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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2018 year, number 2

DWELLING CONSTRUCTION AMONG THE POPULATION OF URIL CULTURE, THE EARLY IRON AGE, PRIAMURYE

S.P. Nesterov
Institute of Archeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Aсad. Lavrentiev av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Keywords: Приамурье, урильская культура, домостроительство, традиция, большие, средние и малые жилища, Priamurye, Uril culture, house-building, tradition, large, medium and small dwellings

Abstract

Housing construction in archaeological materials of the Uril culture in the Priamurye is currently documented as 21 dwellings in the scientific literature. The article objective is to reveal the dynamics of the Uril culture housing construction. An analysis of their constructive features makes it possible to draw some conclusions about the house-building tradition of the population, and the basic trends in its development. The dominating form for all dwellings is a frame-and-pillars structure with the presence of a pit, sometimes more than one meter in depth, mostly from 50 to 90 cm. The appearance of the rectangular and square dwellings is in the form of a pyramid with various slopes of the roof slopes, or a cone in rounded dwellings. All the well-known dwellings of the Uril culture in the residential area should be divided into three groups: large, medium, and small ones. The large dwellings are more than 100 m2. In this case, the form of dwellings in plan is more often rectangular with rounded corners; in one case - rounded. The average group includes buildings ranging from 45 to 95 m2. Their shape is in most cases square or rectangular, sometimes with rounded corners. The exception is Dwelling 1 at Rybnoe Ozero site, which is round in plan. Group of small constructions is represented by buildings ranging from 20 to 30 m2. The hearths in the excavated dwellings of the Uril culture are mostly round in shape. In one case the hearth is fenced with stones. Sub-rectangular hearths are located in two buildings. The square hearth is found in one round dwelling. In some cases, near the hearth there is a ditch for air supply to improve the thrust of its combustion. An analysis of the structures of the excavated dwellings of the Uril culture shows that the main tendency of the housing construction of its carriers is the predominance of large and medium-sized structures at the early stage (XI-IX centuries BC), and its reduction to small sizes during the middle and late stages (VIII-V centuries BC).