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2018 year, number 1

1.
COMPARISON OF THE DIFFRACTION EFFICIENCY OF REFLECTION HOLOGRAPHIC GRATINGS FOR DIFFERENT RECORDING SCHEMES IN PHOTOPOLYMER MATERIALS

E. F. Pen1,2, V. V. Shelkovnikov3
1Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. Karla Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
3Vorozhtsov Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent'eva 9, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: голография, регистрирующие среды, фотополимерные материалы, отражательные голограммы, дифракционная эффективность, holography, recording media, photopolymer materials, reflection holograms, diffraction efficiency

Abstract >>
The relationship of the diffraction efficiencies of volume reflection holograms obtained with the use of double-beam and single-beam recording schemes in absorbing light-sensitive materials is studied theoretically and experimentally. This relationship is demonstrated by an example of a particular photopolymer material.



2.
GENERATION OF DYNAMIC SCENES FOR TESTING INFRARED IMAGING SYSTEMS IN THE FAR INFRARED RANGE

I. S. Gibin, V. I. Kozik, E. S. Nezhevenko
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: стенд для генерации инфракрасных изображений, микрозеркальный модулятор, DLP, DMD-модулятор, эшелетт, порядки спектра дифракционной решётки, device for generation of infrared images, micromirror modulator, DLP, DMD modulator, echelette, orders of the diffraction grating spectrum

Abstract >>
An important aspect of the development of specialized test rigs for monitoring and estimating information system parameters is the use of devices for test field generation. Simulation rigs based on micromirror modulators capable of real-time generation of dynamic (tunable) images are considered in the present study. For such modulators to be used in the long-wave infrared range of the spectrum, they are upgraded by means of replacement of usual protective glasses by materials that are transparent in the infrared range up to the wavelength of 14 m. Structural features of the test rigs are considered on the basis of the description of micromirror modulators in the form of echelettes (diffraction gratings with a saw-tooth shape of the grooves. Experimental results are presented. The ability of upgraded modulators to operate within infrared simulation rigs is demonstrated. Such devices offer certain prospects for the development of advanced systems for monitoring and dynamic testing of infrared photodetectors.



3.
POTENTIAL ACCURACY OF ESTIMATING THE INFORMATION PARAMETER OF A HOMODYNE LASER DOPPLER VIBROMETER SIGNAL

V. A. Grechikhin, T. A. Khrennikova
Moscow Power Engineering Institute, 111250, Moscow, ul. Krasnokazarmennaya, 14
Keywords: гомодинный лазерный доплеровский виброметр, индекс модуляции сигнала, нижняя граница дисперсии оценки, homodyne laser Doppler vibrometer, signal modulation index, lower bound of the estimate variance

Abstract >>
This paper describes the analysis of the potential accuracy of estimating the signal modulation index of a homodyne laser Doppler vibrometer with frequency modulation and known and unknown non-information parameters of the signal. The Rao - Cramer inequality is used to obtain expressions for calculating the lower boundary of variance of the modulation index estimate and study its relationship with a signal/noise mixture. Recommendations on the choice of conditions for measuring the amplitude of vibro-displacement by the homodyne Doppler laser vibrometer are given.



4.
APPLICATION OF THE SHACK-HARTMANN WAVEFRONT SENSOR FOR MONITORING THE PARAMETERS OF A SUPERSONIC GAS JET

V. I. Trunov1, K. V. Gubin1, K. A. Ivanova1, A. G. Poleshchuk2, A. G. Sedukhin2, V. V. Cherkashin2
1Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akadmika Lavrent'eva 13/3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: газовая струя, сопло Лаваля, датчик Шэка-Гартмана, анализ волнового фронта, gas jet, Laval nozzle, Shack-Hartmann sensor, wavefront analysis

Abstract >>
Results of an experimental study of the density distribution in a small-size (1-2 mm in diameter) supersonic gas jet in vacuum are reported. The measurements are performed by the developed Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, which consists of a microlens array with 100 × 100 elements and a video camera with a resolution of 2048 × 2048 pixels. The reliability of measurements in terms of the space and time resolution, as well as in terms of the minimum levels of phase changes induced by the tested object, is analyzed.



5.
INVESTIGATION OF SYNTHESIZED FRENEL HOLOGRAM FOR WAVEFRONT SENSORS

V. I. Bobrinev, M. L. Galkin, M. S. Kovalev, P. I. Malinina, S. B. Odinokov
Bauman Moscow State Technical University, ul. 2-ya Baumanskaya 5, Moscow, 105005
Keywords: компьютерно-синтезированная голограмма, датчик волнового фронта, фазовые искажения, голограмма Френеля, computer-synthesized hologram, wavefront sensor, phase distortion, Fresnel hologram

Abstract >>
The possibility of using synthesized Fresnel holograms to determine phase distortions of the wavefront has been studied. The results of computer simulation of the propagation of an elementary signal based on the Fresnel integral transformation are presented. The principle of operation of a hologram for a wavefront sensor is discussed.



6.
STUDY OF NONLINEAR OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SAFFRON IN NANO-DROPLET AND SOLVENT BY THE SINGLE BEAM Z-SCAN TECHNIQUE

A. Azarpour, S. Sharifi, M. Khzaei-Nezhad
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 9177948974, Iran, Mashhad, Azadi Square, Rasavi Khorasan Province
Keywords: нелинейно-оптические свойства шафрана, Z-сканирование, nonlinear optical properties of saffron, Z-scan

Abstract >>
Molecules with strong two-photon absorption have applications in photodynamic therapy and photonic devices. The effect of polarity of the medium and microemulsion on nonlinear optical properties of saffron is studied by the Z-scan technique with a CW laser at the 532 nm wavelength. The values of the nonlinear refractive index and two-photon absorption of saffron are found to increase with a decrease in the medium polarity and with an increase in the droplet size in the microemulsion.



7.
PLANAR PHASE ELECTRO-OPTICAL MODULATOR ON THE BASIS OF CHROMOPHORE-CONTAINING POLYIMIDES

S. N. Atutov1, S. L. Mikerin1,2, A. I. Plekhanov1, A. E. Simanchuk1,2, V. A. Sorokin1, A. V. Yakimanskii3, N. N. Smirnov3, N. A. Valisheva4
1Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090, Novosibirsk, prosp. Akademika Koptyuga, 1
2Vorozhtsov Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090, Novosibirsk, prosp. Akademika Lavrent'eva, 9
3Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 199004, St. Petersburg, V.O., Bolshoi prosp. 31
4Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090, Novosibirsk, prosp. Akademika Lavrent'eva, 13
Keywords: электрооптические полимеры, радиофотоника, электрооптический модулятор, генерация второй гармоники, метод Teng - Man, electro-optical polymers, radiophotonics, electro-optical modulator, second harmonic generation, Teng-Man method

Abstract >>
Experimental investigations of nonlinear optical and electro-optical properties of original synthesized chromophore-containing polyimides with a covalently attached dye DR-13 are reported. The data measured by the method of second harmonic generation are compared with the results of direct measurements of the electro-optical response by the Teng-Man method. High temperature stability of the examined polyimides is observed. Methods of creating a planar phase electro-optical modulator with the use of synthesized chromophore-containing polyimides are considered and applied in experiments. The optical and electro-optical characteristics of the modulator are presented.



8.
STABILIZATION OF ASTRONOMIC IMAGES USING A CONTROLLED FLAT MIRROR

S. Yu. Bokalo, I. M. Bokashov, D. M. Lyakhov, S. V. Pikulev, A. V. Chernykh
Research Institute of the “Luch” Research and Production Association, ul. Zheleznodorozhnaya 24, Podolsk 142100, Moscow Region
Keywords: адаптивно-оптическая система, атмосферная турбулентность, волновой фронт, метод наименьших квадратов, пропорционально-дифференциальный регулятор, adaptive-optical system, atmospheric turbulence, wavefront, least-squares method, two term controller

Abstract >>
A prototype of a key element of adaptive-optical systems - a controlled flat mirror used to correct light beam tilts - was designed. An algorithm for correcting atmospheric distortions of low-intensity light waves and real-time software were developed. In laboratory experiments, a bandwidth of the closed system of 100 Hz was achieved. The efficiency of the developed software was confirmed by daytime observations of stars.



9.
DEVELOPMENT OF TELEOCENTRIC OBJECTIVES FOR DIMENSIONAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

E. S. Zhimuleva, P. S. Zavyalov, M. S. Kravchenko
Technological Design Institute of Scientific Instrument Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Russkaya 41, Novosibirsk, 630058
Keywords: телецентрический объектив, оптическое конструирование, контроль качества объективов, метод оптической теневой проекции, telecentric objective, optical design, objective quality control, shadow projection optical method

Abstract >>
Features of designing objectives telecentric in object space are discussed. The optical circuits of three telecentric objectives developed for dimensional control systems using the shadow projection method are presented. A quality control method for the manufacture of such objectives which have small distortion (less than 0.02 %) and small non-telecentricity (less than 0.01º) is described. Comparison of experimentally obtained optical characteristics of two objectives manufactured by us and one objective manufactured by the Thorlabs company (U.S.) is carried out.



10.
ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF OPTICAL MICRORESONATORS USING THE MODE EXTENSION METHOD

D. D. Ruzhitskaya1,2, A. A. Samoilenko2, A. D. Ivanov2, K. N. Min'kov2,3
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, 119991
2All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Optical and Physical Measurements, ul. Ozernaya 46, Moscow, 119361
3Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, ul. Myasnitskaya 20, Moscow, 101000
Keywords: оптические микрорезонаторы, оптический сенсор, наночастицы, моды «шепчущей галереи», теория адсорбции Ленгмюра, optical microresonators, optical sensor, nanoparticles, whispering gallery modes, Langmuir adsorption theory

Abstract >>
This paper presents an algorithm for processing the transmission spectra of optical microcavities with whispering gallery modes for use as a nanoparticle detector. The algorithm is based on the broadening of the microresonator resonance curve by precipitation of nanoparticles on the microresonator surface. Experimental results on the detection of particles are compared with Langmuir adsorption theory. The contribution of the instability of the excitation radiation source caused by temperature drift of the resonant frequency to the measurement error is estimated.



11.
NON-CONTACT TRIANGULAR MEASUREMENT OF DISTANCE TO MIRROR SURFACES

M. M. Mordasov, A. P. Savenkov, M. E. Safonova, V. A. Sychev
Tambov State Technical University, ul. Sovetskaya 106, Tambov, 392000
Keywords: триангуляционные системы, зеркальные поверхности, геометрические параметры, погрешность сигнализации расстояния, triangulation systems, mirror surfaces, geometric parameters, distance signaling error

Abstract >>
Metrological analysis of triangulation laser sensors for detecting distances to specular surfaces was performed. Theoretical and experimental studies have established that the measuring range distance depends on the angle of incidence of the laser beam, and the main factor that affects the measurement accuracy is the rotation of the sensor in the plane of incidence. A design of a non-contact detector of the distance to a liquid surface is proposed which provides signaling upon reaching a predetermined value. An overview of triangulation measurement systems is given.



12.
CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES WITH DIFFERENT METHODS OF TRAINING SET FORMATION

S. M. Borzov1, O. I. Potaturkin1,2
1Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090, Novosibirsk, prosp. Akademika Koptyuga, 1
2Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, ul. Pirogova, 2
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование Земли, гиперспектральные изображения, классификация типов поверхностей, спектральные и пространственные признаки, remote sensing, hyperspectral image, classification of surface types, spectral and spatial features

Abstract >>
The efficiency of the methods of controlled spectral and spectral-spatial classification of vegetation types on the basis of hyperspectral pictures with different methods of training set formation is evaluated. The dependence of the classification accuracy on the number of spectral features is considered. It is shown that simultaneous allowance for spatial and spectral features ensures high-quality classification of similarly looking types of vegetation by merely using training sets with the maximum degree of the pixel distribution over the image.



13.
SCALABLE APPLICATION FOR THE SEARCH OF GLOBAL MINIMUMA OF MULTIEXTREMAL FUNCTIONS

I. V. Bychkov1, G. A. Oparin1, A. N. Chernykh2, A. G. Feoktistov1, S. A. Gorskii1, R. Rivera-Rodriguez2
1Matrosov Institute for System Dynamics and Control Theory, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033, Russia, Irkutsk, ul. Lermontova, 134, postbox 29
2Centro de investigaciуn Cientifica y de educatiуn Superior de Ensenada, Baja California, 22860, Mexico, Ensenada, Ensenada-Tijuana Highway, 3918, postbox 360
Keywords: распределённые вычисления, масштабируемое приложение, многоэкстремальные функции, distributed computations, scalable application, multiextremal functions

Abstract >>
This paper describes the urgent task of providing scalability of calculations in the solution of multiextremal problems arising in different branches of scientific studies, including image processing. There is an approach proposed for the development of the Gradient scalable application for the solution of the problem of global optimization of multiextremal functions with account for a multistart method in the Orlando instrumental complex. An additional step of calculations is implemented in the solution of the problem, which makes it possible to decompose the problem with account for the performance of computational resources and thereby minimize the time it takes to solve it as opposed to a classical multistart method. Special agents of the metamonitoring system for measuring the performance of resource with regard to the problem solved.



14.
GOODNESS-OF-FIT TEST BASED ON BINOMIAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

E. L. Kuleshov, K. A. Petrov, T. S. Kirillova, R. A. Khaliullin
Far Eastern Federal University, 690950, Vladivostok, ul. Sukhanov, 8
Keywords: критерий согласия, интервальная оценка, закон распределения вероятностей, уровень значимости, goodness-of-fit test, interval estimate, probability distribution law, significance level

Abstract >>
This paper describes the goodness-of-fit test based on binomial probability distribution, which reduces to a sequence of two-sided hypothesis test for the value of the probability distribution function with different values of its argument. It is shown that each element of this sequence is unbiased locally by the most powerful test. This paper proposes an algorithm for calculating the significance level, free of probability distributions. The quality of this criterion is tested by numerical modeling.



15.
DELAY PSEUDOCOMPENSATION FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ACCURATE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CONTINUOUS CONTROL SYSTEM WITH CORRECTION ACCORDING TO THE SMITH SCHEME

N. A. Vunder, M. M. Sinetova, A. V. Ushakov
Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 197101, St. Petersburg, prosp. Kronverskii, 49
Keywords: непрерывный объект управления, звено чистого запаздывания, последовательный компенсатор, схема Смита, псевдокомпенсация, алгоритм синтеза, continuous control object, link of pure lag, sequential compensator, Smith scheme, pseudo-compensation, synthesis algorithm

Abstract >>
The Smith scheme of inclusion of a sequential compensator into a direct branch of a projected system for the analysis of the quality of processes in steady state is under consideration. This scheme is an effective way of solving the problem of providing the system with a required reserve of stability by removing the link of pure delay beyond a closed loop. The effect of delay is only manifested in the fact that the duration of the transient process increases by an amount of delay without changing the overshoot. It is determined that the velocity quality factor of the system with the Smith scheme of inclusion of a sequential compensator cannot theoretically be larger than the reciprocal of the delay. This paper demonstrates the possibility of reducing this negative property of the Smith scheme of inclusion of a sequential compensator by “pseudocompensation” of lag with differentiating links.



16.
INFLUENCE OF TURBINE WHEELSPACE TEMPERATURE ON MEASUREMENTS OF RADIAL AND AXIAL DISPLACEMENTS OF THE BLADE TIPS

S. Yu. Borovik, M. M. Kuteynikova, Yu. N. Sekisov, O. P. Skobelev
Institute for the Control of Complex Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sadovaya 61, Samara 443020
Keywords: турбина, лопатки сложной формы, одновитковый вихретоковый датчик, радиальные и осевые смещения, способы устранения влияния температуры на датчик, turbine, complex-shaped blades, single-coil eddy current sensor, radial and axial displacements, methods of eliminating the influence of temperature on sensor

Abstract >>
The results of a simplified analysis of a differential measuring circuit with pulsed supply of the single-coil eddy current sensors connected to the circuit, with approximate differentiation of the currents, and with an output ADC. The circuit is designed as part of automation systems for tests of gas turbine engines. Methods for eliminating the effect of temperature on the sensors using the hardware and software of the measurement system are considered. A The families of transformation functions (dependences of the code on the desired radial and axial displacements) for the normal and nominal temperatures were determined using a model of the measuring circuit, and the differences of these families were used to determine the family of functions of temperature influence on code changes, which characterize possible errors. Quantitative estimates of the maximum values of the influence functions are given which confirm the efficiency of the proposed methods.