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2018 year, number 1

1.
DEVELOPMENT OF FOREST GENETICS IN RUSSIA

L. I. Milyutin, E. N. Muratova, A. Ya. Larionova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесная генетика, развитие, Россия, forest genetics, development, Russia

Abstract >>
The history of the development of forest genetics in Russia has been poorly studied, although the information obtained in this field is of great importance for research, both in general genetics and in forest science. Practically the first attempt was made to present materials on this topic. The review of publications of Russian researchers in such sections of forest genetics as population genetics (isoenzyme and DNA polymorphism analysis), karyology and cytogenetics, phenetics, genetics of quantitative features, induced mutagenesis, and genomics is presented. The applied methods are analyzed, and the main results of the studies obtained in each of these directions are summarized. In most detail, with the involvement of a large number of literature sources, studies in the field of population genetics, karyology and cytogenetics have been examined. It was noted that a limited amount of publication did not allow reflection of studies in a number of other areas of forest genetics, for example, in the development of the genetic basis for the resistance of forest woody plants to pathogens and insect pests. The review focuses on the genetics of forest-forming coniferous species that grow in Russia: Scots pine, Siberian stone pine, larch and spruce species, Siberian fir, and some other species. The importance of the conducted studies not only for the genetic analysis of the species reviewed, but also for the identification of other features of their biology is shown. An outstanding role of L. F. Pravdin and Yu. P. Altukhov in the development of Russian forest geneticists was noted. The emergence of new trends in genetics, in particular, epigenetics, poses new difficult but promising tasks for forest geneticists.



2.
SUSTAINABLE FOREST-BASED BIOENERGY IN EURASIA

F. Kraxner1, S. Leduc1, S. Fuss1,2, D. Schepaschenko1,3, A. Shvidenko1,4
1International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz, 1, Laxenburg, 2361 Austria
2Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Torgauer Str. 12-15, Berlin, 10829 Germany
3Mytischinski Branch of N. E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Pervaya Institutskaya str., 1, Mytischi, Moscow Oblast, 141005 Russian Federation
4V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: биоэнергетика, BeWhere, G4M, Geo-Wiki, российский лесной сектор, bioenergy, Russian forest sector

Abstract >>
This study analyzes the Russian forest biomass-based bioenergy sector. It is shown that presently - although given abundant resources - the share of heat and electricity from biomass is very minor. With the help of two IIASA models (G4M and BeWhere), future green-field bioenergy plants are identified in a geographically explicit way. Results indicate that by using 3.78 Mt (or 6.16 M m3), twice as much heat and electricity than is presently available from forest biomass could be generated. This amount corresponds to 3.3 % of the total annual wood removals or 12 % of the annually harvested firewood, or about 11 % of illegal logging. With this amount of wood, it is possible to provide an additional 444 thousand households with heat and 1.8 M households with electricity; and at the same time to replace 2.7 Mt of coal or 1.7 Mt of oil or 1.8 G m3 of natural gas, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels by 716 Mt of CO2-equivalent per year. A multitude of co-benefits can be quantified for the socio-economic sector such as green jobs linked to bioenergy. The sustainable sourcing of woody biomass for bioenergy is possible as shown with the help of an online crowdsourcing tool Geo-Wiki.org for forest certification.



3.
GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF LARCH CROPS OF DIFFERENT DENSITY IN SOUTHERN TAIGA OF CENTRAL SIBERIA

L. S. Pshenichnikova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Larix sibirica Ledeb, густота посадки, возрастная динамика, таксационные показатели, южная тайга, planting density, age dynamics, forest inventory parameters, southern taiga, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
This paper analyzes a 35-year experiment of growing Siberian larch Larix sibirica Ledeb. crops, planted at 18 variants of density in the southern taiga subzone of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. We discuss the results of regular observations of the tree growth and productivity in relationship with age carried out since the larch crops were planted. The differentiation of the trees started sooner and grew more intensive and self-thinning increased with increasing initial planting density, and the number of trees per unit area decreased with age. Mean tree diameter decreased with increasing planting density, whereas the influence of the density on tree diameter shifted toward initially sparser crops. The tree height showed a weak correlation with planting density. Over the period of observation, the standing volume has increased slowly for the lowest planting densities, slowed down in dense crops and decreased in the initially densest crops. The current tree increment culminated sooner with increasing planting density. The number of trees per unit area yielding the highest standing volume decreased with age. At the ages of 25, 30, and 35, maximum standing volume (400 m3/ha) was observed for current crop densities of 10 000 trees/ha, 7000 trees/ha, and 5000-6000 trees/ha, respectively. The crops, which were initially very dense, fell behind other crops in productivity with age. Therefore, very dense tree planting is unreasonable. The density, at which we would recommend to plant larch in southern taiga is 6000-8000 seedlings per hectare.



4.
SPECIFICS OF STAND FORMATION AT COALMINE DUMPS IN FOREST-STEPPE ZONE

R. T. Murzakmatov, A. S. Shishikin, A. N. Borisov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: естественное и искусственное лесозаращивание, угольный разрез, отвалы горных пород, постоянные пробные площади, ход роста, строение корней, продуктивность, natural and artificial afforestation, coalmine, rock dumps, permanent sample plots, growth trend, root structure, productivity

Abstract >>
Rock dumps of coalmines have high potential for forest regeneration and environmental capacity, which are dependent on the technology of reclamation and the properties of technogenic soils and grounds. Traditional forestry methods for obtaining the main criteria of biological indicators of woody vegetation were used in the study as follows: ground seed germination, seedling planting technology, composition and increment of tree stands, root structure, care harvesting of undergrowth, biotopic classification. Natural overgrowing of dumps is dependent on the availability of seeds and conditions for their germination and subsequent growth. Most of the zonal tree and shrub species are able to colonize and grow on the coalmine dumps. Mineralization of the dumps surfaces without rich soil stratum, porosity of the upper horizon of lithostratum, and low nutrient content (nitrogen) give benefits in the growth and subsequent formation of birch, pine and sea-buckthorn stands. Afforestation is the cheapest and most effective method of biological reclamation. The analysis of artificial reforestation shows the probability of targeted plantation cultivation of various tree species. The use of a wide range of tree and shrub species make it possible to create biologically diverse intrazonal technogenic ecosystems with high recreational and economic productivity. Wildfires spreading out in spring season on herbaceous rags limit the overgrowth of the dumps by forest vegetation. Two-year cyclical increment decline of trees due to provocative spring warming takes place. The zoogenic factor, especially zoo chores distribution of berry plants, has essential value for forest forming process. By the results of forest formation analysis at rock dumps, alveolate-hilly technology of mine reclamation was developed, which allows to significantly improve dumps’ afforestation capacity, their biological posttechnogenic diversity and productivity.



5.
DYNAMICS OF PHYTOMASS OF A TREE STAND OF THE DECIDUOUS-CONIFEROUS PHYTOCENOSIS IN MIDDLE TAIGA OF KOMI REPUBLIC

S. I. Tarasov, T. A. Pristova, K. S. Bobkova
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167982 Russian Federation
Keywords: средняя тайга, лиственно-хвойное насаждение, общая и надземная фитомасса, аллометрическое уравнение, middle taiga, deciduous-coniferous stand, total phytomass, aboveground phytomass, allometric equations

Abstract >>
Long-term studies in deciduous-coniferous forest, which has arisen during secondary regenerative succession on the felled area of the middle-aged bilberry spruce forest of the middle taiga of the Komi Republic, were carried out. Real data on changing morphological parameters and phytomass of structural tree organs of the birch Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh., spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., aspen Populus tremula L. and common pine Pinus sylvestris L. during development phytocoenosis are presented. The estimate of biometric characteristics of the forest stand was conducted by standard methods of forest valuation, the method of model trees was applied for the determination of the stock of organic substances. Allometric equations, interlinking morphometric and productional tree metrics, which were used hereinafter for determination of total budget of phytomass of aboveground tree organs of the stand, are ascertained. The underground phytomass was estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of resource along tree factions. Analysis of phytomass dynamics was carried out. It is shown that there is an intensive accumulation of forest stand phytomass at transition of the middle-aged deciduous-coniferous stand to age of ripening and maturity. It is ascertained that accumulation of organic substance by the forest stand in this period changes from 173 to 364 t/ha. Comparative analysis revealed that at favorable site-specific conditions of growth, the efficiency of deciduous-coniferous forest stands of middle taiga can reach values which are typical for forest stands of southern regions of the forest zone.



6.
POSSIBLE INVOLVEMENT OF GIBBERELLINS IN THE FORMATION OF DWARF VARIETIES OF SIBERIAN CRAB APPLE MALUS BACCATA (L.) BORKH. IN THE CONDITIONS OF FOREST-STEPPE ECOTONE

A. V. Stolbikova, A. A. Shishparenok, A. V. Rudikovskiy, E. G. Rudikovskaya, L. V. Dudareva
Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Lermontov str., 132, Irkutsk, 664033 Russian Federation
Keywords: яблоня сибирская, Malus baccata (L.) Borkh, экотоны, карликовость, гиббереллины, ретарданты, Siberian crab apple, ecotone, brachysm, gibberellins, retardants

Abstract >>
In the transition zone between the forest and the steppe (in the ecotone) in the territory of the Buryatia Republic, dwarf species (up to 110 cm in height) of Siberian crabapple Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. were found that differ from other (up to 250 cm in height) apple trees. To determine the causes of brachysm by physiological methods, the influence of gibberellins on growth processes were studied. After exogenous application GA3 to the shoot apex of the dwarf apple, we observed a significant increase in growth processes in the apical part of the shoots as compared to the shoots without application. The sensitivity to this hormone, which is found in the dwarf trees, allows to assume the absence of mutations in the genes of repressor proteins of the gibberellin signal and initiates the dilatation of intercalary meristems. The phytohormonal extracts of apple-tree leaves did not remove short stature in dwarf mutants of peas in any of the experiment variants, which may indicate the possible presence in the apple leaves of endogenous retardants. The previously established lower content of indolyl-3-acetic acid in dwarf, compared to tall trees, and the associated differences in IAA / ABC indices, as well as the revealed gibberellin dependence of a dwarf apple, may indicate the participation of phytohormones in the formation of dwarf status M. baccata , as an adaptation to the stressful conditions of growth, especially to insufficient moisture, in the forest-steppe ecotone of the Selenga Dauria.



7.
The PROLONGED INFLUENCE OF Growth Stimulants ON MORPHOMETRIC INDICATORS OF THREE-YEAR seedlings OF Main Forest forming Species of central siberia

M. A. Kirienko, I. A. Goncharova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: стимулятор роста, сеянцы, морфометрические показатели, хвойные, growth stimulants, seedlings, morphometric indicators, coniferous

Abstract >>
The prolonged effects of growth stimulants with differences in active substance on morphometric parameters of three-year old seedlings of Scotch pine Pinus silvestris L., Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., Siberian larch Larix sibirica Ledeb., whose seeds had been treated with growth substances were studied. Analyzing a set of indicators: seed germination, seedling safety, height and diameter of trunks at root collar of 3-year-old seedlings in the forest-steppe zone of the Krasnoyarsk territory the reaction specificity of coniferous seedlings to seeds pre-plant processing are stated. It was found that height, height increment and stem diameter of Scots pine seedlings whose seeds were treated with stimulants Obereg’, Zircon, Epin-extra, Ecogel were significantly higher than seedlings under control. Seedling height and height increment of Siberian spruce seeds, which were processed by the stimulant Epin-extra were significantly more than the same under control. In addition to Epin-extra, Zircon and Heteroauxin stimulants had a positive effect on Siberian spruce seedling stem diameter. Siberian larch seeds treatment by all stimulants except Immunotsitofit, had a positive impact on the height and diameter of stem 3-year-old seedlings. The highest stem diameter was observed in seedlings whose seeds were treated with Ecogel and Heteroauxin stimulants. All stimulants had a significant positive effect (1.5-2 times higher compared to control) on the current linear increments.



8.
SCIENTIFIC HERITAGE OF EUGENE NIKOLAEVICH SAVIN (07.11.1921-12.02.2017)

A. I. Lobanov1, V. K. Savostyanov1, Ch. Dugarzhav2, Ch. Dorjsuren2, V. T. Yarmishko3, M. D. Evdokimenko4
1Scientific Research Institute of Agrarian Problems of Khakassia, P.O. Box 709, Abakan, Khakass Republic, 655019 Russian Federation
2Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Zhukova, 77, Ulaanbaatar, 210351 Mongolia
3V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof. Popov Str., 2, St. Petersburg, 197376 Russian Federation
4V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Евгений Николаевич Савин, лесное хозяйство, лесовосстановление, агролесомелиорация, защитное лесоразведение, Монголия, Eugene Nikolaevich Savin, forestry, forest regeneration, agroforest amelioration, protective afforestation, Mongolia

Abstract >>
The analysis of the achievements and scientific heritage of a prominent scientist in the field of forest science, forestry, agroforest amelioration, and protective afforestation, the veteran of the Great Patriotic War, doctor of agricultural sciences, professor, the honored worker of forestry and hunting of Mongolia - Eugene Nikolaevich Savin is given. He made a significant contribution to the development of the scientific basis for agroforestry and protective afforestation, to substantiate the main directions of forest management in different zones and groups of forest types in the Russian Federation and in Mongolia, to develop a master plan for the integrated use of forest resources in Mongolia, to determine the nature of cuttings and the age of final felling for the main forest-forming species, the development of methods of cultivation and the creation of the first industrial forest crops of the Siberian larch and Scotch pine, the creation of a handbook for the inventory of Mongolia forests (2012). In doing so, he revealed the main aspects of the nature of the forest, its functioning, provided information on the composition of tree species, types of stands, methods of restoration and care. Due attention is paid to the water protection and soil protection role of forests. The results of Eugene Nikolaevich Savin research are of current importance for silvicultural, forest crop and agroforest amelioration works. They are included in the normative documents approved at the federal level. The list of his main scientific publications is presented, which just gives an idea of the subject of research, their geography and significance.