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2016 year, number 10

1.
Water vapor line wing absorption and violation of the long-wave approximation for molecular centers of mass

Yu.V. Bogdanova, T.E. Klimeshina, O.B. Rodimova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: теория крыльев линий, потенциал межмолекулярного взаимодействия, отказ от длинноволнового приближения, НО, СО, континуальное поглощение, line wing theory, intermolecular interaction potential, violation of the long-wave approximation, continuum absorption

Abstract >>
Further development of the asymptotic line wing theory is presented where the long-wave approximation for the molecular centers of mass is violated. This provides long molecular trajectories going far beyond an elementary volume in the case of the nonresonance light absorption. The occurrence of long trajectories is evidence of a certain degree of ordering of molecular chaos. The latter can be described by means of a modified semiclassical representation method to establish correlation between displacement and velocity operators. An expression for the absorption coefficient is derived that allows an ambiguity concerning the estimation of the parameters of the potentials to be avoided and the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient in line wings to be described. The calculations under consideration employ a diffusion model for H2O absorption in the 3-5 mm window region and for CO2 absorption in the 4.3 mm band wing to describe the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient. It is shown that long molecular trajectories significant for the 8-12 and 3-5 mm H2O window regions can hardly play a role in the 4.3 mm CO2 band wing.



2.
D2О absorption spectrum in the region near 0.95 mm: the n1 + 3n3 rotational-vibrational band

V.I. Serdyukov, L.N. Sinitsa, T.V. Kruglova, E.R. Polovtseva, A.D. Bykov, A.P. Sherbakov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: Фурье-спектроскопия, спектры поглощения водяного пара, центры и интенсивности спектральных линий, молекула DО, Fourier transform spectroscopy, water vapor absorption spectra, line positions and intensities, DО molecule

Abstract >>
D2О absorption spectrum were recorded between 10000 and 11400 cm-1 by a Fourier transform spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 0.05 cm-1. A multipass White’s-type cell was used for spectrum measurements, the optical path length was 40 m. A light emitting diode, which provides more brightness in comparison with other radiation sources, was used as a radiation source. Signal to noise ratios of 104 was obtained. During the D2О spectrum treatment, the experimental line list contained about 100 lines of the n1 + 3n3 band was created. Spectroscopic parameters (line positions, intensities, and half widths) were obtained by fitting experimental data to the Voigt line profiles with using least squares method. The analysis of the spectrum allowed us to derive new energy levels belonging to rovibrational state (103).



3.
Parameters of broadening of water molecule absorption lines by argon pressure using different profile models

T.M. Petrova1, A.M. Solodov1, A.P. Shcherbakov1, V.M. Deichuli1,2, A.A. Solodov1, Yu.N. Ponomarev1, T.Yu. Chesnokova1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: параметры линий поглощения, молекула воды, Фурье-спектрометр, зависящий от скорости контур Фойгта, absorption line parameters, water vapor, Fourier transform spectrometer, speed-dependent Voigt profile

Abstract >>
The absorption spectra of water vapor perturbed by Ar pressure have been investigated in the wavenumber range 6700-7650 cm-1. Room temperature spectra of water vapor have been measured by the Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer with a high signal-to-noise ratio in a wide range of pressure of argon with a spectral resolution of 0.01 cm-1. The fittings with Voigt and speed-dependent Voigt profiles were performed to retrieve the H2O spectral lines parameters. It was shown that the use of the speed-dependent Voigt profile gives the best agreement with experimental data.



4.
Broadening coefficients of water vapor lines induced by pressure of hydrogen, temperature dependence

N.N. Lavrentieva1, A.S. Dudaryonok1
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: полуширина линии, межмолекулярные взаимодействия, метод средних частот, температурный показатель, line broadening, intermolecular interaction, averaged frequency method, temperature exponent

Abstract >>
Theoretical broadening coefficients of rotation vibration water vapor lines induced by hydrogen pressure are given. The averaged frequency method has been used to calculate line widths. Calculations have been performed for a wide interval of rotational quantum numbers in the spectral region from 500 to 10 000 cm-1. Line widths have been computed by the averaged frequency method for rotation quantum number J from 0 to 20, data have been obtained by interpolation of J- dependence for J from 20 to 50. Temperature exponents for line widths have been defined.



5.
Broadening of CO absorption lines, caused by collisions with nanopore walls of hybrid SiO2/Al2O3 хerogel

A.A. Solodov1,2, Yu.N. Ponomarev1,2, T.M. Petrova1, A.M. Solodov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: СО, SiO/AlO-ксерогель, полуширины линий, SiO/AlO хerogel, line half-widths

Abstract >>
Absorption spectrum of carbon oxide confined in nanopores of hybrid SiO2/Al2O3 xerogel has been recorded for the first time. Half-width values of spectral lines was obtained, their dependence on quantum numbers was considered and compared with the data available in literature.



6.
The optimization of sequential code for simulation of solar radiative transfer in a vertically heterogeneous environment

T.V. Russkova, T.B. Zhuravleva
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: солнечная радиация, облачность, метод Монте-Карло, численное моделирование, оптимизация, языки программирования Фортран и Си, solar radiation, clouds, Monte Carlo method, numerical simulation, optimization, Fortran and C programming languages

Abstract >>
Article belongs to the series of works aimed at improving the performance of radiation codes that implement the statistical Monte Carlo method. A brief description of the main blocks of the two programs for calculating the intensity of solar radiation in a vertically inhomogeneous medium, basis, in FORTRAN, and its optimized version, in the C language, is presented. The results of tests aimed at assessing the performance of each of the code under different conditions of numerical experiment are presented. In the cases examined, the performance indicators of optimized C code were higher as compared with the basis one. It is shown that differences in execution time of the codes are reduced by increasing the optical density of the atmosphere, and using more efficient computers. Developed C program can serve as a basis for creating a high-performance radiation code.



7.
Contribution of water vapor continuum absorption to longwave radiative fluxes in the cloudy and cloudless atmosphere

K.M. Firsov1, T.Yu. Chesnokova2, I.I. Klitochenko1
1Volgograd State University, 100, prospect Universitetsky, Volgograd, 400062, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: континуальное поглощение водяным паром, перистые облака, перенос излучения, радиационный форсинг, water vapor continual absorption, cirrus cloud, transfer of radiation, radiative forcing

Abstract >>
The atmospheric transparency window of 8-12 mm is one of the main spectral intervals forming thermal balance of the atmosphere; at that, the contribution of continual absorption to the radiative balance is the most significant. The results of simulation of upward and downward fluxes for different meteorological situations (cloudy and cloudless) are presented; and role of H2O continuum is estimated with use of different models of continual absorption.



8.
Investigation of distortions of images formed by a CuBr laser monitor

M.V. Trigub1,2, M.V. Burkov2,3, P.S. Lyubutin2,3, S.N. Torgaev1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 2/4, pr. Akademicheskii, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: СuBr-лазер, лазерный монитор, скоростная визуализация, качество изображений, СuBr laser, laser monitor, high-speed visualization, image quality

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of quality assessment of images made using a copper bromide vapor laser monitor. Two different imaging techniques were used for the study: laser illumination and amplification using laser active medium (so called laser monitor). The images were numerically evaluated using the following informative parameters: standard error, Shannon entropy (H), and zero mean normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC). It is shown that use of an active medium introduces into images small distortions, which depend on the stability of amplification properties of the active medium. In the scheme of laser illumination, the influence of instability is less pronounced. The imaging in single-frame mode can decrease the distortions introduced by the active medium.



9.
Blue jets and starters laboratory modelling by underpressure apokamp

E.A. Sosnin, V.A. Panarin, V.S. Skakun, V.F. Tarasenko
High Current Electronics Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 634055, Tomsk, 2/3, Academichesky ave.
Keywords: апокамп, искровые разряды, переходные световые явления, стартеры и голубые струи, apokamp, spark discharge, transient luminous events, starters and blue jets

Abstract >>
In laboratory conditions at low pressures of air, corresponding to heights of tens of kilometers above sea level, the apokamp was formed. Apokamp is a plasma jet extending from the spark discharge channel formed by two electrodes, one of which is high voltage and has a positive polarity, and the other is under floating potential. It is established that underpressure apokamp has spectral and morphological features associated with blue jets and starters that observed in the upper layers of the atmosphere.



10.
Determination of the VT-relaxation time of molecules from the compression pulse width of a photoacoustic signal: the effect of gas pressure measurement errors

A.E. Protasevich, B.A. Tikhomirov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: оптико-акустический метод, колебательно-поступательная релаксация молекул, ошибка восстановления, photoacoustic method, vibration-translational (VT) relaxation of molecules, error of restoration

Abstract >>
The influence of gas pressure measurement errors in the chamber of a photoacoustic detector on accuracy of restoration of fast VT-relaxation time of molecules is investigated with the use of numerical simulation of a shape of photoacoustic signal. Using the relaxation of water vapor molecules from the lower excited vibrational state as an example, it is found that for values of the radius of the Gaussian laser beam ω0 ~ 1 mm, typical in experiments with MK-301 microphone, the relaxation time τ0VT ~ 10-6 s x mbar can be restored from the dependencies of duration of photoacoustic compression pulse on gas pressure with a relative errors δτ0VT ≤ 10%, if systematic measurement error of pressure does not exceed 0.03 mbar. An error of restoration is directly proportional to the propagation time of sound through the illuminated area.



11.
Variations of gas components and total pressure in stem and root disc wood of conifer species

B.G. Ageev1, A.N. Gruzdev2, V.A. Sapozhnikova1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: хвойные деревья, цикличность, СО, поздняя древесина, корень сосны, conifers, cyclicity, latewood, pine root

Abstract >>
The content of CO2 and H2O in vacuum-extracted tree-ring wood of stem and root discs of certain conifer species was measured. Annual distributions of these gas components were found to exhibit cyclic behavior. Moreover, distinct cyclicity was also revealed in interannual variations of the total pressure of the vacuum-extracted tree-ring gas samples. It may be safely suggested that diffusion of stem CO2 into the atmosphere will show the same periodic variability. Two hypotheses about the origin of the cyclicity in the tree-ring CO2 distributions are examined.



12.
The validity of asymptotic formulas for recovery of "optical" turbulence parameters from data of the lidar sensing. I. Equations

V.V. Vorob’ev
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: турбулентность, лидары, усиление обратного рассеяния, уравнения Вольтерра и Абеля, lidar, turbulence, backscattering enhancement, Volterra equations and Abel equations

Abstract >>
Asymptotic solutions of the problem of reconstructing the distribution of the structural characteristics of the refractive index fluctuations from the measurement data of the backscatter enhancement effect are derived. Solutions are expressed through fractional derivatives of the backscattering gain in the case of small aperture receiver, or through the ordinary derivatives in the case of receivers with a large aperture. The properties of the integral equation kernel are studied in detail, from which the asymptotic formulas follow. Attention is drawn to the fact that the kernel is oscillating in general. Kernel oscillations little impact the value of the backscattering enhancement, but their impact can be significant on the derivatives of this factor.



13.
Information system for molecular spectroscopy. 7. Systematization of information resources on the main isotopologue of methanol molecule

A.Yu. Akhlestin, S.S. Voronina, A.I. Privezentsev, O.B. Rodimova, A.Z. Fazliev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: метанол, колебательно-вращательные переходы, информационная система W@DIS, methanol, ro-vibrational transitions, information system W@DIS

Abstract >>
Systematization of information resources in quantitative spectroscopy is demonstrated using the methanol molecule as an example and applying the facilities of the W@DIS information system. The choice of quantum numbers for methanol state is explained and brief descriptions of about 40 publications containing spectral characteristics of methanol are given. The main information objects (data and information source) are defined. The interfaces used for the analysis of wavenumber consistency in all data sources and the interface of application for forming measured line list are described.



14.
Spectrum of difference frequency generation of CO and CO2 lasers in an AgGaSe2 crystal at tuning the phase matching angle

O.V. Budilova, A.A. Ionin, I.O. Kinyaevskiy, Yu.M. Klimachev, A.Yu. Kozlov, A.A. Kotkov, L.V. Seleznev
P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, 53 Leninskij Prospekt, 119991, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: cредний ИК-диапазон, молекулярные газовые лазеры, генерация разностных частот, нелинейный кристалл, mid-IR range, molecular gas lasers, difference frequency generation, nonlinear crystal

Abstract >>
The spectrum formation of difference frequency generation between CO2 and CO lasers radiation is theoretically and experimentally studied in an AgGaSe2 crystal at I type phase matching. The study shows a promise of this crystal for developing selective laser sources tunable in the wavelength range 12-16.6 microns. Phase-matching angles for difference frequency generation between CO and CO2 lasers radiation were measured and compared with those calculated by various dispersion equations. The combination of dispersion equations, which describes the difference frequency generation in the wavelength range 12-16.6 μm the most correctly, was chosen.