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2016 year, number 8

1.
Relation of climatic characteristics with cyclonic activity in winter over Siberia in 1976-2011

N.V. PODNEBESNYKH, I.I. IPPOLITOV, M.V. KABANOV
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
Keywords: приземная температура воздуха, приземное давление, облачность, циклоническая активность, территория Сибири, surface temperature, surface pressure, cloudiness, cyclonic activity, the territory of Siberia

Abstract >>
According to data from 163 meteorological stations over Siberia (50-70o N; 60-110o E) the temperature, surface pressure, and cloud cover estimates for the winter period (December-February) were calculated over 1976-2011. Also, using surface synoptic maps, time series of winter cyclone characteristics, such as the total number and pressure centers, were derived. Two time intervals found in variations of climatic characteristics and cyclone activity characteristics: 1976-1990 and 1991-2011. Over the first period, the temperature and cloud cover increase and surface pressure falls, which reduces the number of cyclones and their intensification, i.e., deepening. Over the second period, there is a tendency with an opposite sign. The correlation analysis between the climate variables and cyclonic activity characteristics allowed us to consistently describe the impact of cyclones on the surface pressure and cloudiness.



2.
Classification of climate of the Northern hemisphere using phases of temperature signals

N.N. Cheredko1, V.A. Tartakovsky1, V.A. Krutikov1, Yu.V. Volkov1,2
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: синхронность, фаза температурных рядов, классификация климата, Северное полушарие, внешние факторы, synchronicity, temperature series phase, climate classification, Northern hemisphere, external factors

Abstract >>
This paper presents the results of structuring surface temperatures in the Northern hemisphere for the period of modern climate changes. Main idea of the proposed classification is the geographic conditionality of the phase modulation of the temperature signal. The criterion is the consistency, namely, phasing of the temperature oscillations in certain geographic areas. We believe that changes in the synchronization modes of climatic processes during changing climate lead to transformations of the spatial structure of the temperature field because of transition of the system to the new state. The temperature series are represented as phase-modulated oscillations. External and internal disturbances, having influenced on the climate system, form a complicated modulation of the phase, and it is partly corresponded to these ones. Initial temperature space of 818 series is structured into 17 regional clusters, where the temperature changes occur synchronously. Properties of the resulting clusters and their compliance with the known climatic classifications are discussed. The classifying algorithm affords ground for the researchers to choose the degree of differentiation of the investigated field depending on the task. The phase modulation indices were evaluated, to identify manifestations of the external forcing in the surface temperature. Inconsistency of the indices to those in the case of the harmonic phase modulation allows quantifying the role of the regional climate-factors for each class. Modulation, which is the closest to the harmonic one, was found in the area of the North Atlantic thermohaline conveyor. During the study of the climate change, the proposed approach can be used as an analytical framework on any spatial scale, only by data on the surface temperature, and with predetermined level of detalisation. Searching synchronization in nonlinear chaotic systems may become one of the perspective ways to optimize the predictive models.



3.
Dynamics of climate extremes in Western Siberia

L.A. Ogurtsov1, N.N. Cheredko1, M.V. Volkova2, G.G. Zhuravlev2
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: extreme temperature indices, precipitation extreme indices, Western Siberia, synchronicity of changes, extreme temperature indices, precipitation extreme indices, Western Siberia, synchronicity of changes

Abstract >>
This paper presents the analysis results of the space-time structure of temperature and precipitation extreme indices. Four indicators were chosen to represent temperature indices, and four indicators, to study precipitation indices. For calculating the indices we used daily data for 75 meteorological stations in Western Siberia for the period 1961-2013. The period under study was divided into two intervals: 1961-1990 and 1991-2013 for assessing the trends. The results show the statistically significant decrease in the frequency of cold days and nights for the period 1991-2013 as compared to the period 1961-1990 at some stations. Conversely, we found a slight increase of warm extreme temperatures. The tendencies of extreme precipitation indices indicate a high irregular distribution in Western Siberia. Results show negative trends for all extreme indices of precipitation only in the northern part of the territory considered. The study shows here a decrease in the number of days with precipitation of different intensity by 1-2 days. The south territory is characterized by a growth of precipitation indices by 1-2 days. The results show that precipitation extreme indices mainly insignificantly change in the average from period to period. This may be due, in part, to a sparse observational network, especially north of 60 degrees latitude, which confirms the need to optimize it. Most optimally this problem can be solved through the use of autonomous automatic measuring systems. Using the principal component analysis, we found that the temperature indices have a relatively high synchronicity in changes on the studied territory. This fact may be due to the contribution of large-scale processes. On the other hand, the analysis of the extreme precipitation shows inconsistency in its changes within the territory. This may confirm that local factors over different parts of the selected area impact significantly the formation of precipitation.



4.
The relationship of tropospheric circulation cells with variability of meridional heat fluxes over the territory of Siberia

S.V. Loginov, E.I. Moraru, E.V. Kharyutkina
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
Keywords: ячейки циркуляции, меридиональная циркуляция, потоки тепла, сибирский сектор, circulation cells, meridional circulation, heat fluxes, Siberian sector

Abstract >>
In this study, the research of spatiotemporal changes of meridional circulation cells over the Siberian sector in the Northern hemisphere was carried out using reanalysis data over two time intervals: the period of intensive global warming 1976-1998 and the period of its slowdown 1999-2014. It was revealed that the most significant changes are observed in winter season in the beginning of XXI century: almost complete disappearance of the polar cell and intensification of Hadley and Ferrell cells was revealed. Tendencies in the changes of advective and eddy meridional heat fluxes and their relationship with stream function were also obtained and analyzed. Thus, there is the intensification of eddy circulation and the increase of the number of its centers in all months over the period of global warming weakening. It leads to meridional circulation development, strengthening of blocking processes, and, therefore, to the decrease of meridional heat fluxes in the Siberian sector in the beginning of XXI century.



5.
The main types of electric field variations during the passage of cumulonimbus clouds of different genesis

K.N. Pustovalov, P.M. Nagorskiy
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
Keywords: атмосферное электричество, кучево-дождевые облака, ливневые осадки, грозы, atmospheric electricity, cumulonimbus, showers, thunderstorms

Abstract >>
Variations in the potential gradient of the electric field in the surface air layer during the passage of cumulonimbus clouds (Cumulonimbus, Cb) are investigated. More than 450 cases with Cb were reviewed. The method of selection of the structural elements, according to the potential gradient variations caused by the passage of Cb, was suggested. The formalization of the selected variations was carried out and the main types of the electric field potential gradient changes were identified. The parameters characterizing the potential gradient variation and its structural elements were defined for each type of the potential gradient variations. Interrelations between the features of the potential gradient variation types and characteristics of different origin Cb at different development stages were described.



6.
Determination of precipitation type using the results of optical measurements of the precipitation microstructure characteristics

V.V. Kalchikhin, A.A. Kobzev, V.A. Korol’kov, A.A. Tikhomirov
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
Keywords: оптический осадкомер, вид осадков, размер и скорость частиц осадков, precipitation gauge, precipitation type, size and velocity of precipitation particles

Abstract >>
The paper presents the principles of measuring the precipitation characteristics imaging and analyzing precipitation particle shadows. The method of precipitation type determination is described. It is based on microstructure characteristics measurements using the optical precipitation gauge. The measurements of the size and velocity ratios for rain and snow precipitation particles are presented.



7.
The atmospheric turbulence profile measurement method from observations of laser guide stars

V.V. Nosov, V.P. Lukin, E.V. Nosov, A.V. Torgaev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: турбулентность, высотный профиль турбулентности, лазерные опорные звезды, turbulence, high-altitude turbulence profile, laser guide stars

Abstract >>
Earlier, a method of restoration of a profile of atmospheric turbulence has been proposed by the authors in two intersecting laser beams, creating laser guide stars. Results of further development of this method are given in the present article. In particular, for Kolmogorov turbulence, the integral equation with a sharp kernel like delta function, which allows restoring a high-altitude profile more simply and more exactly, than in the initial version of a method, is constructed. Data of numerical experiment shows a good restoration of a profile of real turbulence up to heights of 10 km.



8.
Variations in optical and microphysical characteristics of aerosol along the route of Russian Antarctic Expeditions in the East Atlantic

S.M. Sakerin1, D.M. Kabanov1, V.V. Polkin1, V.F. Radionov2, B.N. Holben3, A. Smirnov3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, 199397, St. Petersburg, ul. Behring, 38, Russia
3NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Keywords: аэрозольная оптическая толща, концентрации аэрозоля и «сажи», пространственное распределение, Восточная Атлантика, Южный океан, aerosol optical depth, aerosol and black carbon concentrations, spatial distribution, East Atlantic, Southern Ocean

Abstract >>
The 12-year aerosol studies along the route of the Russian Antarctic Expeditions in the East Atlantic and the Southern Ocean are summarized. We analyzed the spatial distribution (with 5o latitudinal step), seasonal (November/April) variations, and interrelations between aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics. It is shown that the latitudinally average variations in aerosol parameters in the East Atlantic exceed one order of magnitude. The lowest (maximal) values are observed near Antarctica (in tropical zone): aerosol optical depth (0.5 μm) varies from 0.02 to 0.5, number concentrations of small particles (d = 0.4-1 μm) vary in the range 0.8-19 cm-3, concentrations of large (d > 1 μm) particles vary in the range 0.04-2.2 cm-3, and aerosol and black carbon mass concentrations vary in ranges 0.5-14 μg/m3 and 0.026-0.7 μg/m3, respectively.



9.
Structure of aerosol fields of the atmospheric boundary layer according to aerosol and Doppler lidars during the passage of atmospheric fronts

G.P. Kokhanenko, Yu.S. Balin, M.G. Klemasheva, I.E. Penner, S.V. Samoilova, S.A. Terpugova, V.A. Banakh, I.N. Smalikho, A.V. Falits, T.M. Rasskazchikova, P.N. Antokhin, M.Yu. Arshinov, B.D. Belan, S.B. Belan
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: лидар, пограничный слой, внутренние гравитационные волны, lidar, boundary layer, internal gravity waves

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of complex observations of the atmosphere boundary layer dynamics carried out at the site of IAO SB RAS in September 2013 with the use of remote sensing, aerosol and Doppler lidars. The structure of aerosol and wind fields in the period of internal waves buoyancy and the low-level jet streams in the boundary layer are examined.



10.
Lidar study of the vertical structure of aerosol fields in the atmosphere over Lake Baikal during forest fires

Yu.S. Balin, M.G. Klemasheva, G.P. Kokhanenko, S.V. Nasonov, M.M. Novoselov, I.E. Penner
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: лидар, дымовой аэрозоль, параметр Ангстрема, озеро Байкал, лесные пожары, lidar, biomass burning aerosol, Angstrom exponent, Lake Baikal, forest fires

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of investigation of temporary changes in the vertical structure of aerosol fields in the mountain valley of Lake Baikal, in the presence of sources of smoke, from both remote and local forest fires. Measurements were carried out using the LOSA-M2 lidar, located on the east coast of Lake Baikal, during the expeditions of 2013 and 2015, when extremely high values of aerosol content in the troposphere caused by forest fires were observed. There is a significant difference between the space-time structures of the smoke aerosol from local forest fires in the basin of the lake, from the case when the impurity sources are located at a considerable distance.



11.
Lidar visualization of jet flows and internal gravity waves in the atmospheric boundary layer

V.A. Banakh, I.N. Smalikho, A.A. Sukharev, A.V. Falits
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: когерентный доплеровский лидар, ветер, струйное течение, атмосферная внутренняя волна, coherent Doppler lidar, wind, jet flow, atmospheric internal wave

Abstract >>
Results of experimental investigations of the atmospheric internal waves (AIW) in the boundary layer of atmosphere on the base of wind velocity measurements by a Stream Line pulsed coherent Doppler wind lidar developed by Halo Photonics are presented in this paper. The measurements were carried out in 2015 on the east and on the west shores of Lake Baikal. A total of 7 cases of AIW events have been revealed. On the western shore of Lake Baikal it is always happening in presence of one or two (in 5 of 6 cases) narrow jet flows at heights of approximately 200 and 700 m. The period of the wave component oscillation of the wind velocity vector was 9 min in four cases of the AIW, in two cases it was equal to approximately 18 and 20 minutes, and 6.5 min in one case. The amplitude of oscillations of the horizontal wind velocity components was about 1 m/s, and the amplitude of the vertical wind component oscillations was three times less. In most cases, internal waves were observed for 45 min (5 trains with a period of 9 min). Only once the duration of the existence of AIW was about 4 hours.



12.
Comparison of lidar and satellite measurements of vertical ozone profiles using data received in 2015

A.A. Nevzorov, V.D. Burlakov, S.I. Dolgii, A.V. Nevzorov, O.A. Romanovskii, O.V. Kharchenko, Yu.V. Gridnev
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: лидар, дистанционное зондирование, озон, lidar, remote sensing, ozone

Abstract >>
The technique for retrieval of lidar profiles of vertical ozone distribution accounting for temperature and aerosol corrections is described. The range of lidar signal detection is from 5 to 18 km. The vertical ozone profiles measured over Tomsk with a differential absorption lidar of the Siberian Lidar Station in 2015 are compared with the profiles retrieved from ESA MetOp satellite data.



13.
Vertical profiles of the structure characteristic of air temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer from sodar measurements

A.P. Kamardin, S.L. Odintsov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: атмосферный пограничный слой, содар, структурная характеристика температуры, atmospheric boundary layer, sodar, structure characteristic of temperature

Abstract >>
The paper discusses results of the analysis of vertical profiles of the normalized structure characteristic of air temperature CT2 in the atmospheric boundary layer under conditions of daytime convection. The experimental data have been obtained with Volna-4M acoustic Doppler radar (sodar) (Akademgorodok, Tomsk, Russia). The profiles were auto-normalized to the value of CT2 at the height H = 100 m. The results obtained in daytime (11:00-16:00 Local Time) in the warm period (July-August) of 2015 have been analyzed. The shape of the sodar vertical profiles of CT2 has been compared with results by other authors. The presence of a break in the CT2 profile at heights of 60-80 m can be noticed.



14.
The physical basis for the generation of laser radiation magnetic multipole

V.P. Lopasov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: молекулярный газ, бигармоническое излучение накачки, самоорганизация, ансамбль "электрон-ион", приготовленный магнитомультипольный переход, оптический "соленоид-резонатор", molecular gas, biharmonic pump radiation, self-organization, "electron-ion" ensemble, prepared magnito-multipole transition, optical "solenoid-resonator"

Abstract >>
The physical basis for generation of magnitomultipol (MM) radiation in the region of 250-900 nm is suggested, as well as the mechanism of two-dimensional inverse relationship between the energies of Shtar effect at the low-frequency electric dipole and Zeeman effect on high-frequency magnetic multi-pole vibration-rotation transitions, combined with lower status in the V-scheme. The mechanism sets the rate of self-molecules in the “electron-ion” ensemble at MM, prepared in a weak magnetic multipole transition. Ensemble in the form of many cylindrical “solenoid-resonator” generates radiation in the MM-accumulation time on the threshold of the diamagnetic power between states of the prepared transition.