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2016 year, number 7

1.
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF CRYSTALLIZATION OF MELTS IN INTERMEDIATE SUPRASUBDUCTION CHAMBERS (by the example of Tolbachik and Ichinskii Volcanoes, Kamchatka Peninsula)

N.L. Dobretsov1,2, V.A. Simonov3,2, A.V. Kotlyarov3, R.Yu. Kulakov2, N.S. Karmanov3
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Physicochemical parameters of crystallization, intermediate suprasubduction chambers, melt inclusions, basalt and andesite minerals, Kamchatka volcanoes

Abstract >>
In study of plagioclases, amphiboles, and melt inclusions, we have determined the physicochemical parameters of crystallization of melts in the intermediate suprasubduction chambers of volcanoes representing different types of subduction magmatism on the Kamchatka Peninsula: the young basaltic systems of Tolbachik Volcano (Klyuchevskaya group) and ancient Ichinskii Volcano (Sredinnyi Range) with alternating basaltic and felsic eruptions. For Tolbachik Volcano, we have found that plagioclase lapilli formed from basaltic melts at 1075-1115 ºC and low (≤1 kbar) pressures at depths of 2-3 km. Andesite minerals crystallized within a wider range of temperatures and pressures (1220-1020 ºC and 3.3-1.6 kbar) in an intermediate chamber at depths of ≤10 km. The melts were generated in basaltic magma chambers (detected well by geophysical methods at depths of 18-20 km) with minimum temperatures of ~1290 ºC. For Ichinskii Volcano, three levels of intermediate chambers are distinguished. Andesites formed at depths of ≤23 km at ≤1225 ºC. Dacitic melts were generated from an intermediate chamber (14 km) at 1135-1045 ºC as a result of differentiation of andesitic magmas. Dacites formed in the uppermost horizons (9-3 km) at 1130-1030 ºC. Despite the similarity between differentiation processes in the intermediate chambers of the Kamchatka volcanoes, each volcano is characterized by specific magmatism. The lavas of basaltic volcanoes (Tolbachik) and those of andesitic volcanoes (Ichinskii) differ in genesis and differentiation.



2.
ISOTOPE Lu-Hf COMPOSITION OF DETRITAL ZIRCON FROM PARAGNEISSES OF THE SHARYZHALGAI UPLIFT: EVIDENCE FOR THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC CRUSTAL GROWTH

O.M. Turkina1,2, N.G. Berezhnaya3, V.P. Sukhorukov1,2
1V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3A.P. Karpinsky All-Russian Research Geological Institute, Srednii pr. 74, St. Petersburg, 199106, Russia
Keywords: Paleoproterozoic, paragneisses, detrital zircon, Lu-Hf isotope composition, crustal growth, Sharyzhalgai uplift, southwestern margin of the Siberian craton



3.
PALEOZOIC COLLISIONAL AND INTRAPLATE GRANITOIDS OF THE BAIKAL AREA: COMPARATIVE GEOCHEMISTRY AND PETROGENESIS

N.V. Sheptyakova1,2, V.S. Antipin1,2, L.V. Kushch1
1A.P. Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Favorskogo 1a, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Granitoids, collision, geodynamics, geochemical types, Paleozoic

Abstract >>
Early Paleozoic granitoids of autochthonous and allochthonous facies in the Baikal area (Olkhon Island, Khamar-Daban Ridge) are in close spatial association with gneisses, migmatites, and plagiogranites and are usually confined to granite-gneiss domes. They are virtually not subjected to magmatic differentiation. Formation of granitoids of the Solzan massif and Sharanur complex lasted 26-28 Myr, which might be considered an indicator of collisional granitoid magmatism. Collisional granitoids of different provinces have a series of indicative features: They are peraluminous and highly potassic and are enriched in crustal elements (Rb, Pb, and Th) but sometimes have low contents of volatiles. In contrast to collisional magmatism, petrogenesis of intraplate granitoids does not depend on the composition and age of the enclosing rocks. The geochemical evolution of intraplate granitoid magmatism in the Baikal area is expressed as an increase in contents of F, Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, Be, Ta, Zr, and Pb and a decrease in contents of Ba, Sr, Zn, Th, and U during the differentiation of multiphase intrusions. The geochemical diversity of these granitoids, formed both from crustal and from mantle sources and as a result of the mantle-crust interaction, might be due to the effect of plume on the geologic evolution of intraplate magmatism. The wide range of compositions and geochemical types of igneous rocks (from alkali and subalkalic to rare-metal granitoids) within the Late Paleozoic Baikal magmatism area suggests its high ore potential.



4.
GEOCHEMISTRY OF RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS IN THE RECENT BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF AMUR BAY (Japan/East Sea)

K.I. Aksentov, V.V. Sattarova
V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Baltiiskaya ul. 43, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia
Keywords: Rare-earth elements, bottom sediments, Amur Bay, Japan/East Sea

Abstract >>
The distribution of REE in the bottom sediments of Amur Bay accumulated over the last 100 years was studied, and the REE contents were evaluated. The REE contents normalized to North American Shale Composite (NASC) show a negative Ce anomaly and a predominance of LREE and MREE. The inflow and accumulation of REE in the bottom sediments are influenced mainly by natural sources, whereas their dependence on anthropogenic factors is minimal.



5.
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CLAY MINERALS IN THE SHURIJEH RESERVOIR FORMATION USING COMBINED X-RAY ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES

Golnaz Jozanikohan1, Fereydoun Sahabi1, Gholam Hossain Norouzi1, Hossein Memarian1, Behzad Moshiri2
1School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, Campus II, University of Tehran, Junction of Jalal-e-al-e-ahmad and North Kargar street, P.O.Box 14395-515, Tehran, Iran
2School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence, College of Engineering, Campus II, University of Tehran, Junction of Jalal-e-al-e-ahmad and North Kargar street, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: clay mineralogy, Shurijeh reservoir Formation, X-ray diffraction, X-Ray fluorescence, Quantitative mineralogical analysis

Abstract >>
The Shurijeh reservoir Formation of Neocomian age is represented by a sandstone sequence, occasionally interbedded with shale, in the Gonbadli gas field, Kopet-Dagh Basin, North-eastern Iran. In this study X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques were used to characterize the Shuirjeh clay minerals in 76 core samples, collected from two deep Gonbadli wells. The results of XRF analysis showed high percentages of silicon and moderate to low percentages of aluminum, sulfur, calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and iron in both wells. The XRD analysis indicated that the above elements were concentrated in the form of quartz, anhydrite, dolomite, calcite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, hematite and clay minerals. Further XRD examination of the clay fraction, revealed that illite, chlorite, and kaolinite were the major types of clay minerals. Unlike, glauconite, smectite and a mixed layer clays of both the illite-smectite and chlorite-smectite types were observed only in very few samples. The percentages of individual clay minerals were determined using external standard calibration curves, and successfully validated by a system of simultaneous linear equations acquired from detailed elemental information based on the XRF analysis. The amount of error reached 5% for the main mineral constituent and 15% for minor minerals. A local regression relationship was also derived, based on the XRF elemental information, which can be used to estimate the clay contents of other Shurijeh drilled wells with data of pulsed-neutron spectroscopy tools. According to the proposed quantitative approach, the amount of illite varied considerably reaching up to 18.3%. In contrast, the amount of kaolinite and chlorite were generally small, i.e. less than 8.4%. The amount of total clay minerals changed greatly from a minimum of 5% to a maximum of 32.5%. An increase in illite with increasing burial depth and temperature was an obvious indication of deep burial diagenesis in this Formation.



6.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GAS ACCUMULATION IN A LESS EFFICIENT TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIR, HE 8 INTERVAL, SULIGE GAS FIELD, ORDOS BASIN, CHINA

Ding Xiaoqi1, Yang Peng2,3, Han Meimei3, Chen Yang3,4, Zhang Siyang5, Zhang Shaonan2, Liu Xuan1, Gong Yiming1, A.M. Nechval4
1State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu University of Technology, Sichuan 610059, China
2Northwest Petroleum Bureau of Sinopec, Xinjiang 830011, China
3State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan 610500, China
4Teaching and Research Office of Oil and Gas Engineering, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, Ufa, 450062, Russian
5Department of Geology, University of Regina, Regina s4s 3x3, Canada
Keywords: tight gas, gas-water distribution, reservoir, heterogeneity, He 8 interval, Sulige gas field Ordos Basin

Abstract >>
Because of the lack of gas supply from source rocks and gas loss, inefficient tight-gas fields represent a high share of all gas reservoirs in China. These gas fields are characterized by low abundance and large gas reserves. Here, the He 8 tight-gas reservoirs in the western region of the Sulige gas field are used as an example to characterize gas distribution under conditions of less efficient charging. Results show the following characteristics. First, the sandstone densification process has a relatively large impact on the charging of gas. Litharenite was already subjected to densification at the time of large-scale gas charging, and this was not conducive to gas charging. On the contrary, for sublitharenite, although strong compaction has already occurred during gas generation, quartz overgrowth that leads to further densification of the gas reservoirs occurs simultaneously with large-scale gas charging. This facilitates gas charging, and is characterized by concomitant densification and reservoir formation. Second, structure traps can control the accumulation of gas to a certain extent. In particular, when physical properties of sandstones within the structure traps are appropriate, gas saturation during gas charging can be increased by approximately 7%. Third, less efficient charging is the main cause of the complex gas and water distribution in the He 8 gas reservoirs. The strong heterogeneity of the reservoirs and the decline in the gas reservoir pressure caused by tectonic uplift in the Yanshan period further exacerbate the complexity of gas and water distribution. These factors ultimately caused the He 8 gas reservoirs to become a multireservoir gas field with several gas-water interfaces. He 8 gas reservoirs are neither conventional gas nor continuous gas reservoirs. Rather, they are quasi-continuous gas reservoirs, and the accumulation of gas is controlled by both the top surface of sandstone and physical properties of the reservoirs. Traps and high-quality reservoirs within the regional traps are beneficial for the gas accumulation.



7.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THE BAZHENOVO FORMATION ROCKS IN THE SALYM AREA (West Siberian Plate)

A.D. Duchkov, L.S. Sokolova, D.E. Ayunov, P.A. Yan
A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Bazhenovo Formation, thermal-conductivity meters, thermal-conductivity coefficient, thermal inhomogeneity and anisotropy of rocks, Salym area, West Siberian Plate

Abstract >>
We discuss the results of measurements of the thermal conductivity of the Bazhenovo Formation rocks from wells drilled in the Salym petroliferous area of the West Siberian Plate. The thermal conductivity was measured by «Thermal-conductivity comparator and «Scanning thermal-conductivity meter in different years. A total of 225 measurements were made in two directions with respect to the rock layering: parallel (λ1) and orthogonal (λ2). The results show that the Bazhenovo Formation rocks are mostly of abnormally low thermal conductivity: λ1 = 1.0-2.3 W/(m∙K) (average is 1.6 W/(m∙K)) and λ2 = 0.8-1.9 W/(m∙K) (average is 1.3 W/(m∙K)). This leads to an abnormal increase in geothermal gradient within the Bazhenovo Formation. Such geothermal-gradient anomalies can be easily revealed by high-precision thermal logging. It is also shown that the thermal conductivity of the studied rocks is in inverse relationship with their organic-matter content.



8.
PALEOSEISMOLOGICAL AND ARCHAEOSEISMOLOGICAL DATA FROM THE WESTERN ALABASH-KONUROLEN INTRAMONTANE BASIN (southern Lake Issyk Kul area, Kyrgyzstan)

E.V. Deev1,2, I.V. Turova1,2, A.M. Korzhenkov3,4, D.V. Luzhansky4, A.S. Gladkov5, M.V. Rodkin6, S.V. Abdieva4, I.V. Mazheika7, E.A. Rogozhin3, A.B. Fortuna4, A.M. Muraliev4, T.A. Charimov4, A.S. Yudakhin4
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3O.Y. Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, Bol' shaya Gruzinskaya 10, Moscow, 123995, Russia
4B.N. Eltsyn Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, 44 Kiev Str., Bishkek, 720000, Kyrgyzstan
5Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Mathematical Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow, 117997, Russia
6Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
7Nature Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania
Keywords: Earthquake, paleoseismology, archaeoseismology, Alabash-Konurolen basin, Northern Tien Shan

Abstract >>
Paleoseismological and archaeoseismological studies have furnished proof that the northern border of the Alabash-Konurolen basin is thrusting over the basin sediments. The sediments store a record of two earthquakes that occurred between 8400 and 7300 yr BP and presumably in the 16th century. The minimum magnitude of the latter earthquake was estimated, based on the length (2.3 km) of the fault scarp it produced and the amount of displacement (0.4 m) on the respective reverse plane, to range within 6.6-6.8. The older event was of about the same minimum magnitude. The results call for a revision of the existing seismic risk division of Kyrgyzstan that places the Alabash-Konurolen basin into a zone of M ≤ 6.5 seismicity.



9.
NEW RESULTS ON THE EARTH INSOLATION AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH THE LATE PLEISTOCENE PALEOCLIMATE OF WEST SIBERIA

I.I. Smulsky
Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Malygina 86, Tyumen', 625000, box 1230, Russia
Keywords: Obliquity, insolation, paleoclimate, Pleistocene, West Siberia

Abstract >>
The three problems comprising the astronomical theory of paleoclimate have been solved in a new way. Two of them (changes in the orbital motion of the Earth and its insolation) have confirmed the results of previous research. In the third problem (a change in the rotational motion of the Earth), the obtained oscillations of the Earths rotation axis have an amplitude 7-8 times higher than the earlier estimated one. They lead to changes in insolation, which explain the paleoclimatic fluctuation. The changes in insolation and its structure for 200 kyr are considered. It is shown that the Late Pleistocene key events in West Siberia, for example, the last glaciations and warming between them, coincide with the extremes of insolation. The insolation periods of paleoclimatic changes and their characteristics are given.



10.
HIGH-FREQUENCY INDUCTION LOGGING IN DEVIATED AND HORIZONTAL WELLS: GEOSTEERING AND INVERSION

A.A. Gorbatenko1,2, K.V. Sukhorukova1,2
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Induction logging, geosteering, resistivity model, resistivity, phase difference, amplitude ratio

Abstract >>
The study focuses on processing methods for high-frequency induction data from deviated and horizontal wells. Simulation of electromagnetic fields with analytical algorithms is used to study how the resistivity of rocks above and below the well influences the acquired data. The simulations show that the contribution of under- and overlying layers into the recorded responses is considerable and depends on resistivity contrasts between the layers and on the position of logging arrays relative to the layer boundaries. This fact has to be taken into account when estimating true resistivity of reservoirs and when inverting induction logs from horizontal wells for reservoir characterization. The method is applied to oil- and water-saturated reservoirs in West Siberia, which contain high-resistivity impermeable layers leading to overestimation of apparent resistivity. Due regard for the effect of these layers in inversion of induction logs provides high-quality resistivity estimates.