the past five years. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the commodity structure of non-commodity exports as a factor of qualitative improvement of the export structure and strengthening the position of the region in foreign markets. The characteristics of the non-oil export of the Kuzbass in comparison with other subjects of the Siberian Federal district. The analysis of problems, risks and factors hindering the dynamic growth of non-oil exports of Kuzbass by small and medium-sized enterprises in the context of increasing business migration to other regions of Russia. The findings suggest that the dynamics of non-oil exports of Kuzbass not only repeats the all-Russian growth trend, but also overtakes some groups of goods, while maintaining the raw orientation. Small business when entering foreign markets of non-raw materials products is experiencing significant problems and needs support.

Coal Resources of Kuzbass as a Factor in the Choice of Industry Development Strategy

A. I. Kopytov1, S. V. Shaklein2,3
1T. F. Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technical University SB RAS, Kemerovo
2Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, Kemerovo
3Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry SB RAS
Keywords: Кузбасс, стратегия развития, угольная отрасль, запасы угля, технологии добычи, экология, лицензирование, Kuzbass, development strategy, coal industry, coal reserves, mining technologies, ecology, licensing

Abstract >>
The authors show that the development of open-cast coal, primarily coking, mining is delimited by a horizon period of 20-30 years, and in order to increase production, it is necessary to develop new underground mining technologies, oriented towards the development of reserves, which are now considered low-tech. According to the authors, the coal mining development program should include an assessment of the “ecological coal-mining capacity” of the region a) according to the degree of influence of existing enterprises and b) the consequences arising after their abandonment (closure). In order to stimulate mineral developers to an innovative solution of technological and environmental problems, it is proposed to switch to preferential use of a competitive form of granting the right to use mineral resources in the region, with the inclusion of requirements for the development and implementation of new mining technologies in the competitive conditions.

The Innovative Potential оf the Kemerovo Region: Structure, Status

L. N. Starikova1, L. S. Sagdeeva2
1Russian university of Economics after G. V. Plekhanov, Kemerovo
2Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo
Keywords: ресурсодобывающие регионы, инновационный потенциал региона, инновационность экономики, интегральный показатель инновационного потенциала, Innovation, innovation potential of a region, innovation economy, the integral indicator of innovative potential

Abstract >>
The article considers components of innovation potential of the Kemerovo region. It proposes the integral indicator to evaluate innovation potential of regions in Siberian Federal District. It presents indicators for each component of innovation potential.

Increasing the Retirement Age: Points for and Against

I.V. Shchetinina
Institute of Economics and Industrial Production Organization SB RAS
Keywords: численность населения, продолжительность жизни, смертность, трудоспособный и пенсионный возраст, безработные, занятость, доходы, пенсионная система, Population, life expectancy, mortality, working and retirement age, unem-ployed, employment, income, pension system

Abstract >>
The article provides an argument the need for raising the retirement age and an analysis of the actual socio-economic situation of the Russian population, in-dicating the country’s unpreparedness for reform. The actual life expectancy of the population of the Russian Federation does not match the expected, as well as the duration and standard of living of the population of developed countries. The incidence of residents of many regions of Russia is growing morbidity. The level of actual labor remuneration and, accordingly, the potential amount of pensions not lower than 40% of the salary according to international requirements will not allow for ensuring the necessary quality of life for pensioners. The extension of the retirement age will not fill the lack of qualified personnel in the economy. The ratio of working-age population and pensioners is relatively stable. The neces-sary expenses for the implementation of pension reform may exceed the budget savings from raising the retirement age. It is proposed to introduce a deferral of the entry into force of the adopted law on pension reform and to carry out pur-poseful preparatory work in the system of health care, pension system, economic regulation of prices and tariffs, in other areas. This will allow, when the economy and society will be ready, to return to the question of the need to raise the retire-ment age.

Quality of Corporate Governance in Big Russian Companies: Quantitative Assessment

A. A. Balabin1,2, A. V. Boiko2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
2Novosibirsk State Technical University
Keywords: принципы корпоративного управления, оценка качества управления, российские корпорации, Сбербанк, «Газпром», «ЛУКОЙЛ», Рrinciples of corporate governance, assessing the quality of governance, Russian corporation, Sberbank, Gazprom, LUKOIL

Abstract >>
The best corporate governance practices, summarized in the form of international standards, serve as a means to increase the effective management of major corporations. The article analyzes the implementation of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Principles corporate governance in some major Russian companies. For analysis, the assessment methodology of the corporate governance quality proposed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) is used. The quality of implementing corporate governance standards was comparatively assessed in eight Russian companies. It was checked the implementation of 91 norms, which were grouped into four levels of corporate governance (initial, improved, developed, leadership). Quantitative assessments of the achievement by various large Russian companies of various levels of corporate governance are given. Оnly the initial level of implementation of the standard has been achieved, when mandatory requirements of the current corporate legislation are observed. When moving to more advanced levels, the degree of implementation of corporate norms in all companies is reduced. No correlation was found between the quality of corporate governance and performance indicators of companies.

Carbon Tax and Perspectives of Oil Production in Canada

S. V. Zhukov, S. A. Zolina, I. A. Kopytin, A. O. Maslennikov, M. V. Sinitsyn
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations
Keywords: Канада, нефтедобыча, налог на выбросы парниковых газов, Парижское соглашение по климату, Canada, oil production, tax on greenhouse gas emissions, Paris Agreement on Climate Change

Abstract >>
In October 2016 Canada - the sixth world largest oil producer and the fourth largest oil exporter - ratified Paris Agreement on Climate Change and took unbinding commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 30% below 2005 levels by 2030. The federal carbon pricing backstop from the beginning of 2018 is the main policy tool for GHG emissions reduction. Canada became the second largest oil producer following Norway, who introduced GHG emissions pricing. Considering the increasing risk of mandatory global and/or regional mechanisms of payments for carbon emission introduction Canada decided to give national oil producers and consumers necessary time to get prepared to this risk in a preemptive regime. The aim of the article is to evaluate the impact of carbon pricing on projected oil production in Canada using scenario modelling of oil demand and production. We show first that carbon tax will not considerably impact oil production in Canada. Second, capacity of US oil refining to absorb expanding amounts of heavy Canadian oil as well as the lack of export infrastructure could restrict Canada’s oil production growth.

Self-Employment in Russia: Theoretical Definition, Measurement and Legislative Regulation

P. A. Makeev
National Research University Higher School of Economics
Keywords: самозанятые в России, неформальный рынок труда, законодательное регулирование, легализация самозанятости, Self-employment in Russia, informal labor market, legislative regulation, legalization of self-employed

Abstract >>
The present article makes a point about self-employment in Russia, which still has no conventional definition, nor in scientific literature, nor in legal field. Heterogeneity of self-employed is emphasized by the fact that self-employed are perceived not only as those who demonstrate entrepreneurial behavior but also those who are employed by individuals. Next goes the short history of self-employment legislative regulation in Russia within last five years - from the draft of the patent initiative and special registry up to legislative definition of those who perform self-employment activity.

Science Crowdfunding: Key Motives Тhat Influence Project Participants

M. N. Gordeev
National Research University Higher School of Economics
Keywords: научный краудфандинг, финансирование ученых, мотивация участников, Experiment, Planeta, Science crowdfunding, financing of scientist, motivation of participants, Experiment, Planeta

Abstract >>
Due to limited state resources, allocated for scientific projects in Russia, it is reasonable to consider the attraction of additional financial sources, in particular, via crowdfunding mechanism. The research features specifics of the crowdfunding community: a portrait of an average backer and key motivational factors of the crowdfunding participants. The paper also reveals spheres in which crowdfunding can be applied with the most of efficiency, so that to supplement the existing system of financing science and education in Russia.

Problems of Formation of the National System of Qualifications and Updating of Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education

O. N. Popova
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Lesnoy
Keywords: квалификация, федеральные государственные образовательные стандарты, профессиональные стандарты, ФГОС 3++, национальная система квалификаций, примерная основная образовательная программа, основная профессиональная образовательная программа, демонстрационный квалификационный экзамен, Graduate’s qualification, federal state educational standards, professional standards, FSES3++, national qualification system, approximate basic educational program, basic professional educational program, demonstration of qualification exam

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the tendencies of development of higher education. The article discusses the features of the interface of professional and educational standards, the introduction of a demonstration qualification exam as a final form of practice-oriented learning, the involvement of students in the process WorldSkills Russia.

Secrets and Mysteries of Demographic Statistics

Yu.S. Ershov
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering SB RAS
Keywords: достоверность информации, интерпретация статистических показателей, миграционный прирост, аномалии половозрастной структуры населения, продолжительность жизни, возрастные коэффициенты смертности, Reliability of information, interpretation of statistical indicators, migration growth, anomalies of the sex and age structure of the population, life expectancy, age-specific mortality rates

Abstract >>
Working with statistical indicators often requires additional information to be understood and interpreted correctly. Some data can be considered either a manufacturing defect, or evidence that there was an event close to almost incredible. The article gives examples of such strange indicators and their author`s interpretation.