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2017 year, number 1

1.
New Approach to Monitoring Induced Earthquakes

V. V. ADUSHKIN1,2, S. B. KISHKINA1, G. G. KOCHARYAN1,2
1Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 38, Moscow, 119334 Russia
2Moscow Physico-Technical Institute, Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny, 141700 Russia
Keywords: индуцированная сейсмичность, техногенные землетрясения, жесткость разломов, сейсмическая энергия, сейсмический момент, разломные зоны, мониторинг, induced seismicity, induced earthquakes, fault rigidity, seismic energy, seismic moment, fault zones, monitoring

Abstract >>
The generalized observations over hypocenters of the strongest mining-induced events have shown that this type of deformation occurs as movement along the existing faults. From the experimental evidence, transition of a section of a fault to meta-stable state goes with the decrease of its dynamic shearing rigidity. The alteration of the mechanical properties starts long before macroscopic movement of the fault surfaces is recorded. This effect is detectable using instruments and can be used as a foundation for a new approach to monitoring of induced earthquakes.



2.
Modeling Deformation Processes in Self-Stressed Rock Specimens

S. V. LAVRIKOV, A. F. REVUZHENKO
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: горная порода, внутренняя структура, собственные самоуравновешенные напряжения, моделирование, rock, internal structure, natural self-balanced stresses, modeling

Abstract >>
The authors use mathematical model of structurally inhomogeneous rocks to describe the property of rocks to accumulate and release potential elastic energy. The finite element algorithm and bundled software are developed to solve plane boundary-value geomechanical problems. The article presents calculations of deformation of self-stress rock specimens. It is shown that the deformation curve depends both on the elastoplastic properties of the specimens and on their natural self-balanced stresses. Depending on sign, the stresses can either increase or decrease the limit load under which the specimens fail.



3.
Strain Gradient Model of Zonal Disintegration of Rock Mass near Deep-Level Tunnels

C. QI1, K. LI1,2, J. BAI3, A. I. CHANYSHEV4, P. LIU1
1Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing, 100044 China
2Defense Engineering Institute, Nanjing, 210007 P R China
3University of South Wales, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL, UK
4Chinakal Institute of Mining, B, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: выработка глубокого залегания, зональная дезинтеграция, градиентная деформационная модель, deep-level tunnel, rock mass, zonal disintegration, strain gradient model

Abstract >>
This paper presents one strain gradient model of zonal disintegration of rock mass near deep level tunnel. The governing equations and boundary conditions of the model are established. Numerical methods (quasi-Newton method and shooting method) are adopted to solve the obtained fourth-order equilibrium equations with higher order boundary conditions in terms of displacement. The stress field in elastic and plastic zones is obtained. The effects of model parameters on stresses distribution in surrounding the tunnel rock mass are examined. The necessary conditions for the formation of zonal disintegration are elucidated.



4.
Geomechanical Monitoring of Open-Pit Bottom Reserves of Mir Mine, Alrosa: Results

V. D. BARYSHNIKOV1, A. S. FEDYANIN2, E. K. PUL'2, D. V. BARYSHNIKOV1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Alrosa, Molodezhnyi per. 3, Mirny, 678174 Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia
Keywords: предохранительный целик, рудная потолочина, геомеханический мониторинг, водоносный комплекс, осадка, сдвижение, деформация, реперная станция, профильная линия, safety pillar, ore crown pillar, geomechanical monitoring, aquifer, subsidence, movement, deformation, plug point, profile

Abstract >>
The authors propose methods and means to monitor deformation and subsidence of ore crown under mining of open-pit bottom reserves by room-and-pillar system with solidifying backfill in Mir Mine, Alrosa. The article describes layout and data of geomechanical monitoring. The mechanism of ore subsidence at the lower boundary of the safety pillar is determined.



5.
Geomechanical State of Longwall in Polysaevskaya Coal Mine in Kuzbass

M. REUTER, M. KRACH, U. KIESSLING, J. VEKSLER
Marco Systemanalyse und Entwicklung GmbH, Hans-Boeckler-Str. 2, Dachau, 85221 Germany
Keywords: лава, пласт, напряжения, смещения, давление газа, разрушение, трещины, longwall, coal bed, stresses, displacements, gas pressure, failure, cracks

Abstract >>
The calculations of stress state and failure of rock mass in the vicinity of longwall in a coal bed with the high gas content in Polysaevskaya Mine, SUEK-Kuzbass, are described. The effect of the mining depth and coalbed gas pressure on the geomechanical situation in the longwall is illustrated. The authors discuss scenarios of directed crack formation in front of the longwall.



6.
Estimation of Stress State of Rocks and Geomaterials

V. V. SEREDIN, A. S. KHRULEV, M. V. PUSHKAREVA
Perm State National Research University, ul. Bukireva 15, Perm, 614990 Russia
Keywords: шероховатость поверхности магистральной трещины разрушения, напряженное состояние геоматериалов, горные породы, main crack surface roughness, stress state, geomaterials, rocks

Abstract >>
Roughness of the main crack surface is an assessment criterion for stress state of geomaterials for the quantitative connection has been found between the crack roughness and stress state of geomaterials. Roughness reduces with an increase in the maximum normal stresses in the zone of failure (the area of the maximum shear stresses). Based on this regularity, the method has been developed to assess stresses using the crack surface roughness in geomaterials.



7.
The Proposal of Predicting Formation of Sinkholes with an Exemplary Application

P. STRZALKOWSKI
Faculty of Mining and Geology Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2, Gliwice, 44-100 Poland
Keywords: выработки, обрушение пород, провалы, метод прогноза, практическое применение метода, tunnels, rock fall, sinkhole, prediction method, application

Abstract >>
Numerous abandoned workings, mostly tunnel ones, are present in post shallow mining areas. With time, timber roof supports have been degraded and lost their bearing capacity, while excavations lost stability. The loss of stability of an excavation and its failure is often a cause of sinkholes formation at the surface, sometimes even many years after mining activities were discontinued. Such instances pose a threat to buildings and their users-to public safety. A prediction saying that the probability of sinkhole formation is greater than 0 and smaller than 1 is ambiguous and does not allow making right decisions about the use of land. Therefore, it seems advisable to provide a simple algorithm that would allow to deterministically calculate whether a sinkhole is to be formed or not. This paper presents a method of predicting the probability of sinkhole formation based on Salustowicz’s theory as well as its practical application using a computer program. It should be borne in mind, however, that there are other factors influencing the probability of sinkholes formation, which cannot be taken into account in a mathematical model. These factors include non-mining phenomena, such as suffosion, load imposed on land, vibrations caused by movement of heavy-duty vehicles and other.



8.
Pendulum Waves on the Surface of Block Rock Mass Under Dynamic Impact

N. I. ALEKSANDROVA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: задача Лэмба, блочная среда, полупространство, волновое движение, волна Рэлея, численное моделирование, lamb’s problem, block medium, half-space, wave motion, Rayleigh wave, numerical modeling

Abstract >>
Under numerical investigation is propagation of surface pendulum waves in 3D block medium. The medium is modeled by 3D lattice of masses connected with elastic spring connections and viscous dampers. The surface pin vertical pulsed loading is considered. The displacements and velocities of the surface masses are calculated. The numerical results obtained for the block medium are compared with the similar data on elastic medium and in situ experiments carried out by other researchers.



9.
Geodynamic and Seismic Events under Rockburst-Hazardous Block Caving in Gornaya Shoria

A. A. EREMENKO1, I. V. MASHUKOV2, V. A. EREMENKO3
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Siberian State Industrial University, ul. Kirova 42, Novokuznetsk, 654040 Russia
3Institute of Integrated Mineral Development, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: угольный пласт, трансформация молекулярной структуры угля, релаксация, сорбированный метан, массоперенос, объем метана, stresses, seismic events, rock mass, geodynamic events, blast, velocity, rockburst hazard, energy class

Abstract >>
The authors give an assessment of the effect exerted by blasting on the intensity of geodynamic and seismic events. The key regularities of distribution of shocks under blasting of rock blocks are found. The scope of the experimental research embraces determination of seismic velocities on the ground surface in mining area in Gornaya Shoria.



10.
Improving Evaluation Methods for Production Capacity and Life of Open Pit Diamond Mines

A. N. AKISHEV1, I. V. ZYRYANOV1, S. V. KORNILKOV2, V. D. KANTEMIROV2
1Yakutniproalmaz Institute, Alrosa, ul. Lenina 39, Mirny, 678174 Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia
2Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Ekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
Keywords: месторождения алмазов, производительность карьеров, мощность, скорость понижения горных работ, эффективность инвестиций, национальный стандарт, diamond deposit, open pit mine production output, production capacity, downward mining advance rate, investment efficiency, national standard

Abstract >>
The article reports basic design parameters of open pit mines of Alrosa, as well as criteria and factors that govern the choice of production capacity of an open pit diamond mine under conditions of permafrost. The analytical relations and tables to calculate open pit mine life are presented, and the influence of the rate of the downward advance of an open pit mine on its capacity is demonstrated. The authors formulate key provisions for a paragraph of the national standard of RF enabling systematization of approaches to optimization of open diamond mining parameters.



11.
Technology of Backfilling Based on Cement-Slag Binder in Orlov Mine

L. A. KRUPNIK1, YU. N. SHAPOSHNIK2, S. N. SHAPOSHNIK3, G. T. NURSHAIYKOVA3, Z. K. TUNGUSHBAEVA3
1Kazakh National Technical University, ul. Satpaeva 22, Almaty, 050013 Kazakhstan
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3East-Kazakhstan State Technical University, ul. Protozanova 69, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 070004 Kazakhstan
Keywords: закладочные работы, закладочная смесь, доменный гранулированный шлак, схемы приготовления закладочной смеси, backfilling, backfill, granular blast-furnace slag, backfill preparation flow charts

Abstract >>
Geological characteristics of ore and enclosing rock mass at Orlov deposit, including Severnoe body of Novaya ore chute, are given. The ore is extracted by underground method, with slicing and room-and-pillar, and sublevel caving. The technology of backfill preparation based on cement-slag binder is evaluated. After lab experimentation, the rational compositions of the backfill have been developed for Orlov Mine. It is found that activity of granular blast-furnace slag is conditioned by chemical composition, structure and, to a wide extent, by grinding fineness (specific surface). The technical-and-economic assessment of the new technology of backfill preparation has been carried out.



12.
Robotic Geotechnologies as Way of Improving Efficiency and Ecologization of Mineral Resource Management

M. V. RYL'NIKOVA1, D. YA. VLADIMIROV2, I. A. PYTALEV3, T. M. POPOVA3
1Institute of Integrated Mineral Development, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2VIST Group, Dokuchaev per. 3, Bld. 1, Moscow, 107078 Russia
3Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, pr. Lenina 38, Magnitogorsk, 455000 Russia
Keywords: экологизация горного производства, проектирование, горнотехническая система, промышленный робот, робототехническая система, карьер, осложненные условия, полнота извлечения запасов недр, mining ecologization, designb, geotechnical system, industrial robot, robotic system, open pit mine, complicated conditions, mineral extraction completeness

Abstract >>
The authors propose a promising approach to reduction of the environmental impact of open pit mineral mining-robotic automation of geotechnologies. The objectives, techniques and advantages of introduction of industrial robots are discussed. The analysis of development and improvement of geotechnical system reveals factors that limit application of mechanized, automated and robotic equipment. The structural elements of geotechnical system using mechanized and robotic mining and transportation machines are compared.



13.
Structural Peculiarities of Coal Mine Waste Piles in Kuzbass

S. A. PROKOPENKO1,2, V. S. LUDZISH2, YU. V. LESIN3, M. A. TYULENEV3, A. V. SUSHKO1
1Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk, 654059 Russia
2VostNII Science Center, ul. Institutskaya 3, Kemerovo, 650002 Russia
3Gorbachev Kuzbass State Technical University, ul. Vesennyaya 28, Kemerovo, 650099 Russia
Keywords: техногенный массив, отвал, закономерность, структура, массоперенос, фракционирование, кусковатость, классификация, mine waste pile, regularity, structure, mass transfer, fractionation, lumpiness, classification

Abstract >>
The article describes regularities of mass transfer in filled-up and washed-in piling of mineral mining waste. The criteria and hierarchy are determined to classify structures of waste piles. The structures of waste piles in Kuzbass are classified, and the diversity of one-component and compound structures of piles is presented schematically. It is shown how the determined regularities of mass transfer influence formation of fractional structures of mine waste piles, and on their physical and processing characteristics.



14.
Evaluation of Layout of Air Drill Hammer with Smooth Adjustment of Impact Impulse Frequency

I. V. TISHCHENKO, V. V. CHERVOV, B. N. SMOLYANITSKY
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: пневмомолот, упругий клапан, дренажный канал, частота ударов, энергия ударного импульса, плавная регулировка, air drill hammer, elastic valve, drainage line, blow frequency, impact impulse, smooth adjustment

Abstract >>
Design of an air drill hammer with the smooth adjustment of the percussion frequency at the constant blow energy is considered. The proposed and analyzed versions of air distribution system are based on using a mechanically closing elastic valve. The test data on experimental prototypes of the air drill hammer with the external distributing elements that set blow frequency are presented. The frequency adjustment ranges are determined.



15.
Pulsed Linear Solenoid Drive for Down-the-Hole Vibration Source

B. F. SIMONOV1, V. YU. NEIMAN2, A. S. SHABANOV2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. Karla Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Keywords: скважинный виброисточник, соленоидный электромагнитный привод, конечноэлементное моделирование магнитного поля, полезная механическая работа, силовая характеристика, down-the-hole vibration source, solenoid drive, finite element modeling of magnetic field, useful mechanical work, force characteristics

Abstract >>
Aimed at improving efficiency of non-explosive vibroseis method, the new concept of using a solenoid percussive drive enables essential increase in useful mechanical work with the limited external diameter. The results of the finite element modeling of magnetic field in FEMM are reported. The authors have found the force and energy characteristics of the drive and the prospects for its application in a casing with the external diameter limited to 120 mm.



16.
Surface Modification of Rock-Forming Minerals of Diamond-Bearing Kimberlites under Interaction with Wastewater and Electrochemically Treated Water

V. A. CHANTURIA, M. V. RYAZANTSEVA, G. P. DVOICHENKOVA, V. G. MINENKO, E. V. KOPORULINA
Institute of Integrated Mineral Development, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: Кальцит, оливин, серпентин, поверхность, рентгеновская фотоэлектронная спектроскопия, электрохимическая водоподготовка минерализованных водных систем, calcite, olivine, serpentine, surface, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy, electrochemical treatment of mineralized water

Abstract >>
The structural and chemical surface transformation of basic kimberlite-forming minerals (calcite, olivine, serpentine) under the contact with natural and waste mineralized water and products of electrochemical treatment of the water are studied using X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral micro-analysis, and atomic force microscopy. It is found that contact of kimberlite extract and recycling water induces chemical modification of calcite surface, which consists in adsorption of hydrocarbon impurities, and chlorine- and silica-bearing compounds, majority of which are removed during interaction with the product of electrochemical treatment of recycling water. The change in the structural and chemical surface properties of rock-forming silicates, aside from adsorption-desorption of organic compound, is also connected with the distortion of nano-size layer structure after leaching of Mg, Fe and Si, and with the carbonatization of the surface.



17.
Numeric Evaluation of Kinematic and Dynamic Characteristics of Mineral Treatment in Disintegrator

F. KH. URAKAEV, T. S. YUSUPOV
Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Science, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: дезинтегратор, кварц, галит, сера, обработка, кинематика и динамика, disintegrator, quartz, halite, sulfur, treatment, kinematics and dynamics

Abstract >>
The numerical modeling provides a holist picture of mechanical treatment and activation of substances in disintegrator. The authors calculate kinematic and dynamic characteristics of elastic and inelastic collisions in terms of halite, quartz and sulfur particles and disintegrator fingers. The recommendations on selecting optimal treatment conditions for natural minerals and waste material in order to dissociate mineral concretions and for selective activation of minerals are given. The research findings can partly be used for other types of percussion disintegrating devices, in particular, jet mills.



18.
Concentrating Nickel from Leaching Solutions for Oxidized Nickel Ore Based on Precipitation of Hydrates

A. M. KLYUSHNIKOV
Uralmekhanobr-Research and Design Institute of Mineral Beneficiation and Physical Treatment, ul. Khokhryakova 87, Ekaterinburg, 620144 Russia
Keywords: окисленные никелевые руды, выщелачивание, осаждение, гидроксид никеля, известь, жженая магнезия, oxidized nickel ore, leaching, precipitation, nickel hydroxide, lime, calcinated magnesia

Abstract >>
The article focuses on concentrating of nickel from lean solutions of leaching of oxidized nickel ore. The proposed block diagram of process flow chart for such solutions includes hydrolytic removal of admixed iron and aluminium and precipitation of nickel concentrate by calcinated magnesia. The as a result, nickel content of the concentrate is 26-26% at the recovery of 95-97%. The issues of decontamination and recycling of the solutions are solved.



19.
Ferruginous Quartzite from Kimkan Deposit and Their Processing

T. N. GZOGYAN, S. R. GZOGYAN
Belgorod National University, ul. Pobedy 85, Belgorod, 308015 Russia
Keywords: железистые кварциты, магнетит, гематит, ЯГР-спектроскопия, микротвердость, измельчаемость, обогатимость, ferruginous quartzite, magnetite, hematite, Moessbauer spectroscopy, microhardness, grindability, dressability

Abstract >>
The article describes mineralogical and processing properties of ferruginous quartzite from Kimkan deposit. Essential nonuniformity of the composition and properties of the major metallic mineral-magnetite-should be accounted for when processes and, particularly, when selecting pretreatment method.



20.
Prospects for Re-Processing of Carbonate-Fluorite Ore Mill Tailings at Yaroslavskaya Mining Company

L. A. KIENKO1, O. V. VORONOVA1, S. A. KONDRAT'EV2
1Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: флотация, флюорит, тонкая вкрапленность, техногенное сырье, селективность, модификаторы, flotation, fluorite, fine dissemination, mining waste crude, selectivity, modifiers

Abstract >>
The authors describe studies into dressability of mill tailings from tailings pond of processing plant of Yaroslavskaya Mining Company. It is found that the mill tailings contain 14.92% of CaF2, 13.16% of CaCO3 and 0.49% of Zn. The use of new compositions of modifies in flotation of fluorite allows production of standard grade concentrates with the CaF2 content of 93.19-95.54% at the recovery of 52.75-30.15%. Zinc recovery in the concentrate is 38.84% at the yield of 42.11%.



21.
Efficiency of Dust Suppression with Aerosol Guns-Fog-Projection Devices with Air-and-Fluid Jets

A. V. IVANOV, A. V. STRIZHENOK
Saint-Petersburg Mining University, 21-ya liniya Vasil’evskii ostrov 2, Saint-Petersburg, 199106 Russia
Keywords: хвостохранилище, пылеперенос, аэрозольная пушка, форсунка, tailing dump, dust transfer, aerosol gun, jet

Abstract >>
The environment protection and dust control on washed-in waste piles is complicated by the continuous replenishment of tailings and, consequently, formation of new dusting layer on the pile surface. This problem can be solved using aerosol guns-fog-projection devices within the dust suppression system. The authors propose to place the aerosol dust suppression system on a platform-car moving along a tailings dump. This allows automating dust control and increasing volume of transported water. Grain-size composition of dust at tailing dumps of Kovdor Mining and Processing Plant is determined. From the laboratory experiments, it is found how intensity of dust transfer abates dust suppression. The experimental findings make it possible to calculate the required number of jets for an aerosol gun.



22.
Geoecological Challenges of Mined-Put Open Pit Area Use in the Ural

L. S. RYBNIKOVA1, P. A. RYBNIKOV1, I. V. TARASOVA2
1Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Ekaterinburg, 620075 Russia
2Ural State University of Architecture and Arts, ul. K. Libknekhta 23, Ekaterinburg, 620075 Russia
Keywords: отходы, выработанное пространство, архитектурно-ландшафтные объекты, подземные воды, поверхностные воды, водоотлив, загрязнение, химический состав, геомиграционное моделирование, рекультивация, waste, mined-out area, architectural-landscape objects, ground water, surface water, water discharge, pollution, chemical compositions, geomigration modeling

Abstract >>
Mining and processing industry forms mining landscape. Reclamation of mined-out areas is an efficient way of the environment protection in mining regions. It is rational to make mining-disturbed lands suitable for further use by taking mineral mining and processing waste. Justification of technology of placing waste in the mined-out void of Vostochny open pit of Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Plant at Magnitnaya Mountain (Chelyabinsk Region) is based on the analysis of hydrodynamic and hydrochemical history of the project, laboratory studies into interaction of backfills with quarry water and prediction modeling of change of conditions in the course of backfilling the open pit by means of modeling hydro-geomigration.



23.
Electrical Prospecting to Detect Place of Spontaneous Heating in Olzherasskaya-Novaya Coal Mine: Case Study

KHI UN LEE, S. V. CHERDANTSEV, V. B. POPOV, P. A. SHLAPAKOV, A. YU. ERASTOV
VostNII Research Center for Mining Safety, ul. Institutskaya 3, Kemerovo, 650002 Russia
Keywords: угольные пласты, горные выработки, выработанное пространство, очаги самонагревания угля, эндогенные пожары, газоаналитический метод, шахтная электроразведка, метод экваториально-дипольного электропросвечивания, интерпретационный критерий, coal beds, mine roadways, mined-out void, coal self-heating places, endogenous fire, gas analysis method, mine electrical prospecting, equatorial dipole sounding, interpretation criterion

Abstract >>
Geophysical methods of detecting places of spontaneous heating in mined-out voids in gently dipping and inclined coal bed in Kuzbass mines are reviewed. The emphasis is laid on the method of equatorial dipole sounding used to determined temperature of coal in the place of spontaneous heating in Olzherasskaya Novaya Mine. The cooling time of the coal and rock nest down to the temperature of surrounding rock mass is estimated, and the self-heating seat suppression actions are proposed.



24.
Size, Location and Time of Initiation of Primary Defects in Rocs under Impact Destruction

I. P. SHCHERBAKOV, V. S. KUKSENKO, A. E. CHMEL'
Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, ul. Politekhnicheskaya 26, Saint-Petersburg, 194021 Russia
Keywords: ударное разрушение, горные породы, фрактолюминесценция, микротрещины, impact destruction, rocks, fractoluminescence, microcracks

Abstract >>
Samples of rocks with different physico-mechanical properties (three kinds of granite, marble and quartzite) were subjected to destruction by impacts. Fractoluminescence was recorded on the damaged surface, and amplitudes and frequencies of series of light pulses were determined. On all test samples, initiation of inter-grain cracks was observed. Defects on the surface of grains in granite samples had two typical sizes conformable with defects in quartz and spar, while uniform content minerals (marble and quartzite) features unimodal distribution of sizes of defects on the surface of grains.