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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2018 year, number 2

ETHNO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES IN KHAKASSIA OF THE LATE XX - EARLY XXI CENTURIES

V.N. Tuguzhekova
Khakass Research Institute of Language, Literature and History, 23, Shchetinkin str., Abakan, 655017, Russian Federation
Keywords: Хакасия, население, хакасы, миграция, рождаемость, заболеваемость, смертность, адаптация, Khakassia, inhabitants, Khakass, migration, reform, population, birth rate, morbidity, mortality, adaptation

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to analyze main indicators of ethno-demographic processes in Khakassia in the XX-XXI centuries: Khakass population number, their birth and death rates. The article reveals the factors that led to the change in the ethnic composition of the region. In particular, great attention is paid to migrations, which have changed the ratio of the national composition and significantly reduced the share of the Khakass in the total population of Khakassia. The author examines the issue of the external, labor migration effect on the population formation as a new phenomenon of social-economic development of national regions in Siberia. The author analyzes main trends of ethno-demographic processes in 1990s and identifies 3 groups of migrants. It is proved that the Kyrgyz prevail among labor migrants in Khakassia. The author reveals the reasons for the excess of mortality over the birth rate in the late 1980s - early 1990s, studying main diseases among the Khakass population, which influenced the reduction of life expectancy. The study of ethno-demographic processes in Khakassia in the late XX - early XXI centuries led to conclusion, on the one hand, about the advanced rates of the population growth in Khakassia during the Soviet period in comparison with the rest of the country and, on the other hand, about much lower growth of the Khakass population compared with the Tuvinians and the Altaians. The characteristic feature in the Soviet period was the region’s rapid industrial development, which led to the large migration flow and population growth. The share of the indigenous ethnic group decreased from 75 % (1924) to 11 % (1989). The liberal reforms of the 1990s had a negative impact on the ethnic group’s state. The collapse of the Soviet Union and reforms in Russia changed the political and socio-economic situation. Economic problems became extremely acute. The process of depopulation, especially among the Khakass, started. In 1989 the average life expectancy of the Khakass was 64 years - 5 years less than that of the total population of Khakassia. The death rate of the Khakass men was significantly higher than that of the other men living in the region. Adaptation of the population to the changed conditions took place only in the early 2000s. There was a natural increase in the population due to the birth rate and labor migration. Some changes occurred in the structure of the migration process. Representatives of indigenous nationalities of the CIS countries started prevailing among the migrants in Khakassia.