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2017 year, number 10

1.
Contribution of water vapour continual absorption to shortwave fluxes of solar radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere with cirrus cloudiness

K.M. Firsov1, T.Yu. Chesnokova2, A.A. Razmolov1, A.V. Chentsov2
1Volgograd State University, 100, prospect Universitetsky, Volgograd, 400062, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: континуальное поглощение, водяной пар, коротковолновые потоки излучения, облачность, continual absorption, water vapour, shortwave radiative fluxes, cloudiness

Abstract >>
The solar radiative fluxes in the cloudy and cloudless atmosphere are calculated taking into account multiple scattering and absorption. The cloudy conditions observed in Tomsk and Volgograd regions are considered. A comparison between the fluxes calculated with different water vapor continuum absorption models, such as the MT_CKD empirical model, commonly used in the atmospheric simulation, and the continuum model based on the CAVIAR experimental data, is carried out. The water vapor continuum impact on the shortwave radiative fluxes in the presence of different cloud types is estimated.



2.
Estimates of the refractive index and regular refraction of optical waves in the atmospheric boundary layer. Part 1. Refractive index

S.L. Odintsov, V.A. Gladkikh, A.P. Kamardin, V.P. Mamyshev, I.V. Nevzorova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: оптическое излучение, пограничный слой атмосферы, показатель преломления, температура воздуха, optical radiation, atmospheric boundary layer, refractive index of air, air temperature

Abstract >>
The possibility of determining the refractive index for optical waves in the atmospheric boundary layer from air temperature profiles measured by a MTP-5 meteorological temperature profilometer is studied. Profiles of the refractive index obtained from MTP-5 data and from aerological measurements are compared. Some calculated values of the refractive index and its derivatives for different seasons are presented.



3.
Estimates of the refractive index and regular refraction of optical waves in the atmospheric boundary layer. Part 2. Refraction of laser beams

S.L. Odintsov, V.A. Gladkikh, A.P. Kamardin, V.P. Mamyshev, I.V. Nevzorova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: лазерное излучение, пограничный слой атмосферы, показатель преломления, рефракция, laser radiation, atmospheric boundary layer, refractive index, refraction

Abstract >>
Possible displacements of laser beams under the effect of regular refraction in the atmospheric boundary layer are calculated. The case of a radiation source installed at the surface level is considered. Displacements are estimated for different wavelengths and angles of the beam entrance into the atmosphere. The calculations are based on experimental data on the refractive index of optical waves up to an altitude of 1000 m received in long-term (one year) measurements of the vertical profiles of air temperature with a MTP-5 meteorological temperature profiler.



4.
Model estimates of the dynamics of solar radiation absorption vertical structure and temperature effects under background conditions and in extreme smoke haze from data of airborne observations

T.B. Zhuravleva, M.V. Panchenko, V.S. Kozlov, I.M. Nasrtdinov, V.V. Pol’kin, S.A. Terpugova, D.G. Chernov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: эмпирическая модель аэрозоля, фоновые условия, дымная мгла, численное моделирование, суммарное поглощение солнечной радиации, температурные эффекты, aerosol empirical model, background conditions, smoke haze, numerical simulation, daily absorption of solar radiation, thermal effects

Abstract >>
Quantitative estimates of the distribution of absorbed solar radiation and temperature effects in the background atmosphere and under conditions of extreme smoke haze in Siberia from empirical data and numerical modeling are presented. Vertical profiles of the aerosol characteristics are formed on the basis of an empirical model constructed from the results of airborne sounding of the angular scattering coefficient and the concentration of absorbing substance at different altitudes. It is shown that under smoke haze conditions the radiative effect of aerosol particles with a high soot content on the daily influx of solar radiation in the central part of the smoke layer exceeds 50%. The change in air temperature due to the absorption of solar radiation during the daylight time is approximately 2.5-5.5 K at variations in the smoke aerosol optical thickness in the range 2 £ smoke(0.55 m) £ 4.



5.
Microphysical mechanisms of glory according to airplane measurements

G.E. Kolokutin, V.V. Volkov
Central Aerological Observatory, ul. Pervomayskaya, 3, Dolgoprudnyiy g., Mosk. Obl., 141700, Russia
Keywords: микрофизика облаков, глория, спектры облачных частиц, самолетные наблюдения, cloud microphysics, glory, particles size spectrum, aircraft observation

Abstract >>
Mechanisms of glory (optical phenomenon observed on clouds) in view of new experimental aircraft researches of the cloud microphysics are considering. New data were received in research flights of ROSHYDROMET YAK-42D aircraft in polar and central regions of Russia. Data on the cloud particle size distribution are presented, and conditions of occurrence of glory on these clouds are discussed.



6.
Variability of condensation properties of the mixed smoke from biomass burning at different stages of its evolution

V.S. Kozlov, R.F. Rakhimov, V.P. Shmargunov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: смешанный дым, относительная влажность воздуха, поляризационный спектронефелометр, обратная задача, оптические и микрофизические характеристики частиц, сажа, mixed smoke, relative humidity of air, polarization spectronephelometer, inverse problem, optical-microphysical characteristics of particles, soot

Abstract >>
The variability of the optical-microphysical properties of the mixed wood smoke is studied in the Large Aerosol Chamber of IAO SB RAS (volume 1800 m3) during smoke aging for six days with periodic changes in the relative humidity of air within the range 45-95%. The dynamics of the size distributions and complex refractive indices for the ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles, their effective radii, lidar scattering parameter, and the single scattering albedo in the visible are analyzed on the basis of the results of detailed nephelometric measurements of the angular scattering coefficients and solution of the inverse problem. It is found that both quantitative and qualitative features of the variations in the optical-microphysical parameters vary significantly with the air humidity at different stages of the smoke aging. The key factors of the mixed smoke variability are the physical-chemical heterogeneity of three fractions of smoke particles and physical processes, such as migration of ultrafine BC particles (< 100 nm) in the size spectrum due to coagulation and the condensation growth of smoke particles. Interconnected effects (interference) of the mentioned processes on the particle’s structure determine the main features of the dynamics of the composition and absorbing properties of the smoke particles.



7.
Estimation of optical properties of “soft” radially inhomogeneous ellipsoidal particles

L.E. Paramonov
P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 36, Nakhimovski prospect, Moscow, Russia, 117997
Keywords: радиально-неоднородная эллипсоидальная частица, radially inhomogeneous ellipsoidal particle

Abstract >>
The Rayleigh-Gans-Debye and anomalous diffraction approximations are used to formulate necessary and sufficient conditions for optical equivalence of randomly oriented radially inhomogeneous optically “soft” ellipsoidal particles and polydisperse radially inhomogeneous spherical particles. The consequences of the optical equivalence are used as a basis for the optical classification of isotropic ensembles of “soft” ellipsoidal particles. Correctness of the classification is illustrated by the T-matrix method and Mie theory calculations.



8.
The problem of fluid location of the atmosphere for the estimation of pollution fields and retrieval of source

V.A. Poddubny1, E.S. Dubinkina1,2
1Institute of Industrial Ecology Ural branch of RAS, 20, str. Sof'i Kovalevskoj, GSP-594, 620990, Ekaterinburg
2Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Suhanova St., Vladivostok, 690000, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, мониторинг, моделирование, постановка задачи, уравнения сохранения, лагранжевы частицы, обратные траектории, восстановление поля концентрации, источники эмиссии, atmosphere, monitoring, simulation, formulation of the problem, conservation equations, Lagrangian particles, back trajectories, retrieval of the concentration field, sources of emission

Abstract >>
A fundamentally new physico-mathematical formulation of the problem of retrieving the average field of atmospheric contaminant concentrations and detecting emission sources from local measurements is presented. This is a problem of passive location of the atmosphere by wind or a problem of fluid location of the atmosphere. The definitions of new functions are given: the mean effective concentration field and the mean effective field of the sources. The differential and integral forms of equations for the solution of the problem are presented. Several particular cases are briefly considered, which show the relationship of the proposed approach with the methods of back trajectories statistics and direct atmospheric dispersion simulation.



9.
Сomparative estimation of the geochemical activity of the atmosphere based on the ratios of the compositions of different aerosol fractions in the surface air layer at the "Fonovaya" observatory: measurement campaign of autumn 2016

B.D. Belan1, D.V. Simonenkov1, A.V. Talovskaya2, M.V. Tentyukov1,3, A.V. Fofonov1, E.G. Yazikov2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3Pitirim Sorokin Syktyvkar state University, 55, Oktyabrsky Prospect, 167001, Russia
Keywords: атмосферный аэрозоль, сухие выпадения, пассивный пробоотбор, atmospheric aerosol, dry deposition, passive sampling

Abstract >>
The comparative analysis of the chemical composition of water- and acid-soluble fractions in dry deposits is performed; the ratio of submicron and coarse phases in surface aerosols is assessed and their mineral and material composition are studied for the background region of Tom-Ob interfluve with use of the scanning submicroscopy. Distinctions in the ratios of metals in the water- and acid-soluble fractions are revealed. It is suggested that water-soluble compounds generally form the submicron fraction, and acid-soluble compounds, the coarse fraction.



10.
Determination of organic and elemental carbon connections on removal segments of atmospheric impurities

V.F. Raputa1, S.A. Popova2, V.I. Makarov2, T.V. Yaroslavtseva3
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
3Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Hygiene of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, 7, Parkhomenko Str., Novosibirsk, 630108, Russia
Keywords: атмосферный аэрозоль, органический и элементный углерод, линейная корреляция, сектор выноса, источник-рецептор, particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, linear correlation, removal segment, source-receptor



11.
Formation of diffuse jets and runaway electrons in the air, SF6, and helium at low pressures

A.G. Burachenko, V.F. Tarasenko, I.D. Kostyrya, E.Kh. Baksht
High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave. HCEI SB RAS
Keywords: наносекундный разряд при пониженных давлениях, неоднородное электрическое поле, пучки убегающих электронов, экспериментальное моделирование высотных разрядов, nanosecond discharge at low pressures, non-uniform electric field, beams of runaway electrons, experimental simulation of sprites

Abstract >>
Nanosecond discharges in air, SF6, and helium at pressures of units-tens of Torr are studied. Spatial heterogeneity of diffuse jets and autographs of runaway electron (RAE) beams are registered in all three gases in a non-uniform electric field. It is shown that diffuse jets in the discharge gap change their shape and their length increases and changes from pulse to pulse as the pressure decreases; as well, it is confirmed that the RAE beam amplitude increases as the pressure decreases and versus gas, decreasing with an increase in the atomic or molecular weight of the gas. It is assumed that the observed heterogeneity of diffuse jets and RAE beams can be associated with transient light phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere that have sizes of tens of kilometers and occur at high altitudes at low pressures under high thunderstorm activity.



12.
Amplified spontaneous emission on sodium D-lines using nonresonant optical pumping

T.D. Petukhov1,2, G.S. Evtushenko1,3, E.N. Tel'minov4
1National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
2Closed Joint-Stock Company Scientific Production Enterprize «Topaz» (AO NPP «Topaz»), 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
4National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: активная оптическая система, усиленное спонтанное излучение, щелочные металлы, натрий, оптическая накачка, active optical system, amplified spontaneous emission, alkaline metals, sodium, optical pumping

Abstract >>
Experiments are described on the excitation of amplified spontaneous emission on the D-lines of sodium (D2 = 588.9 nm; D1 = 589.6 nm) at longitudinal optical pumping with a large detuning from the D2 line toward shorter wavelengths. The radiation spectra are measured, which proves gain on the both lines, at Na concentration of (1-5) ∙ 1014 cm-3, buffer gas (helium) pressure of 600 Torr at the working temperature, and pumping power density of more than 1.5 MW/cm2. The time characteristics show that the output radiation varies versus the concentration of sodium atoms in the active medium. The dependences of radiation absorption at the D-lines of sodium on the concentration of Na atoms and buffer gas pressure are given.



13.
Dynamic control of adaptive optics correction of turbulent distortions in laser beams

V.V. Lavrinov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: датчик волнового фронта Шэка-Гартмана, параметры турбулентности, скорость ветра, алгоритм управления, Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, turbulence parameters, wind speed, control algorithm

Abstract >>
It is shown that the efficiency of adaptive correction of turbulent distortions of laser radiation increases if the correcting mirror is controlled via an algorithm synthesized on the basis of prediction of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurements. The use of the predictive control algorithm makes it possible to minimize the error that associated with the time delay of the system. The prediction of the surface reproduced by the mirror is performed on the basis of an analysis of phase fluctuations in time.