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Russian Geology and Geophysics

2017 year, number 1

1.
THE EVOLUTION OF PLANETS. VENUS AS THE EARTHS PROBABLE FUTURE

N.L. Dobretsov1,2
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Volcanism, planet heating, Earths future, Venus

Abstract >>
The general evolution of planets in the Solar System is discussed with a focus on the structure and history of Venus compared with the Earth. The history of the planets of the terrestrial group has been similar and included at least six correlated stages. Many common features the terrestrial planets shared in their early and late evolution have been due to their common origin from the protoplanetary gas-and-dust nebula and plume magmatism widespread on all the planets of the terrestrial group. The characteristic features of the structure and evolution of Venus are most brightly manifested in the specific composition of its atmosphere and of plume magmatism. Venus, with its surface as hot as 450 ºC and the near-surface pressure of 92-93 bars, has a hot and dense atmosphere 93 times that of the Earth in mass. Most of its atmospheric mass (99%) belongs to the 65 km thick troposphere consisting of CO2 (96.5%) and N2 (3.5%). The upper troposphere includes a 25-30 km thick cloud layer composed mainly of sulfuric acid droplets, water vapor, and SO2. At the height of 49.58 km, the clouds approach the conditions of the terrestrial surface and might be hospitable to bacterial life. Volcanism, the most active and widespread process of Venusian geology, maintains continuous SO2 emission. There are diverse volcanic edifices on Venus, which are most often large and are similar to the Earths plume-related volcanoes. The evolution before 1 Ga, as well as the share and the role of alkaline rocks and carbonatites among its volcanics, are among the most debatable issues about Venus. Being located closer to the Sun, Venus cooled down more slowly and less intensely than the Earth after the primary accretion. In the Proterozoic, it began heating and reached its present state at ~1 or 2 Ga. In the future, as the Sun becomes a red giant, the Earth is predicted to begin heating up in 500-600 Myr to reach the temperature of present Venus in about 1.5 Gyr.



2.
«SPHERULITE-LIKE JADEITE GROWTH IN SHOCK-MELT VEINS OF THE NOVOSIBIRSK H5/6 CHONDRITE

I.S. Bazhan1, S. Ozawa2, M. Miyahara3, E. Ohtani1,2, K.D. Litasov1,4
1V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Department of Earth and Planetary Materials Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan
3Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8526, Japan
4Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Novosibirsk H5/6 chondrite, jadeite, plagioclase melt, shock metamorphism, spherulite-like microtexture

Abstract >>
The Novosibirsk H5/6 ordinary chondrite has signs of shock metamorphism, such as dark shock-melt veins (SMVs) crossing the chondrite host rock. The plagioclase composition grains (Ab78An14Or7) with jadeite were found in the host-rock fragments inside the SMVs. Jadeite has an unusual radial-concentric spherulite-like microtexture. The spherulite-like jadeite formed from the molten plagioclase grain under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions during an impact event. The crystallization was accompanied by Na-K differentiation between coexisting jadeite and residual melt. The PT -conditions of jadeite formation were estimated to be 3-14 GPa and 1400-2150 ºC. Jadeite crystallization, Na-K differentiation, and the pressure-temperature estimates of jadeite formation in the Novosibirsk chondrite are very close to those in the Chelyabinsk LL5 chondrite. The spherulite-like microtexture and jadeite-glass coexistence, most likely, point to a high cooling rate of the SMVs at the pressure release stage of the metamorphic process.



3.
AGE OF THE JOMBOLOK LAVA FIELD (East Sayan): EVIDENCE FROM DENDROCHRONOLOGY AND RADIOCARBON DATING

S.G. Arzhannikov1, A.V. Ivanov1, A.V. Arzhannikova1, E.I. Demonterova1, M. Jolivet2, V.I. Voronin3, V.A. Buyantuev3, V.A. Oskolkov3
1Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
2Géosciences Rennes, UMR6118, CNRS-Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France
3Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 132, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
Keywords: Phases of volcanism, dendrochronology, radiocarbon dating, Jombolok lava field, East Sayan Mountains

Abstract >>
Dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating, with reference to remote sensing, digital elevation modeling, geological, and geomorphological data, provide new age constraints for the Jombolok lava field in the East Sayan Mountains (Siberia). The Jombolok lava field originated in the latest Late Pleistocene and underwent at least four phases of volcanic activity recorded in lava flows. Two earliest phases followed shortly one after another more than 13 kyr ago. The third phase corresponding to eruptions of Kropotkin Volcano can be timed only relatively. The fourth phase has been dated by dendrochronology and AMS 14C of well-preserved wood buried under the youngest lava which occurs among older lavas near the Jombolok River mouth. The age of this activity is bracketed between the death of trees caused by eruptions 1268-928 years ago and the beginning of new tree growth on the surface of the most recent lavas 900 years ago.



4.
GENESIS AND EVOLUTION OF HIGH-pCO2 GROUNDWATERS OF THE MUKHEN spa (Russian Far East)

S.L. Shvartsev1,2, N.A. Kharitonova3,4, O.E. Lepokurova1,2, G.A. Chelnokov4
1Tomsk Branch of the A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskii pr. 4, Tomsk, 634055, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3Lomonosov Moscow State University, Geological Department, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow, GSP-1, 119991, Russia
4Far East Geological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. 100 let Vladivostoka 159, Vladivostok, 690022, Russia
Keywords: High-pCO2 groundwaters, chemical and isotope compositions, water-rock-gas system, formation conditions, Mikhen spa, Khabarovsk Territory

Abstract >>
We present the chemical and isotope compositions of the water and gas phases of the unique Mukhen cold high- p CO2 spa. Estimated δ18O, δD, and δ13CTIC values and data on the geology and hydrogeology of the studied area indicate that the source of the groundwaters is meteoric waters, whereas carbon dioxide is of deep genesis and numerous regional faults are gas-feeding channels. Calculations of equilibrium reactions in the water-rock system show that the upper-aquifer waters (HCO3-Ca-Mg) with low TDS are undersaturated with carbonate minerals, montmorillonites, and aluminosilicates but are oversaturated with kaolinite, whereas the lower-aquifer waters (HCO3-Na) with high TDS are oversaturated with calcite, dolomite, and clay minerals but are undersaturated with main aluminosilicates. We propose a new concept of the formation of these groundwaters, demonstrating that the long interaction between rocks and groundwaters in the presence of CO2 and the considerable deposition of secondary minerals are responsible for the high TDS of the lower-aquifer waters (up to 14 g/L) and their geochemical type (HCO3-Na) and unusual isotope composition (δ18O = -25.2 , δD = -69.0 ).



5.
MINERALOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF BACTERIAL MATS AND TRAVERTINES OF THE KHOITO-GOL THERMAL SPRING (East Sayan)

A.V. Tatarinov1, L.I. Yalovik1, E.S. Kashkak2, E.V. Danilova3, E.A. Khromova1, V.V. Khakhinov2, B.B. Namsaraev3
1Geological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sakh'yanovoi 6a, Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia
2Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sakh'yanovoi 6, Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia
3Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sakh'yanovoi 6, Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia
Keywords: Trace elements, bacteria, mats, geochemical barriers, concentration processes, travertines

Abstract >>
The mineralogical and geochemical features of the Khoito-Gol ecosystem (fresh thermal waters-microorganisms-travertines) of the Baikal Rift Zone and the aspects of the interaction among its components were studied. The research has shown that the behavior, distribution, and accumulation of trace elements are determined mostly by the geochemical barriers of geologic and biologic genesis in the flowing-water habitat of bacteria of the Khoito-Gol spring. Formation of biominerals by different functional groups of its bacterial community is considered.



6.
COSMIC MICROSPHERES IN THE CARBONIFEROUS DEPOSITS OF THE USOLKA SECTION (Urals foredeep)

R.Kh. Sungatullin1, G.M. Sungatullina1, M.I. Zakirov1, V.A. Tselmovich2, M.S. Glukhov1, A.I. Bakhtin1, Yu.N. Osin1, V.V. Vorobev1
1Kazan Federal University, ul. Kremlevskaya 18, Kazan, 420008, Russia
2Borok Geophysical Observatory of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142, Borok Village, Yaroslavl Region, 152742, Russia
Keywords: Carboniferous, cosmic bombardment, magnetite microspheres, chemical composition, paleoclimate, Urals foredeep

Abstract >>
Magnetite microspheres from the Carboniferous deposits of the Usolka reference section were studied by probe microanalysis, with comparison of the distributions of chemical elements and microspheres. The presence of microspheres in sedimentary strata is considered an additional factor for stratigraphic correlation between sedimentary sections. The microspheres are shown to be of cosmic nature. The Late Paleozoic paleoclimatic changes (extreme cooling) and biotic crises were caused by the periodical Solar System motion in the Galaxy, cosmic-dust fallout, and meteorite bombardments of the Earth.



7.
STRATIGRAPHY AND ECOSTRATIGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF FORAMINIFERAL MORPHOGROUPS FROM THE UPPER JURASSIC OF THE MAKARYEV SECTION (Unzha River, Volga River basin)

C. Colpaert1, B.L. Nikitenko1,2, S.N. Khafaeva3
1Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian, stratigraphy, foraminifera, associations, paleoecology, morphogroup analysis, biofacies, Russian Sea, East European Platform

Abstract >>
Investigation of the Upper Callovian to Lower Kimmeridgian microfossils from the Makaryev reference section (Unzha River, East European Platform) has been carried out. The section is characterized by ammonite debris and abundant associations of benthic and planktic foraminifera. It is a perfect object for stratigraphic and paleoecological researches. The biostratigraphic distribution of foraminifers from the Makaryev section allows one to identify standard foraminifer zones of the East European Platform, as well as to upgrade some of them. The analysis of vertical and lateral ammonites and foraminiferal distribution, completed with lithostratigraphy, has precised the stratigraphic volume and position of boundaries of several lithological units. An improved stratigraphic scheme for the Kostroma area of the Moscow Depression is proposed. Analysis of the composition, structure, and dynamic changes of the foraminiferal assemblages has been performed. The morphofunctional analysis of foraminiferal genera has for the first time identified how foraminiferal morphogroups differing in their life style and feeding strategy varied with short-term paleoenvironmental changes. These morphogroup changes allow establishing four ecostratigraphic levels. These paleoecological data have been calibrated along with geochemical factors. They have shown a crisis of foraminiferal association during the Late Oxfordian and Early Kimmeridgian. A similar crisis has also been discovered in the north of Siberia, which may be an argument for its global distribution. The analysis of the taxonomic composition and the density of foraminiferal associations, in parallel with the structure of the association, has revealed a succession of transgressive and regressive events during the Late Callovian-Early Kimmeridgian. It allows the typification of each assemblage in relation with each event and underlines the occurrence of second-order sea level changes (middle Middle Oxfordian and the earliest Kimmeridgian).



8.
PALEOMAGNETISM AND MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE UPPER CRETACEOUS AND CRETACEOUS-PALEOGENE BOUNDARY DEPOSITS IN THE SOUTH OF THE KULUNDA BASIN (West Siberia)

Z.N. Gnibidenko1, A.V. Levicheva1, N.N. Semakov1,2, G.G. Rusanov3
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Gorno-Altaisk Expedition, ul. Sovetskaya 15, Maloeniseiskoe, 659370, Russia
Keywords: Paleomagnetism, magnetostratigraphy, ortozone, reversal, Upper Cretaceous, Lower Paleogene, South of the Kulunda basin, West Siberia

Abstract >>
We discuss the results of paleomagnetic studies of the Upper Cretaceous and Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary deposits in the south of the Kulunda basin (Alei area). Cores of two boreholes with a total thickness of 305 m were studied. Based on the revealed characteristic component of natural remnant magnetization (ChRM) in the studied deposits, we constructed paleomagnetic columns for each borehole and compared the borehole sections. Using the paleomagnetic, geological, stratigraphic, and paleontological data, we compiled the magnetostratigraphic section of the Upper Cretaceous and Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary deposits in the south of the Kulunda basin and recognized five magnetopolar zones within it: one of direct polarity and four of reverse polarity (Upper Cretaceous and Lower Paleogene deposits). The lower part of the Gankino Horizon, of direct polarity, forms one magnetozone of direct polarity N , and the upper part forms two magnetozones of reverse polarity, R 1km and R 2mt. The Lower Paleogene Talitsa and Lyulinvor Formations form two magnetozones of reverse polarity, R1zl and R2i. The compiled magnetostratigraphic section of the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Paleogene deposits is juxtaposed with the magnetochronological scale. Two variants of juxtaposition of the lower directly magnetized part of the section with the Gradstein scale are considered.



9.
NEOTECTONICS AND SEISMICITY OF ERZURUM PULL-APART BASIN, EAST TURKEY

A. Koçyiğit1, M.C. Canoğlu2
1Middle East Technical University, Department of Geological Engineering, Active Tectonics and Earthquake Research Lab, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey, akoc@metu.edu.tr
2Sinop University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, TR-57000 Sinop, Turkey, mccanoglu@sinop.edu.tr
Keywords: Erzurum, pull-apart basin, strike-slip neotectonic regime, active fault, East Anatolian tectonic block

Abstract >>
The study area is the Erzurum pull-apart basin located in the East Anatolian Tectonic Block (EATB), which is under the control of a strike-slip neotectonic regime since the beginning of the Quaternary. The Quaternary Erzurum pull-apart basin is an about 1-30 km wide, 90 km long and actively growing strike-slip depression. It is bounded by the Erzurum-Dumlu sinistral strike-slip fault zone to the east-southeast, by the Aşkale sinistral srike-slip fault zone to the north-northwest, and by the Başköy-Kandilli reverse fault zone and the N-S-trending Ilıca oblique-slip normal fault set to the west. The Erzurum pull-apart basin was evolved by the deformation and subdivision of an E-W-trending older intermontane basin. The new basin has a 0.5 km thick, flat-lying (undeformed) and unconsolidated fill, which overlies, with an angular unconformitry, the deformed (folded and faulted) basement rocks of pre-Quaternary age. Basin fill consists of coarser-grained marginal facies (fault terrace, fan, fan-apron, and superimposed fan deposits) and finer-grained depocentral facies represented by floodplain to organic material-rich marsh deposits. All gradations are seen among these lithofacies. The seismicity of the Erzurum pull-apart basin is quite high. The magnitude of the peak earthquake to be sourced from the active faults (e.g., the Erzurum fault) is about Mw = 7.0. This was proved by both the historical and recent earthquakes. Numerous settlements in the size of a large city (e.g., Erzurum), county, town, and small villages with a total population of over 766.000 are located in and along the active fault-bounded margins of the Erzurum pull-apart basin. They are under the threat of destructive earthquakes to be sourced from the margin-boundary faults. Therefore, based on both the active fault parameters and the water-saturated basin fill, a large-scale earthquake hazard map has to be prepared. This map has to be used in both the earthquake hazard to risk analyses and the redesign of city planning and all type of constructions in Erzurum and other settlements in this region.



10.
FAULT STRUCTURES AND THEIR GEOELECTRIC PARAMETERS IN THE EPICENTRAL ZONE OF THE 27 SEPTEMBER 2003 CHUYA EARTHQUAKE (Gorny Altai) FROM RESISTIVITY DATA

N.N. Nevedrova1,2, E.V. Deev1,2, P.V. Ponomarev1,2
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Vertical electrical soundings, electrical resistivity tomography, Chagan River valley, geoelectric parameters of fault zones

Abstract >>
This paper presents an integrated measurement technique based on DC methods (vertical electrical sounding, electrical resistivity tomography) which was used to identify faults and determine their geoelectric parameters in the western part of the Chuya basin. New information on the structure of the Chagan River valley located in the zone of the disastrous 27 September 2003 Chuya earthquake has been obtained from the results of these methods. Geoelectric cross sections of the sedimentary sequence and the upper part of the basement were obtained from VES data, showing the block structure of the study area. Electrical resistivity tomography sections confirm the presence of a major fault between basement blocks of different heights and indicate the presence of faults bounding the valley on its right side and in the southwestern part.



11.
MAGNETOTELLURIC SOUNDING IN THE WEST TRANSBAIKALIAN SEGMENT OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN FOLD BELT

E.V. Pospeeva1, V.V. Potapov1,2, L.V. Vitte1
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Magnetotelluric sounding, electrical resistivity, geoelectric section, deep rift, rift trough, mountain range, magmatism, granitoids, Earths crust, rift zone, western Transbaikalia

Abstract >>
This paper presents the results of magnetotelluric (MT) studies performed within the West Transbaikalian segment of the Central Asian Fold Belt along the Selenga River delta-Krasnyi Chikoi Village profile. The data are interpreted using the results of recent geological, petrological, geothermal, tectonic, and geochronological studies of the Mongolia-Transbaikalian part of the Central Asian Fold Belt, including large heterochronous igneous provinces and zones. The studies have shown that the investigated area has a complex geologic and tectonic structure produced by extensive rifting leading to the formation of large crustal blocks and by intense magmatic fluid activity along deep fault zones. The investigated profile is characterized by a combination of blocks with different types of geoelectric section-mountain ranges and intermontane basins separated by long-lived deep fault zones.