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2018 year, number 3

1.
D.Y. REZUN AS THE ORGANIZER OF STUDYING THE HISTORY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN PREREVOLUTIONARY SIBERIA

Yu. M. Goncharov1, O. G. Klimova2
1Altay State University, 61 Lenin str., Barnaul, 656049, Russian Federation
2Altay State Technical University, 46 Lenin str., Barnaul, 656038, Russian Federation
Keywords: history, Siberia, historiography, XIX century, personalities, biographies, entrepreneurship, merchants, scientific school

Abstract >>
Studying the entrepreneurship as a research area in the national historiography has long been devoted to studying the bourgeoisie, and started to develop as a history of entrepreneurship and merchants only in the recent decades. The revision of the theoretical and methodological foundations of the historical studies of entrepreneurship enabled historians to begin studying new interesting research directions. The paper objective is to examine scientific heritage of Dmitry Yakovlevich Rezun, Doctor of Historical Sciences, the famous scientist and organizer of studying the entrepreneurship history in prerevolutionary Siberia. The article presents a historiographical analysis of scientific works of D. Ya. Rezun, as well as contemporary Russian authors’ papers devoted to his life and activity. D. Ya. Rezun went all the way from the senior laboratory assistant to the head of the Department of History of the late XVI - early XIX centuries at the Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He contributed a lot to studying and organizing the research of the Siberian entrepreneurship history in pre-revolutionary Siberia. It is possible to state the scholar’s numerous publications, genre variety of his works huge extension of source base, new methodological approaches. D. Ya. Rezun organized publication of such unique works on the entrepreneurship history in pre-revolutionary Siberia as “The brief encyclopedia on the history of Siberian merchants and commerce”, “The encyclopedic dictionary on the history of Siberian merchants and commerce”. The historian published more than a thousand scientific works including more than twenty monographs. No doubt that D. Ya. Rezun did a lot to develop historical science in Siberia and Russia, played a significant role in editing collected works, preparing conferences on the history of pre-revolutionary Siberia.



2.
SIBERIAN MERCHANTRY FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF WESTERN EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

E. V. Komleva
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: foreign historiography, development of the North-East of Eurasia, Siberian merchantry, way of life, fur trade, Russian-Chinese economic relationship, interaction with the state

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the views of Western European and American authors on Siberian merchantry and its role in the economic and socio-cultural development of North-Eastern Eurasia. The first sketches of the lives of Siberian merchants and colorful characteristics of individual members of this stratum of society came from the pen of the foreign travelers of the second half of the XVII - the early XX century. In the XX century the foreign researchers focused on the issues related to the movement of Russia to the East, the participation of entrepreneurs in this process, the development of Russian-Chinese economic relations and fur trade in the North Pacific region. The interest in these topics is also characteristic of modern English-language historiography. Of particular importance is the recently published work of American researcher Erica Monahan, dedicated to the Siberian merchants of the late XVI-XVIII century. Using the examples of merchant dynasties of different regional and ethnic origin operating in Siberia the author considers the conditions of functioning of merchant capital in the territory of the region, interaction of businessmen with central and local authorities. E. Monaghan draws attention to the flexibility of the Russian government towards the participants of the process of development of new Siberian territories. Inscribing the Russian realities of the late XVI-XVIII centuries in a broader context, the author considers trade as the main mechanism by which the Russian government sought to assert its influence in Asia. In general, while assessing the genesis of capitalist relations in Russia, foreign researchers noted the dominant role of the state in the economy, the desire of power structures to control as much as possible the actions of private entrepreneurs. A characteristic feature of the works of foreign researchers is the desire to present the processes in a global context, to identify the place and importance of Russia in the development of the world economy.



3.
THE PERSONAL AFFAIR OF V.B. ELTSIN, A COMMUNIST (SEPTEMBER 1927-FEBRUARY 1928)

V.I. Shishkin
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: V.B. Eltsin, Siberian party organization, Sibkraicom of AUCP(b), intraparty struggle, discussion, opposition, trotskyism, faction, control commission, political practices

Abstract >>
The aim of this paper is understanding political practices, which were used by the leadership of AUCP(b) in the struggle against intraparty opposition in the mid -1920s. The determination of institutes and “technologies” (instruments, mechanisms and methods), used by Stalin’s majority of the ruling Communist party against its opponents, will permit to get a more complete and objective idea about the state of the political sphere of the Soviet society of that time and the trends of its development, the political culture of different factions of the Bolshevik party, about the causes of the victory won by I.V. Stalin and his supporters over the opposition. The object of research is the Bolshevik-oppositionist Victor Eltsin, the subject of research is his political behavior and the arsenal of methods, used by the party leadership against him. Victor Eltsin was chosen as the subject and object of the research due to two reasons. Firstly, he was a son of B.M. Eltsin, who belonged to the thin layer of Bolsheviks, who were considered to be “the old party guard”; secondly, Victor Eltsin was a bright representative of a young generation of Bolsheviks, who had shown his worth during the revolution, the civil war and the first half of NEP, due to which he was known among the party elite and wide communist environment. The methodology is based on double reflection, where a retrospective research strategy of a biographical method is combined with the strategy of case study. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that three repressive measures were used against Eltsin: at the end of September of 1927 a temporary assignment by way of party discipline (in fact - an exile) from Moscow to Siberia; in the middle of November - the expulsion from the rows of AUCP(b) based on the charge in faction anti-party activity; in January of 1928 - an administrative exile to Ust-Vym of the autonomous region Komi (Zyrian). Since the autumn of 1927 the above mentioned repressive measures began to play a less important role in the arsenal of political practices, used by Stalin’s leadership of AUCP(b).



4.
URBAN POPULATION DYNAMICS IN RUSSIA DURING THE WORLD WAR II (BASED ON ASSESSMENTS OF TSSU OF THE USSR)

V. A. Isupov
Institute of History SB RAS, 8 Ak. Nikolayeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: population size, population, statistics, registration, dynamics, city, working settlement, war, occupation, rear area

Abstract >>
There is a statement in the modern scientific literature that one of the main socio-economic processes of the twentieth century is urbanization. In our opinion, it’s not far from the truth. The development of a network of urban settlements became possible only because of the rapid growth of the industrial economy, development of transport routes, trade and culture. Urbanization, as is known, is interpreted in two aspects. In the broadest sense of the word urbanization means the formation of the urban way of life, the transformation of the social psychology of the resident of the city, the emergence of a new cultural environment. In the narrow sense of the word urbanization is the growth of the urban population, an increase in the proportion of urban residents in the population, the expansion of the network of urban settlements.This article considers the poorly studied problem of urban population dynamics in the RSFSR during the World War II. While the size of urban population in certain regions of the country in 1939-1945 is determined, the urban population dynamics on the national level remains beyond the attention of scientists, though there is a large number of works devoted to the problems of historical demography and historical urbanistics. Meanwhile, the question of population change, including urban, is extremely important. It is not only a significant indicator of social and economic and demographic development, but an important criterion of both direct and human losses. Besides, data on the population in the war years are used for determining the military and labor mobilization resources, for calculations of the parameters of natural and mechanical movement of the population. So, the problem formulated in the article is one of the fundamental problems of historical demography. The article reveals specific indicators of population size in cities and in rear areas as well as in the occupied territories. A lot of attention is paid to source-study aspects of the problem



5.
THE ROLE OF SIBERIA IN THE USSR INDUSTRIAL MODERNIZATION

A.I. Timoshenko
Institute of history SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: Siberia, industrial modernization, state policy, economic development, industrial programs, military-defense complex

Abstract >>
The article objective is to identify main problems related to Siberia’s economic development peculiarities in the Soviet period. The research is necessary to reveal the historical experience of Siberia’s industrial development as the rear region of the USSR rich in natural and mineral resources. The paper’s problematic field includes the phased implementation of industrial programs in the Siberian region territory. The first program was the Ural-Kuznetsk project which laid the foundations for Siberia’s industrial development in the 1930s. As the project’s implementation result, hundreds enterprises were evacuated to the region from the western part of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The article emphasizes the events of Siberia’s industrial modernization in the post-war period as well, when implementation of the industrial programs continued in the region. In the post-war years, all endeavors of the prewar and military periods were further developed. The state strategy aimed exclusively at increasing the industrial potential of eastern regions, including Siberia. In the 1950s-1960s, energy, mining, non-ferrous metallurgy and wood chemistry, pulp-paper and other industries developed rapidly in the region. The average annual growth rate of the gross industrial output was higher in Siberia than in the USSR as a whole. In the post-war period, the military-strategic goals of Siberia’s industrial modernization remained. Plans to create new weapons types, including nuclear ones, were realized under conditions of unfolding the «cold war». The military-defense complex of the region significantly increased in such circumstances. In Siberia during the «cold war», new enterprises were built in various branches of the military-defense industry: nuclear, rocket-space, electronic, which produced the newest weapons, including rocket and missile equipment. The author concludes that the main factor of Siberia economic development was industrial modernization, which determined the state’s attitude towards the region.



6.
KORMCHAJA KNIGA IN THE SYSTEM OF BOOK AUTHORITIES OF THE OLD BELIEVERS

N.S. Guryanova
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: 17th century, Russian Orthodox Church, reform, schism, Solovetsky monastery, monk Gerontij, handwritten collection, Kormchaja kniga

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of the analysis of the handwritten collection in order to represent how the printed edition of Kormchaja kniga, carried out in 1653 by Patriarch Nikon, was included in the system of book authorities of the Old Believers. Attention is drawn to the fact that the first generation of opponents of the church reform, proving the illegality of the changes introduced into the rite and the liturgical practice of the Russian Orthodox Church, relied, first of all, on authoritative manuscripts and early printed books. Kormchaja kniga as a collection of church canons, Slavic and Russian laws, of course, was used by the first generation of defenders of the Old Belief. References to this book attached significance to any given argument. The collection compiled by the monk Gerontij from Solovetsky monastery (Russian State Library, Egorov, No. 706) provided an opportunity to understand how the author proved the authority of the printed edition of Kormchaja kniga. Of course, Gerontij, first of all, drew attention to the hand-written version from the library of Solovetsky Monastery. He used this manuscript in all cases, when he found the fragment he needed. Analysis of the text of the first part of the collection made it possible to trace how the author gradually convinced the readers, that Kormchaja kniga is the authoritative source. Quoting from the manuscript, Gerontij noticed on the field that in printed version the reader will find a similar text. Gerontij proved the authority of the publication due to the fact that some needed fragments were absent in manuscript. Quotations from the print edition, when it was possible, were accompanied by the parallel texts from an ancient manuscript. It is concluded that Gerontij introduced the printed edition into the circle of authoritatives. It was necessary for him to strengthen his position. The reference to Kormchaja kniga was realized in the 17th century as an unconditional authority, because this text was authoritative both in canonical and historical aspects.



7.
SELF-IDENTIFICATION OF THE LEADER OF THE RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY IN THE WRITINGS OF ANDREI DENISOV

O.D. Zhuravel1,2
1Institute of History SB RAS, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, RF
2Novosibirsk State University, 1 Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090, RF
Keywords: Old Believers, Vyg, Andrei Denisov, literary culture, positioning, image, rhetorical strategies

Abstract >>
The article deals with the methods of positioning and communicative strategies of the leader of the largest Old Believer’s center in Vyg Andrei Denisov (1674-1730). The author focuses on the rich handwritten heritage of Andrei Denisov, which became part of the book culture of the Old Believers of a later time, and his image was sacralized. The Vyg founders succeeded in building their own cultural and ideological center inside the empire, a so called state of its own. The role of Andrei Denisov in this process was the most important. At the beginning of the 18th centuries Andrei Denisov was the ideological leader of Russian spiritual traditionalism, which opposins the tendencies of Westernization, which were characteristic of the Russian Empire. A unique literary culture of Vyg was born as early as the 18th century. It was based on ancient literary and spiritual traditions and the modern ideas of European Baroque. The genre of sermon showed its creative potential by appearing in new forms and using the Baroque rhetoric. A preacher of the Vyg Andrei Denisov aimed at creating exceptionally high quality sermons. Andrei Denisov, dealing with the problems of the pustyn’ (hermitage) building, holding the debate and dealing with urgent everyday problems, found time to write a lot of sermons and messages as he fully realized the importance and effectiveness of the sermon word. The article reconstructs self-identification and ways of forming the image of the leader of a large religious community, reveals the techniques used by Andrei Denisov for successful communication within the community, establishes their connection with the baroque literary culture. Experts in the field of political image among other characteristics of a successful political leader called the “legend”. The “legend” of Andrei Denisov based on the eschatological theory of the “spiritual antichrist”, which has taken possession of the outside world, is being restored from the totality of his writings.



8.
CORRESPONDENCE OF THE PUBLICISTS AS AN EXPERIENCE OF FORMING INTELLECTUAL IDENTITY IN MUSCOVIA OF XVI CENTURY

L.I. Zhurova
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolayeva str., Novosibirsk, 63090, Russian Federation
Keywords: messages, journalism of the XVI century, Maxim Grek, Fedor Ivanovich Karpov, Metropolitan Daniel, intellectual identity

Abstract >>
The popularity and relevance of letters in XVI century publicism resulted from the fact that during the establishment stage of the Russian autocracy the word became an effective tool for defending opinions, ideas and conceptions. Letters as an epistolary genre transformed into a correspondence between famous people of elite communities - civil and religious. The most peculiar thing in its history is that most of provocative letters did not survive to nowadays. The contacts between Maximus the Greek and Fedor Karpov were documented by the correspondence which transformed from personal communication into the fact of political and church life, and a mark of mental strivings and ideological trends of the epoch. The analysis of correspondence concerning the acquaintance of two vivid personalities has shown that the mutual understanding was based on the correlation of inner world parameters of an educated monk and a man of education at Muscovia court. Disagreements and reconciliations, quarrels and understanding are represented in the correspondence of publicists, which preserved the memory of individual personalities. Dialogues between Maximus the Greek and Fedor Karpov were rich in topical issues (discussion of theological doctrine about a Sacred Trinity, the role of predictive astrology). Despite the friendly relationships, they often polemicized. Clear position of Saint Paisios, systematic representation of facts, deep knowledge of the object of discussion and the affective tone of utterance were food for Russian diplomat’s thoughts. Treating a word as a cure is one of the dominant features of Maximus the Greek and Fedor Karpov’s identity. Both publicists in their letters to Metropolitan Daniel independently of each other took the position of “native” - “non-native”. Closeness of views and positions of Maximus the Greek and Fedor Karpov upon the question of truth and justice in the society organization, similarity of intentions to support the monarchy, tendency to utopian projects of government political organization, and humanist approach to the solution of several social issues altogether comprise a characteristic field of group intellectual identity of publicists in XVI century. From the point of view of dynamic relations, both personalities took leading positions in the correspondence, and their common efforts produced rules and regulations of Muscovia intellectual elite identification in the first half of XVI century.



9.
EVFIMIY CHUDOVSKY AS AN INTELLECTUAL LEADER OF THE CHURCH WRITERS COMMUNITY IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XVII CENTURY

T.V. Panich
Institute of History SB RAS, 8 Nikolaev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: written culture, XVII century, writers of the patriarchal circle, Evfimiy Chudovsky, intellectual leader

Abstract >>
The issue of “intellectual leadership” is particularly interesting among actual problems of the historical science and culture. In the context of the “intellectual leadership” problem the article investigates the personality and literary activity of Monk Evfimiy of Chudov monastery, a representative of Russian written culture of the second half of the XVII century, who was involved into the creative community of writers from the Patriarch circle. The study objective is to establish the features of interpersonal relationships within the group of his associates, to reveal the features characterizing Evfimiy as an intellectual leader, to determine the specifics of the writer’s ideological and spiritual influence on the milieu based on the analysis of Evfimiy Chudovsky’s own texts and writings of his close authors. Studying the materials reveals the main qualities characterizing Evfimiy Chudovsky as an intellectual leader: intellect, erudition, profound knowledge in the field of book culture, organizational skills, a high level of social consciousness and responsibility, etc. The way of Evfimiy Chudovsky’s effect on milieu was a word that had a large weight in the context of the writer’s polemic discourse. The texts of Evfimiy and his contemporary testimonies show that the writer’s ideological influence was not only limited to the creative circle, to which he belonged and whose rights and interests he expressed and defended, it also extended to the broad masses of the population. Each Evfimiy’s work reflected his active participation in the discussion of the contemporary urgent problems; high emotional intensity of his statements in defense of Orthodoxy and traditional bases of national culture - all this influenced his surroundings. The main merit of Evfimiy Chudovsky is that he reflected a complex of ideas and values that formed the basis of cultural concept of writers of his circle, the foundation for the group’s socio-cultural identity. All this characterizes Evfimiy Chudovsky as an intellectual leader of the church writers’ community of the second half of the XVII century.



10.
ON THE HISTORY OF STUDYING S.P. KRASHENINNIKOV’S MATERIALS: PROBLEMS, DISCUSSIONS, NEW INFORMATION AND INTERPRETATIONS

I.A. Shipilov
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, A. Nikolayev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: S. P. Krasheninnikov, Second Kamchatka Expedition, G.F. Müller, Siberia exploration history, «Description of Kamchatka Land», «On Sable Hunting», travel notes and diaries

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to comparative study of geographic, ethnographic, natural science, science research and other papers and materials, including those not introduced to scientific circulation, by S. P. Krasheninnikov, an outstanding Russian scientist, participant of the Second Kamchatka Expedition, as well as relevant research literature. As a result, it has filled main gaps in historiography, corrected inaccuracies, and proposed reasoned solutions for debated topical issues. Based on comprehensive analysis of «Description of Kamchatka Land», Krasheninnikov’s travel notes, diaries and reports the author adds new information about travels and research conducted by this member of the Second Kamchatka Expedition, corrects misconceptions on routes of his travels in Siberia and Far East, clarifies his scientific biography and indicates his priority in investigations and description of some geographic objects. Concerning the history of studying ethnography materials by Krasheninnikov, the issue of his role in ethnology development is less highlighted, but it is significant as shown in this paper. Besides, the article points the prospects to research ethnolinguistic data by S.P. Krasheninnikov and his expedition colleagues (adjunct G.W. Steller and student A.P. Gorlanov), as well as scientific potential of work «On sable hunting» as a source for historical, biological and ecological research. The major research finding is a reasoned conclusion that Professor G.F. Müller and student Krasheninnikov had good professional and personal relationships during the Second Kamchatka Expedition. Due to the active participation of Professor of history in his student’s scientific and educational development the latter became a universal scientist, including science theorist, who described and explained the benefit of applying a historical and interdisciplinary approaches in science in the mid-XVIII century. Many Krasheninnikov’s papers remain scientifically relevant in the XXI century despite the illusion that they have been well studied.



11.
FROM THE EPISTOLARY HERITAGE OF THE SOVIET PERIOD OF LIFE OF P.I. MAKUSHIN, A SIBERIAN EDUCATOR

S.G. Petrov
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: P.I. Makushin, V.D. Wegman, G.N. Potanin, letters, Bolsheviks, culture, Tomsk, Siberia

Abstract >>
Understanding the principles of biographical research received a powerful theoretical and methodological impetus in modern historiography, which resulted in emergence of such concepts as a “new biographical history” and “personal history”. Within the framework of these new approaches, personal texts (diaries, letters, memoirs, and autobiographies) are recognized as the principle research objects, while the individual history of people’s lives in all the diversity of their constituent aspects, including the surrounding society study, becomes the subject matter. A particular difficulty is posed by poor preservation of the above-mentioned historical sources. That is why it is so important to work with personal archives, with all the variety of documents in them. Even partially preserved memoirs and epistolary sources are taken into account as they allow the researcher to reveal, even if fragmentarily, individual biographies of people. This research is focused on the empirical solution to the named problems of modern biography studies. This article considers the scarcely explored Soviet period of life of the well-known Siberian educator P. I. Makushin (1844-1926). The focus is on his epistolary heritage, i. e. P. I. Makushin’s letters to V. D. Vegman, a prominent Bolshevik cultural figure of Soviet Siberia, as well as on other private messages from the latter’s personal archive mentioning the name of the Siberian educator and addressed to P. I. Makushin. This research deals with a gamut of problems reflected in the epistolary documents; specifies the circle of persons representing Tomsk intellectual community of the time close to both P.I. Makushin and V. D. Vegman; identifies the configurations of interpersonal interaction within the community; reveals features of evolution of relationships between the Siberian enlightener and the oldest Bolshevik of Siberia.



12.
I.D. SYTIN AND THE BOLSHEVIK PUBLISHING HOUSE OF I.P. LADYZHNIKOW: THE HISTORY OF RELATIONSHIPS

A.O. Anisimov
State Public Scientific and Technical Library SB RAS, 15 Voskhod str., Novosibirsk, 630200, Russian Federation
Keywords: publishing business, I.D. Sytin, A.M. Gorky, I.P. Ladyzhnikov, RSDRP(b), Ladyzhnikow Verlag, Ladyzhnikov Publishing House, B.N. Rubinstein’s archive, International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam

Abstract >>
The article deals with the economic aspects of the Bolshevik Publishing House of I. Ladyzhnikov (I. Ladyschnikow Verlag, G.m.b.H) in Berlin. It emphasizes that in addition to propaganda functions, the Publishing House’s important task was to receive profits for the party needs. The author draws on the earlier known facts explaining the reasons to create the publishing house and its location abroad related to the possibility of controlling foreign publications of Russian authors (primarily Maxim Gorky, who made generous donations for the Bolshevik party). The paper studies the history of involving Ivan D. Sytin, a major Russian entrepreneur and book publisher, into the publishing house activity. The author analyzes various literary sources for a possible connection of Sytin with the leftist publishers in different historical periods. The conclusion is made that there is no documentary evidence confirming Sytin and Ladyzhnikov’s Publishing House cooperation. The author studied the documents found at the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam, which made it possible to document the fact of Sytin’s joining the Publishing House of I. Ladyzhnikov as a shareholder and establish his share in it. It is concluded that the collaboration of both I.D. Sytin and the Bolshevik party had a pragmatic character based on the analysis of previously unknown documents. The Bolsheviks received money from the Russian publisher used for the party needs, and Sytin got a reliable mechanism to distribute book products abroad through the Bolshevik publishing house. The article shows a special role of Maxim Gorky in attracting I.D. Sytin to cooperate with the Russian Social-Democratic party; as well as Sytin’s cautious attitude to Ladyzhnikov as Gorky’s confidant and his attempts to get a direct contact with the writer without any negotiators. It describes Sytin’s prerevolutionary contacts with the Bolsheviks and their effect on his last years of life in Soviet Russia.



13.
SIBERIAN CHILDREN’S BOOK PUBLISHING IN 1991-2008: FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT

E.V. Engalycheva (Bulgakova)
F. M. Dostoevsky Omsk State University, 55A, Mira str., Omsk, 644077, Russian Federation
Keywords: periods, periodization, book publishing, publishers, books for children, children’s literature, trends, specific features, Siberia

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to understanding the historical periods, post-Soviet tendencies of the children’s book market segment of the late ÕÕ - early XXI centuries. The principle of historicism made it possible to comprehensively consider the conditions of the children’s book development, its fundamental role in the book culture of Russia and Siberia in particular. Using a formal-logical, comparative historical and structural-typological methods contributed to subdividing the contemporary history of regional children’s book publishing into 4 main stages, identifying cause-and-effect relations in studying the specific features of the Siberian children’s book publishing in interrelation with the logics and development trends of publishing in Russia at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. An analytical method revealed the reasons of the children’s books’ flow development, “ups” and “downs” of children’s literature release, market leaders. Reconstruction of the domestic publishing system, changes in the economic- financial system, closure of the specialized children’s publishing houses led to shifting traditional leaders in the children’s literature edition both in the center of the country and in its regions. Many small and medium-sized private and mixed publishing houses releasing literature for adults and children appeared. Specialized book business giants of Moscow and St. Petersburg publishing children’s books for Russian regions appeared in 1991-2008. Functions of specialized children’s publishing houses in the Siberian region were taken over by the editorial offices of children’s magazines, which published unique serial issues of literature for children; publishing houses of universities, producing educational literature for primary and secondary schools, as well as various publishing and printing complexes. Specific features of publication of children’s literature at the turn of the XX-XXI century included: high circulation of works of classical Soviet and foreign literature, fairy-tale works, educational publications; low number of published children’s works of regional authors; appearance on the market of religious, reference and popular science literature and publications for leisure. For the first time in the Siberian region new forms of children’s books were be published: book-toys, coloring books. Problems of children’s book publishing included the lack of support for regional authors, lack of targeted support for local publishing houses that produce children’s literature. All this influences the development of the regional book space and the availability of children’s literature



14.
THE STATUS OF NON-STATE BOOK PUBLISHING IN THE RUSSIAN REGIONS AS AN OBSTACLE ON THE WAY TO THE INFORMATION SOCIETY (BASED ON MATERIALS FROM SIBERIA AND THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST AT THE END OF THE XX - EARLY XXI CENTURIES)

A.L. Posadskov
State Public Scientific and Technical Library SB RAS, 15, Voskhod str, Novosibirsk, 630200, Russian Federation
Keywords: information society (knowledge society), information, publishing business, private book publishing, Siberia, Russian Far East, late XX - early XXI centuries, reforms, market economy

Abstract >>
The information society (knowledge society) formation based on free creation, dissemination and use of information implies broad development of non-state information processes, including private book publishing practice. In the regions of Russia (Siberia and the Far East), private publishing houses, however, today face numerous objective and subjective problems of their development caused primarily by the situation in regional economy and social sphere. The most important role is played by a small density of population in the territories (and this is an obstacle to create book-publishing products’ market), as well as a low purchasing capacity of the impoverished population. The regional publishers partly compensate the lack of space for the book market by the increased flow of ordered publications and, as far as possible, involving sponsors to print certain books. Many publishers starting out as “ideological” or “cultural” foci, with a correspondingly targeted original repertoire, nowadays replicate only ordered printed products without tracking its contents. The private capital, as a rule, evades sponsorship of regional book publishing, main hopes of the local publishers are related to the authorities, territorial administration organs and legislative assemblies. They are constantly asked to help, but only few richest regions sponsor publishing initiatives regularly. The indicated obstacles to develop the regional book business become more noticeable the further a particular region is fr om the country center, wh ere resources and financial flows, and relatively high-income consumers of book products are concentrated. The current situation raises the issue on adapting the regional publishing business to the requirements of the future information environment. The market itself does not elaborate a development strategy. Without a reasonably formulated state strategy, it is a disorderly movement of the subjects of the publishing process based on the conjuncture of their current activities. It seems that there will be a long period of purposeful influence of the developing civil society in Russia aimed at raising the existing book business up to the standards of the knowledge society.



15.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE KAZAKH SOCIETY JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY

I.V. Anisimova
Altay State University, 61 Lenina Str., Barnaul, 656049, Russian Federation
Keywords: Russian Empire, Kazakhstan, judicial system, People’s Court, customary law, reform, integration, incorporation, modernization

Abstract >>
The article analyzes development of the Kazakh society’s judicial and legal system in the first half of the XIX century. The necessity to integrate the region into the general imperial space led to carrying out a broad range of reforms that resulted in transformation of the potestary-patriarchal relations and Kazakh society’s traditional social institutions. An important component of Russia’s policy was the transformation of the judicial and legal system of Kazakhstan, whose formation took place in the first half of the XIX century. The study objective is to determine features of Kazakh society’s judicial system during the examined period and to identify its efficiency degree based on complex points of the frontier modernization and neoinstitutionalism theory and involving new documentary sources. The state policy of the Russian Empire in the Central Asian national outskirts was aimed at “soft” integration of the nomadic community into the general imperial legal space. This resulted in slow “transplantation” into region of the judicial imperial elements and preservation of traditional court on adat basis. This concept was reflected in main bills of the first half of the XIX century concerning the studied region: “The Charter on Siberian Kirghizs” 1822, “Regulations to manage Orenburg Kirghizs” 1844, “Regulations to manage Semipalatinsk Region” and subsequent orders of 1854. The status of a people’s court in the regional legal system caused disputes, whose jurisdictions were quite broad despite the limitations imposed by reforming. Regional and central authorities admitted the incompleteness and functional inefficiency of this option of the judicial system and discussed necessity of its reorganization through unification with the Imperial legal space.



16.
STATUTORY BASIS OF THE FIRST HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS MANAGEMENT IN SIBERIA

A.V. Blinov
Kemerovo State University, 6 Red str., Kemerovo, 650000, Russian Federation
Keywords: Siberia, university, technological institute, charter, council, meeting, rector, trustee

Abstract >>
Despite the active expansion of educational institutions’ types and kinds in the Russian Empire in the XIX century, a universal legislative act defining the organization principles of the management and control system was not developed. The statutes and directives regulated educational institutions activity (including the higher ones). At the same time, while the common imperial charters were developed for the universities, such practice was not applied to technical higher educational institutions. The late XIX century was marked by the beginning of the typological diversification of higher educational institutions in Siberia that singled out two higher school types: a classical university and a technological institute. The legislative acts adopted earlier, imperial analogues - “The General Charter of Imperial Russian Universities” (1884), “Regulation on Kharkov Practical Technological Institute” (1885) - became the normative documents determining the statutory foundations of the newly established higher education institutes activity. This paper objective is an attempt to reveal the correlation degree between the statutory documents regulating the activity of the first higher educational institutions in Siberia and general imperial counterparts available at that time. The regulatory documentation analysis showed that while Tomsk Technological Institute received originally developed regulations (adapted “Regulations on Kharkov Practical Technological Institute”), then the extension of “General Charter of the Imperial Russian Universities”, the Tomsk Imperial University required a transitional period, due to the fact that the University consisted only of the medical faculty. The comparative analysis of regulatory documentation by typological and territorial criteria allows concluding on similarity of management model principles (administrative positions and bodies, competences range, forms of accountability), which facilitated not only monitoring an educational institution, but its interacting with territorial and central bodies of educational authorities as well.



17.
GROWTH OF HOUSING STOCK IN INDUSTRIAL REGIONS OF KUZBASS (1922-1928)

D.P. Sarin
State Budget Educational Institution “School No. 950”, 26À, Dekabristy str., Moscow, 127273, Russian Federation
Keywords: housing crisis, housing construction in Kuzbass, miners, coal industry, Kuzbasstrest, autonomous industrial colony “Kuzbass”, Kuzbassugol trust, Sibugol trust

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The article highlights the situation in terms of housing a population in Kuzbass industrial centers and fighting the housing crisis in 1922-1928. The author used a problematic-chronological method that made it possible to trace the process of meeting housing needs of the working population in Kuzbass as well as housing construction of large coal trusts during NEP (New Economic Policy). Based on archival sources, the author analyzed housing stock, revealed the periods characterizing the approaches to fighting the housing crisis, identified funds for housing, as well as noted harsh living conditions of workers in Kuzbass mine settlements and towns. In 1922-1925, the housing stock growth took place due to limited housing construction, in which temporary houses, poorly adapted to local climatic conditions prevailed. At the same time, the population outflow from the mine settlements was observed, that had a positive effect on housing indicators of working people. 1926-1928 was marked by the revival of housing construction of apartment-type houses and private construction, as a result of loan money received by Kuzbassugol and Kuzbasstrast enterprises from the Central Bank for Communal Services and Housing. There were about 265,000 m² of living space at the disposal of industrial enterprises by October 01, 1928 as a whole, which showed doubling the housing stock of industrial Kuzbass. In total, before the first five-year plan about 36 thousand people or 62 % of the population in industrial regions were provided with housing. The author concluded that growth of the housing stock during NEP improved workers living conditions of Kuzbass industrial enterprises, had a positive impact on stabilization of the miners’ personnel, but did not allow to overcome the housing crisis the aggravated miners’ turnover in coal mines.



18.
LIVESTOCK STATE FARMS OF SIBERIA IN 1929-1934

A.A. Plyasulya
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: Soviet state agrarian policy, collectivization, state farms, agriculture, livestock production, Siberia

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The article deals with the issues of the organization and work of livestock-breeding state farms in Siberia in 1929-1934. Specialized state farms had to make a significant contribution to solve food and raw material problems in the USSR. Until 1932 the number of farms and their land use increased. State farms did not justify expectations laid upon them by the Soviet authorities. The cattle productivity was less than in individual farms and collective farms. But the main problem for the authorities was the high cost of production and, accordingly, its low profitability. In 1933 the program of state-farm construction was closed up. The reorganization of livestock-breeding state farms began, which was reduced mainly to the disaggregation and expansion of specialization. Optimization of the state farm network did not lead to overcoming the negative phenomena in the livestock sector of state farms.