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2016 year, number 4

1.
THE SOURCES OF PEDAGOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY IN ANCIENT PAIDEIA

Aleksandr A. Korolkov
Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University, 191186, Russia, Sankt-Pitersderg, st. Nabereznaia reki Moiki, 48
Keywords: пайдейя, педагогическая антропология, идеал, человек, Платон, Исократ, нормы, идеи, paideia, pedagogical anthropology, ideal, human being, Plato, Isocrates, norms, ideas

Abstract >>
The ancient paideia is treated in this article as a source of modern pedagogical anthropology. The author relies in his research on the fundamental work «Paideia. Die Formung des griechischen Menschen» by Walter Jaeger. The main attention is paid to the principles of formation of the person’s character in Plato’s dialogues, where education of the individual was treated as the main task of the entire life.



2.
PEDAGOGY OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM REQUIRES A NEW PARADIGM

Valentin V. Fursov
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Russia, 117997, Moscow, st. Ostrovitianova, 1
Keywords: парадигма образования, педагогика третьего тысячелетия, новая педагогика, образование, социальное прогнозирование, глобальные вызовы, paradigm of education, pedagogy of the third Millennium, new pedagogy, education, social forecasting, global challenges

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the problem of searching for a development paradigm of a new system of pedagogy. The article considers the main features of the new pedagogy, which include the continuity of the ancient forms of educational systems, as well as the qualities of mobility, self-tuning, transformation, cognitivity, stability and so on. Creating new pedagogical concepts is very topical; it involves understanding on the philosophical level of the shortcomings of the existing educational system, determining the root causes of the threat-carrying phenomena, and the producing of another paradigm, which should include the foundations of new pedagogical approaches and technologies. It should be taken into account that the formation of a pedagogy of the third millennium should start with the creation of a philosophy of the third millennium, a philosophy of the new pedagogy. The task of the pedagogy of the third millennium is the upbringing of the generations that have a new type of worldview, based on the paradigm of crisis-free, evolutionary, sustainable and harmonious development of human civilization. At the basis of the new worldview should be the understanding that human being is not the king of nature, but only a part of a harmonious cosmic habitat of infinite number of species of living beings, equally interested in the preservation of the Universe and life on the Earth.



3.
UNIVERSITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION: ORGANIZATION, STRUCTURE, MANAGEMENT

Vladimir V. Petrov
Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 6300909, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Nikolaeva, 8
Keywords: постиндустриальное общество, глобализация, производство научного знания, исследовательский университет, организация, управление, коммерциализация знаний, post-industrial society, globalization, scientific knowledge production, research university, organization, management, knowledge commercialization

Abstract >>
In the conditions of complex systemic society transformations, the Russian universities face new challenges that are connected with the necessity of organizational transformation for their integration into the world scientific-educational community. The relations between a university and its environment are characterized by the increasing asymmetry between the requirements of this environment and the university’s abilities to respond to them. Under the influence of growing and crossing pressure of challenges, the universities have to change their curriculum and faculty, and also to modernize their material resources and equipment: in the conditions of post-industrial society, not only technology transference and knowledge translation are required of the universities but also production of the advanced scientific knowledge. In such conditions, the traditional approaches to organization and practice of university education can no longer allow adequately reacting to the constantly changing requirements of the society. As a result, competitiveness of the Russian universities at the global scientific-educational market decreases: in the system of the world ratings, our universities’ positions are far from the desired. The conducted analysis of the development of the American universities that are at the highest lines in the world ratings helped us to point out the key factors that fundamentally influenced on the success of the scientific knowledge production, its translation and commercialization in the era of complex social-cultural transformations. On the basis of the carried out analysis, it is concluded that the Russian university which is oriented towards the increase of its competitiveness among the leading world scientific-educational centers, and, consequently, towards inclusion into the world ratings has to be more autonomous and to interact closely with the Academy of Science, because fundamentally the systems of fundamental knowledge production in Russia and in the USA are different from the beginning. Such approach helps to react adequately to new challenges of the society, providing high mobility of the research corpus, professorial staff and studentship between different areas of knowledge, various educational bodies and scientific-research institutions that may have a positive effect both on the system of new scientific staff training and on the process of fundamental knowledge reproduction in general.



4.
PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF PATRIOTISM IN MODERN RUSSIA Part II. The axiological aspect

Alexey V. Nalivayko1, Nina V. Nalivayko2, Pavel E. Tarkin3
1Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Viluiiskaya, 28
2Institute of Philosophy and Law of the RAS, 6300909, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Nikolaeva, 8
3V. V. Kuibyshev Military Engineering Academy, 109028, Russia, Moscow, av. Pokrovskii Bulvar, 11
Keywords: Отечество, патриотизм, патриотическое сознание в современной России, воспитание, образование, глобализация, общечеловеческие ценности, Fatherland, patriotism, patriotic consciousness in modern Russia, upbringing, education, globalization, universal human values

Abstract >>
The questions of the essence, conditions and specifics of formation of patriotism concern the education community, all Russian citizens, who worry about possible scenarios and prospects of development of Russia, its destiny. These issues are increasingly being discussed in the case studies of expert communities; they attract the attention of the elite, the highest echelons of power. The patriotic consolidation of recent years «around the flag» - is it an illusion or a real trend of the spiritual development of Russia? How is this consolidation related to the anti-Westernism and economic crisis, the fall in living standards? The Western Russophobia and the anti-Western sentiments in Russia - are they mobilizing or destroying factors in the formation of patriotic consciousness of the Russian youth? The state of the Russian economy, politics, social and spiritual relationships - whether it weakens or strengthens the Fatherland and patriotism? What social reform, changes in the cultural sphere, educational and educational system are needed for the revival and strengthening of Russian patriotism, love for the country, when the foundations of the former patriotism have been partially or completely destroyed? This article is an attempt to answer these questions. It considers the essence of the modern Russian patriotism, the conditions of formation and revival of patriotic consciousness of the people in Russia. It is shown that Russian patriotism has a qualitatively new content, including traditional and innovative features. The starting point for the analysis of patriotism (as the unity of patriotic consciousness and action at the individual and social, psychological and ideological levels) is the fundamental position that the quality and effectiveness of patriotic consciousness depend on the state of the Fatherland, its spiritual and ideological sphere and the education-upbringing system.



5.
PARLIAMENTARY CONTROL IN LEGAL EDUCATION: A CONCEPTUAL-PRAXIOLOGICAL ASPECT

Lubov F. Shcherbinina1, Irina L. Akimova2, Konstantin A. Kuzmenko2, Larisa G. Serebryakova1
1Altai State Technical University, 656038, Russia, Barnaul, av. Lenina, 46
2Altai State University, Russia, 656049, Barnaul, st. Lenina, 61
Keywords: Федеральное Собрание, парламентский контроль, конституционное право, конституция, контрольная функция, федеральные законы, государственная власть, механизм исполнения законов, the Federal Assembly, parliamentary control, constitutional right, constitution, control function, Federal laws, state power, law enforcement mechanism

Abstract >>
Contemporary world social processes acquire growing dynamics. Under such conditions, the importance is increasing of the social-legal processes and political-legal management of the society, hence the importance of social management control. In the present article, the authors place an emphasis on the problem of the control of Federal Justice administration which is one of the factors of the increasing of quality of laws and, as a consequence, the improvement of the quality of life of society. The significance of the supervision of federal laws implementation by the Parliament of the Russian Federation is studied in the article. It is pointed out that the Constitution of the Russian Federation is a strong basis for that. In the adopted Federal Law «On Parliamentary Control», the formulated forms of control collectively and in a generalized sense set forth everything that has already been covered in special legislative acts. As a topical issue, we identify such negative factor as plethora of laws on introducing amendments to current laws. Sometimes they completely depreciate legislative act, i.e. the executor of the law acquires a psychological attitude of non-obligatory nature of law enforcement. This fact naturally negatively influences the quality of state-legal life, the standards of living of the society members. According to the authors, one of the reasons for insufficient organization level of control of laws enforcement is the absence of special training of public servants providing the support for the activity of both the deputies of state legislative power bodies of federal and regional levels and of municipal deputies. The attention is payed to the fact that this problem requires not only applied but also theoretical interpretation. However, it is impossible to achieve this during the practical activity. Thus a scientific-educational aspect is necessary in the system of legal personnel training. Hence, the given problem rises to the level of innovations in legal education. For a start, the author suggests to organize a special course on the given problem and, in the longer term, to introduce a separate specialization. In addition, specific step-by-step measures to implement the control function of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation are suggested by the authors.



6.
THE FEATURES OF STRUCTURING OF THE AUTHOR’S TRAINING COURSE ON THE SUBJECT OF "TECHNOLOGY" IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARD

Yulia V. Lymareva
G. I. Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Russia, 455000, Magnitogorsk, av. Lenina, 38
Keywords: инновационное образование, структурирование учебно-методического материала, компетентностный подход, требования ФГОС, innovative education, structuring of educational and methodological material, competence-based approach, the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard

Abstract >>
The article discusses various methodological approaches to the content of modern education in the context of new standards. Different points of view on this issue are considered. The author's analysis of the Federal State Educational Standards (FSES) and the model program on the subject of «Technology», created on their basis, as well as personal participation in the development of content of the innovative training programs for the teachers of technology in the aspect of new requirements of FSES for general education and their implementation in Magnitogorsk, the experience of communication with the teachers, a joint analysis of the situation and the official documents, as well as the author’s own practical teaching experience in this area have allowed presenting a synthesis in this article devoted to the characteristics and possibilities of use in the practice of organizational and technological content and structuring components of any educational subject. A particular attention is paid to the understanding of the structure of the training course on the subject of «Technology» which determines the future strategy for the ways of its development and diagnostics. The proposed structure of the levels of subject competence development allows “programming” the whole process of learning so as to consistently and systematically organize the study of large volumes of information, and, which is the most valuable, implement a complex system of development of the «personal potential». The article reveals, in considerable detail, the topic planning for the «Technology» subject, based on the integration of the content of the educational material of the course as a system of contextual problems that contribute to the integrated use of the systematic knowledge from various fields of science. The author notes that the proposed combination of sections in the framework of introduction of innovative teaching methods allows fulfilling several requirements of the Federal Standards without losing the quality of education: such integration within the same topic allows achieving both intersubject project interaction of several teachers, combining all aspects of the practical and theoretical activities, and organizing extra-curricular educational activity for the students of one teacher, solving the problem of motivation to study the subject. Thus, such methodical organization of the training process has continually evolving nature, which corresponds to the requirements of modern education: the student independently adjusts the pace and the quality of his/her training, understands the limits of his/her capabilities, thus demonstrating creativity and realizing reflection.



7.
PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL SPACE

Sergey I. Chernykh1, Irina G. Borisenko2
1Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, 630039, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Dobrolybova, 160
2Siberian Federal University, av. Svobodnii, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: единое информационно-образовательное пространство, электронное образовательное пространство, система образования, электронная среда, common information and educational space, the electronic educational space, educational system, electronic environment

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the peculiarities of the Russian education system in terms of development of information society and the integration of Russia into the global education system. The authors examine the specifics of implementation in the educational process of new information and communication technologies and analyze these technologies allowing for the formation of professional competence in the study of special subjects in the technological university. The authors argue that the use of independent work of modern information technologies, interactive e-learning courses and involvement of students in project activities increase motivation to learn, and its effectiveness. In general, this process is considered as the creation of an educational electronic environment, where tools and forms of education, based on new information technologies have become an important part of a single information and educational space.



8.
MEME-ETHICS: A MEMETIC APPROACH TO THE DISCURSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF A GLOBAL ETHOS

Liya R. Askhanova
Russian State University for the Humanities, Russia, 125993, Moscow, GSP - 3, st. Miysskaya ploshad, 6
Keywords: меметика, мем, мемаэтика, мемэтос, моральный дискурс, гуманизм, глобальный этос, делиберативная демократия, постнеопозитивизм, memetics, meme, meme-ethics, moral discourse, humanism, global ethos, deliberative democracy, post-neopositivism

Abstract >>
This article addresses the problem of developing morally significant behavioral models in public consciousness. It is substantiated that the anti-normative trend initiated by postmodernist relativism has become increasingly ineffective at this time of increasing global challenges. The author proposes a memetic approach to ethics: meme-ethics. The importance is noted of establishing universally agreed bases for coexistence and mutual understanding in the process of forming a global ethos. The article reveals the role and significance of rational public discourse in developing a wide consensus on moral issues. The resulting collective reflection creates a discursive legitimization of moral norms with the possibility of giving epistemological legitimacy to a pragmatic basis of morality. Public discourse (including social networking) as a kind of deliberative democracy (participatory democracy) requires the pre-existence of a common basis for discussion shared by participants in the local and global discourse. As such a basis, the author proposes the humanist values and principles enshrined in many of the fundamental documents of the UN and the European Union. A problem remains regarding the level of moral and social maturity of the majority of the participants in public communication, as well as the level of their ethical and humanistic literacy. In this regard, the author emphasizes the importance of the continuing promotion of ethical discourse in the public space by the scientific and philosophical community as a means of socialization, education and cultural emancipation. In the search for new approaches and technologies of the information-communicative influence on the public discourse, this article analyzes a memetic approach. Based on the presented review, the author proposes a new paradigm, meme-ethics, as an innovative method of promoting and disseminating ethical concepts and moral norms in the media and cyberspace. The meme-ethical approach is based on the concept of memes applied to ethics, an ethical meme-plex, where moral principles and values are considered as units of cultural information (replicable concepts) that are being disseminated through communication, imitation and repetition. The author describes the characteristics of meme-ethics as forms of moral philosophy that both present moral ideas and inspire moral feelings. An integrated approach to communications based on this concept will require a variety of tools and technologies (advertising, PR, TV, journalism etc.) to gain the attention of a wide audience, engage them in the moral-ethical sphere of communication, and initiate moral reflection. The author concludes that meme-ethics can become a form of global communication, involving its participants in discursive interaction on the creation of a general moral continuum. The meme-ethical approach can be considered as a new direction of communicatory post neo-positivism, whose main objective is to research questions of the adaptation, transfer and diffusion of ethical and philosophical knowledge to assist in the development of a new global ethos. The results of the conducted research provide a deeper theoretical justification for the application of modern media technologies to the field of ethical education and upbringing. The meme-ethical approach promotes, together with the growth of ethical and philosophical knowledge, the possibility of designing and managing public ethical discourse. The realization of the full potential of this new approach will require an expansion of research in this field.



9.
THE ROLE OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IN HARMONIZATION OF THE ETHNO-CONFESSIONAL RELATIONS OF THE YOUTH (ON THE EXAMPLE OF NOVOSIBIRSK REGION)

Dmitry V. Ushakov
Institute of Philosophy and Law of the SB of RAS, 6300909, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Nikolaeva, 8
Keywords: стратегия, национальная политика, молодежь, система образования, межэтнические, межконфессиональные отношения, формально-бюрократический подход, strategy, national policy, youth, system of education, inter-ethnic, inter-confessional relations, formal and bureaucratic approach

Abstract >>
In the article we investigate regional features of realization of the strategy of national policy in the sphere of education. On the example of the Novosibirsk region, we consider the mechanisms of harmonization of the ethno-confessional relations among the student youth. The author analyzes positive tendencies and negative effects of administrative-command regulation in the sphere of interethnic and inter-confessional relations among the youth. The sociological data confirm strengthening of religiousness among youth. It is shown that introduction and expansion of the course «Foundations of Religious Cultures and Secular Ethics» can lead to complication of the interfaith relations in the future. Heads of schools note that administrative requirements of obligatory registration of migrants’ children and their parents transfer the activity of establishments from the educational-upbringing plane to the plane of controlling functions, and promote isolation of separate schools on the basis of ethnicity. The compulsory character of obligatory participation in the mass actions directed to fostering patriotism leads to strengthening of mistrust towards these actions and psychological estrangement of their participants. In conclusion, author notes that in Novosibirsk a rich positive experience has been accumulated on strengthening and harmonization of the interethnic relations among the youth. While introducing new approaches in the realization of ethno-cultural ad ethno-confessional policy, it is necessary to positively stimulate the creative potential of teachers and pupils, taking into account their needs. Strengthening of formalism and bureaucracy is especially dangerous in this sphere and may promote development of negative tendencies.



10.
COMPETENCE-BASED EXAMINATIONS AS A MODERN FORM OF EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENTS EVALUATION

Pavel P. Glukhov
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Russia, 630073, Novosibirsk, av. Prospekt Marksa, 20
Keywords: компетентностный подход, продуктивные компетенции, компетентностные испытания, оценка образовательных результатов, проектный метод обучения, competency based approach, productive competencies, competence-based examinations, educational achievements evaluation, project method of teaching

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to the concrete definition of competency-based approach concepts in educational practices and to the contents of educational achievements, which are to be obtained by its means. Concrete expressions are given to provide the basis and institutionalization for new forms of educational achievements evaluation within the framework of the competency-based and functional paradigms. The paper also presents the differentiation between productive and reproductive competencies as two types of educational results, predetermining different types of educational contents, forms of the educational process, and forms of educational achievements evaluation. Within the framework of this differentiation, especially in the framework of productive activities, the person’s ability to act in the moments of uncertainty when the question of possession of specific competencies becomes acute, adopts a special meaning. The author adheres to the opinion that the students have to be emerged exactly into these situations when evaluating the competency achievements, which requires adopting new methods and forms of evaluation. The author believes that modern educational practices are to make a step towards the formation of productive competencies, and also perform a number of fundamental changes in the structure and contents of the educational process. Performing such a shift may provoke major reconsideration of the evaluation format which is not similar to the traditional one. The article is aimed at shaping the base principles of the educational achievements evaluating and at reconstruction of some of their bases. The paper also provides a critical analysis of the project method of teaching as one of the methods claiming to provide setting up the productive competencies. The peculiarities of the practice-oriented education as providing self-determination and engaging students into the spheres of practical tasks are revealed. The article provides grounds to support the idea that in the process of formation and evaluation of productive competencies, an open-type problematic material should be used as a unit. The work also features an attempt to formulate some modern fundamental competencies at the edge of teenagers, at tracing which the new forms of evaluation of educational achievements should be aimed at.



11.
THE PROBLEM OF FORM IN MODERN DIDACTICS

Aleksandr A. Popov1, Semyon V. Ermakov2, Pavel P. Glukhov1
1Novosibirsk State Technical University, Russia, 630073, Novosibirsk, av. Prospekt Marksa, 20
2Siberian Federal University, av. Svobodnii, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Keywords: теория образования, дидактика, форма, educational theory, didactics, form

Abstract >>
Form is one of the key concepts in modern educational theory and practice. The results and effects of educational systems mainly depend on how a specific field of knowledge, the educational process and its components are shaped. Today it is inappropriate to question the primacy of form or contents as form is substantial and contents are modeled. These categories have an immediate correlation. The article is devoted to the concrete definition of one of the central didactics concepts, the definition of «form». The paper includes a historical reconstruction of this concept and its hermeneutic analysis. Three notions of form differentiation are provided: an object’s structural organization, a situational structural organization, and a subject's structure. The fact that for modern didactics the form is not a means of «packaging» the knowledge and not a means of its transmission, but rather an activity management structure is presented. The grounds are presented for claiming that education set up in a reproductive form is certainly decelerating compared to education set up in a productive form, which has a chance to become leading. Didactics can be viewed as a narrow applied discipline based on logical and psychological models, building up schemes of an optimal cognitive process and mastering new knowledge. This setting can be clearly traced in classical researches implying the pupil’s passive role of the object of education (it was accurately formulated by I. Y. Lerner), and in the works created in the framework of functional approach, in which the pupil is meant to be the subject (with the understanding of subjectivity reduced to logical or psychological notions). Another setting can be considered: viewing education as a philosophical practice with expanding the subjectivity problem, as a problem of involving the person into cultural practices and forms of activity, his/her self-determination and self-actualization as a socio-cultural subject able to set his/her own, not motivated by school objectives. This concept that has been developing in the classical European rationalism tradition is rather abstract as a philosophical concept. This is why the way to constructing the real educational theory calls both for addressing the philosophical category system, especially for understanding the subject and the form structuring and compiling the subject, as well as for those educational practices, in which this wide frame of concept is contained.



12.
CATEGORIES OF THE SINGULAR, PARTICULAR AND GENERAL IN THE SPHERE OF ADAPTIVE PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR PEOPLE WITH SPEECH PATHOLOGY

Sofia G. Dudkina
School № 30, Belgorod, Russia, 308000, Belgorod, st. Grazdanskii prospect, 38
Keywords: категории философии, адаптивная физическая культура, единичное, особенное, всеобщее, взаимосвязь категорий, лица с нарушениями речи, принцип, методика, categories of philosophy, adaptive physical education, the singular, the particular, the general, interconnection of categories, people with speech pathology, principle, methods

Abstract >>
The goal of the paper is to consider the philosophical categories of the singular, special and universal in the aspect of adaptive physical education for the people with speech pathology. In the study the categories of singular, particular and general are analyzed through the prism of the adaptive physical education regarding people with speech disorders. These categories, reflected in the adaptive physical education, are refracted in the paper as a methodological basis for correction of general speech underdevelopment. They are also positioned as the initial provisions of a new principle of the adaptive physical education - the connection between physical development and speech, which is taken as a basis for correcting general speech underdevelopment by means of physical training. The problem of the categories of the singular, particular and general in the adaptive physical education has not been adequately considered, especially with regards to the individuals with speech disorders. Using the categories of the singular, particular and general in physical culture as a methodological basis for correcting general speech underdevelopment is a new approach. The categories considered in this paper are studies for the first time as the core of a new principle of the adaptive physical education. The principle of connection between the physical development and speech has been developed using the methods of philosophy: the scientific, dialectical, axiomatic, hermeneutic, formal logical, empirical cognition and deduction. Its development was based on the mutual links of the categories of the singular, particular and general. With regard to the technique of correcting general speech underdevelopment through physical training, this principle means the following: - Physical development is very important for the normal development of the child's speech, whereas for kids with speech pathology it plays a crucial role as it serves as a mechanism for correcting the speech sphere, as a trigger for speech. Without achieving an appropriate level of physical development, speech is impossible for children; - Physical development affects speech, including the writing skills: the better the physical development, the higher is the level of speech development; and, vice versa, the worse the physical development indicators, the lower is the level of speech development. The principle of interconnection between physical development and speech can be used in the adaptive physical education regarding different nosology, since the speech function is impaired also along with abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system, mental retardation, impairments of hearing and vision and autism disorders. The developed principle should become a basic for the methods to correct general speech underdevelopment through physical training. Thus, the researchers in the field of philosophy of education, including that of sports, adaptive physical education experts, may find this paper useful.



13.
THE ROLE OF GAMES IN THE FORMATION OF THE SAFE BEHAVIOR CULTURE

Oksana A. Popova1, Pavel P. Glukhov2, Aleksandr P. Kaitov1
1Moscow City Pedagogical University, Russia, 129226, Moscow, st. 2-I Selskoxozaistwennii prospect, 4
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, Russia, 630073, Novosibirsk, av. Prospekt Marksa, 20
Keywords: социализация, культура безопасности, компетенция безопасности, игра, дошкольный возраст, socialization, safety culture, safely competency, game, preschool age

Abstract >>
The idea of purposeful protection of children from the adult world is quite evident in modern educational practices. In the educational system, interactions between lower age children and older children are disrupted with the purpose of greater risk reduction; this can be noticed in the example elementary schools occupying a separate wing of a school campus with a playground and other necessary facilities. Such measures are applied on the assumption of teachers and parents that young children may learn something bad or immoral from older children. The consequences of the «protective» discourse in providing children’s security find a reflection in the growing patronage tendency and in the inability of children to control their life activities (inability to make decisions on their own) and to find a way of actions in problematic circumstances (inability to find a solution in unusual and problematic situations). People in Russia are aware of the abovementioned problems. A child’s life safety and health protection are among the most relevant objectives of preschool education. The formation of safe behavior in private and social life is one of the components of the preschool socio-communicative development established by the Russian preschool Federal State Learning Standard. It is fair to say that providing children’s life safety is not restricted to regulations and social control by various services and state authorities. Not only does the social safety category cover the outer social environment, but it is also related to the children’s abilities and aptitudes, which have to be developed beginning from the preschool age. The authors believe that the problem of formation of the safe behavior culture and safety competency is conditioned by ignoring the principles of functional approach by the modern socialization institutions. One of productive ways of overcoming this contradictory problem lies in considering the importance of game formats and their development in modern educational practices. The article is devoted to the role of game forms in the safe behavior culture formation for the preschoolers. The role of game forms is justified by the game being the main age-specific knowledge forming activity for the preschoolers. The article analyses the experience of using game forms in safe behavior culture formation in the Russian Federation, Germany and Anglo-Saxon countries (Great Britain and the USA).



14.
ROLE OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN THE COURSE OF TRAINING IN THE FINE ARTS

Kseniya A. Kravchenko, Konstantin B. Babenko
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Viluiiskaya, 28
Keywords: визуальное восприятие, изобразительная деятельность, свойства восприятия, изображение с натуры, visual perception, graphic activity, properties of perception, depiction from nature

Abstract >>
In the article, we substantiate the topicality of studying the process of visual perception in the context of training in the fine arts. The authors focus their attention on that the interest in formation, development and functioning of visual perception is conditioned by practical application of its results in the course of training in the fine arts. Efficiency of implementation of various modern innovative techniques directed on achievement of personal, metasubject and subject results of assimilation of training programs is not reached without understanding of structure and functioning of visual perception of the artist. On the fine arts classes, there takes place stimulation of the visual perception of pupils directed not only on mastering the technical aspect of graphic activity, but also understanding the essence of creative process.



15.
THE INCREASING ROLE OF ARTS AND CRAFTS IN THE ART EDUCATION IN THE YEARS 1980-2000

Maksim V. Sokolov, Marina S. Sokolova
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University, 630126, Russia, Novosibirsk, st. Viluiiskaya, 28
Keywords: профессиональное декоративное искусство, народное прикладное искусство, художественные промыслы, художественное образование, professional decorative arts, folk applied arts, arts and crafts, art education

Abstract >>
The authors note that during the period 1980-2000, significant changes occur in the role of arts and crafts in the cultural space of the country and the principles of their use in education for development of the younger generation, upbringing its artistic culture. The analysis of the trends occurring in the decorative and the easel arts has allowed to understand that there takes place a sharp demarcation of the folk and professional arts, the decorative art becomes an integral part of the environment approach, at the artistic enterprises there comes forward the master artist, whose work becomes synonymous with the trade as such. All this leads to the fact that arts and crafts turned are turning into manufacture with samples and copies. This leads to proliferation in the period 1970-80 of the most known crafts and types of decorative art. Copying becomes the base of studying the trade or the types of applied art. In contrast to this attitude to the indiscriminate spread of traditional Russian crafts, there arises a conservative-protective theory in the art study and, as a result, a regional component of the school curricula. The regional approach allows including more actively into the curriculum the acquaintance of students with local artists and masters of decorative arts and crafts. Thus, in the school curricula and programs of additional education, the process of attracting material on local crafts and crafts is more and more active. The article presents the dynamics of studies in the field of art education, dedicated to the role of the arts and crafts of the country. The authors, based on the analysis of scientific research, highlight a number of areas that address the incorporation of arts and crafts into the educational process, which are critical to this period: 1) aesthetic and labor education; 2) creativity in all its forms; 3) preservation and development of folk and national art; 4) methodological and organizational development of training; 5) improved training for teachers on specific types of decorative and applied art.