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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2015 year, number 2

1.
From the Editor-in-Chief

A. A. Onuchin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation



2.
Ecological and Phytopathological Status of Birch Stands on the Territory of Krasnoyarsk Group of Districts

A. I. Tatarintsev1, L. N. Skripalshcikova2
1Siberian State Technological University, Prospect Mira, 82, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
2V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorogok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: birch stands, tree stand status, recreational impact, technogenic pollution, pathogenic consorts, bacterial dropsy, rot diseases

Abstract >>
According to inspection data, the health and vital status of birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stands in Krasnoyarsk group of lands (southern part of Central Siberia) were estimated (established) as satisfactory in general; about half of birch stands near urbanized areas were weakened. The condition of stands decreased significantly with increased recreation use, the effect of technogenic pollution was negligible. The most valuable (important) representatives of pathogenic biota identified on birch trees were infestations of necrotic cancer and rot diseases. In birch stands the bacterial dropsy was found to be widespread (agent of infection - Erwinia multivora Scz.-Parf), occurrence of the disease ranged from a single ill tree up to 10-38 % of the stands. The birch stands in taiga areas were affected to a greater extent than in forest-steppe; there were high yield class stands on moist soils. Prevalence of bacteriosis rose with increasing stand age and density and not dependent on recreation use level. Trees with dropsy are dead in fact or potentially. In taiga birch forests the infection and rot of roots was caused by honey agaric (Armillaria mellea sensu lato), that lead to single or, rarely, group tree drying and the fungus usually eliminated already weakened trees. Wood biomass was destroyed by complex of aphyllophorous Hymenomycetes, their hemiparasitic species caused stem rots that decreased stand marketability and also resulted in rot-realated wind-break accumulation. Occurrence of rot was significantly higher in second growth birch stands, possibly above 20 %; the relationship between rot prevalence and forest assessment was not revealed.



3.
The Structure of Spruce-Fir Tree Stands Mortality Under Impact of the Middle Ural Copper Smelter Emissions

I. E. Bergman1, E. L. Vorobeichik1, V. A. Usoltsev2,3
1Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
2Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
3Ural State Forest Engineering University, Sibirskii trakt, 37, Yekaterinburg, 620100 Russian Federation
Keywords: industrial pollution, copper smelter, heavy metals, oarse woody debris, decomposition, tree stand, mortality, dead fallen wood, dead standing trees, Middle Ural

Abstract >>
The influence of industrial pollution on mortality values (dead fallen wood and dead standing trees) and its distribution by degrees of decomposition were investigated in spruce-fir forest stands in the vicinity of the Middle Ural copper smelter (the city of Revda, Sverdlovsk region). The total mortality and mortality in each size category did not depend on the distance to the source of pollution. At the same time, the amount of dead fallen wood was significantly greater (1.9 times) in the polluted area (2 and 4 km from the smelter) as compared with the background territory (30 km from the smelter). Mortality proportion out of the total number of the trees (both live and dead) did not differ significantly between the sites, although this parameter tended to increase nearer the smelter. The distribution of mortality by size categories revealed significant differences between background territory and site with average level of contamination, as well as background territory and highly contaminated site. Observed differences are associated with an increased proportion of lesser mortality near the smelter (by 15 % and 12 % as compared with areas of background and middle levels of contamination, respectively), as well as because of double-declining of medium- and large-sized mortality near the smelter. The distribution of the living tree stands by size categories also has a connection with level of contamination. The average diameters of the living tree stand and the elements of coarse woody debris (dead fallen wood and dead standing trees) do not differ significantly between sites with different levels of contamination. For the small-sized dead fallen wood, the proportion of weakly decomposed stems increased with the level of pollution, while proportion of strongly decomposed stems decreased. The distribution of medium- and large-sized dead fallen wood on the stages of decomposition does not vary between sites with different levels of pollution.



4.
Seasonal Distribution of Processes Responsible for Radial Diameter and Wall Thickness of Scots Pine Tracheids

G. F. Antonova, V. V. Stasova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), parameters of tracheids, processes of development, temperature impact

Abstract >>
The timeframes of processes responsible for the number of cells, their radial diameters and wall thickness in annual wood increment of Scots pine in the course of season vegetation were studied. The number of cells produced by cambium, cell radial diameters in the cell growth expansion zone and the thickness/wall tracheid cross-sectional area in the secondary wall thickening zone were estimated at the transverse sections of samples taken from the stems in 10 days. The data obtained were used for the calculation of the development durations of tracheids in the zones of differentiation and the dependence of these characteristics of the processes on air temperature. Throughout the season, the processes of the production by cambium of early and late tracheids, their radial growth and secondary wall thickening occurs at different times and may overlap each with another in time. In the conditions of Middle Siberia (Russia), the production of cambium cells was observed in June and July. Radial diameter growth of earlywood tracheids occurred mainly in June, latewood tracheids - in July. The development of secondary wall thickening of earlywood cells occurred in June-July, latewood ones - in August to the first half of September. Hydrothermal conditions of these months affect considerably the morphological parameters of the tracheids. Each of the processes reacted to environmental factors independently and had their own optimum temperatures causing the differences in cell wall biomass deposited in separate periods of the season. The data should be considered in addressing the problem of productivity and quality of wood produced in different climate conditions.



5.
The Reasons for Conceptual Contradictions in Evaluating Hydrological Role of Boreal Forests

A. A. Onuchin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: hydrological role of forests, evapotranspiration, river flow, water balance, forest cover, forest use, water resources management

Abstract >>
The paper attempts to resolve contradictions in the evaluation of the hydrological significance of the boreal forest. The article focuses on the study of the hydrological cycle mainly at the local level in connection with the specificity of vegetation and background of climate. It is stated that the ratio between evaporation and runoff in the warm season is mainly determined by the productivity of land, and less by the type of vegetation, whether forests or other types of land. This effect is due to the fact that the root systems of large trees act as powerful submersible pumps, evaporating moisture including from the lower soil horizons. In the cold season, when precipitation falls as snow and is permanently preserved in the snow cover, the intensity and direction of the flow of water is not associated with the productivity of vegetation, and is mainly determined by the type of vegetation (forest, treeless space) and by environmental conditions. It is argued that the ambiguity of the impact of forests on the redistribution of precipitation between evaporation and runoff is due mainly features balance of the snow moisture, which is defined as the structure of the forest cover as well as the environment. Concepts of the geographically-determined hydrological role of forests are suggested. The results explain the contradictions in the hydrological role of forests (water consumption and water yield) and may be useful in the formation of land-use strategies in the regions where relationship problems of water resources and forest cover are relevant.



6.
Dynamics Models and Modeling of Tree Stand Development

M. V. Rogozin, G. S. Razin
Natural Sciences Institute, Genkelya str., 4, Perm, 614990 Russian Federation
Keywords: tree stand, types of growth, static situations, constants for the mass of needles and crown, growth trend, models of development, geographical forest crops

Abstract >>
Brief analysis of scientific works in Russia and in the CIS over the past 100 years. Logical and mathematical models consider the conceptual and show some of the results of their verification. It was found that the models include different laws and the parameters, the sum of which allows you to divide them into four categories: models of static states, development models, models of care for the natural forest and models of cultivation. Each category has fulfilled and fulfills its tasks in economic management. Thus, the model states in statics (table traverse growth) played a prominent role in figuring out what may be the most productive (full) stands in different regions of the country. However, they do not answer the question of what the initial states lead to the production of complete stands. In a study of the growth of stands used system analysis, and it is observed dominance of works studying static state, snatched from the biological time. Therefore, the real drama of the growth of stands remained almost unexplored. It is no accident there were «chrono-forestry «plantation forestry and even «non-traditional forestry, where there is a strong case of a number of new concepts of development stands. That is quite in keeping with Kuhn (Kuhn, 2009) in the forestry crisis began - there were alternative theories and coexist conflicting scientific schools. To develop models of stand development, it is proposed to use a well-known method of repeated observations within 10-20 years, in conjunction with the explanation of the history of the initial density. It mounted on the basis of studying the dynamics of its indicators: the trunk, crown overlap coefficient, the sum of volumes of all crowns and the relative length of the crown. According to these indicators, the researcher selects natural series of development stands with the same initial density. As a theoretical basis for the models it is possible to postulate the general properties of the stand, for example, constants for the mass of needles and crown that have a clear biological meaning, with limits of values of these indicators in the process of completing canopy biomass.



7.
Problem of Chronobiological Cyclic of Movement of Forest Ecosystems Properties First Communication

M. A. Proskuryakov
Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Timiryazev str., 36 b, Almaty, 050040 Republic of Kazakhstan
Keywords: forest ecosystems, chronobiology, cyclic recurrence of movement, plants, climate

Abstract >>
On the basis of generalization of materials of long-term research it is shown objectively manifested action of the law of cyclic recurrence of movement of all properties of forest organisms and ecosystems. The Action of this law should be considered, both in research and in use, for conserving biodiversity, productivity and resource values of forests. For this purpose, the conceptual solution to a problem of cyclic analysis of spatial-temporal movement of all properties of forest organisms and ecosystems was proposed as related to climate change thus allowing forest management at lower costs and risks. The possibility of using chronobiological analysis for assessment of cyclic changes of sensitivity, direction, speed and value of transposition of forest organisms and ecosystems properties were shown. Likewise, it will contribute to development of new actual trends of theoretical and applied surveys. Among them are monitoring of coordinates movement of spatial-temporal localization of properties of forest ecosystems, their productivity and protection role; analysis of cyclic movement of introduction results of forest organisms in new regions; development of reduced impact forest use and creation of new technologies allowing mitigation of adverse cyclic changes of productivity and biological steadiness of forests, their protection, and recreation role. Development of these directions will reduce inefficient labor and time costs for restoration and preservation of biodiversity and forest productivity, as the most important everlasting resource of the Earth.



8.
Valuable Book About Non Timber Forest Products

Yu. I. Manko1, B. S. Petropavlovsky2
1Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far-Eastern Branch, Prospekt 100 years to Vladivostok, 159, Vladivostok, 690022 Russian Federation
2Botanical Garden-Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far-Eastern Branch, Makovsky Str., 142, Vladivostok, 690024 Russian Federation

Abstract >>
Tagil'tsev U. G., Kolesnikova R. D. Non-wood forest products of the Far East of Russia (a decade of work and inspiration). On the 75th anniversary of the Far Eastern Research Institute of Forestry. Khabarovsk: FBU "DalNIIPKh", 2014. 522 pp.



9.
Review

E. I. Parfenova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation

Abstract >>
On Article of R. T. Murzakmatov, V. L. Koshkarova, and S. . Farber «Ordination of Forest Types by Climate and Terrain Indices at Ulughem Forest Plant District in the Republic of Tuva



10.
The Response of the Authors of the Article

R. T. Murzakmatov, V. L. Koshkarova, S. K. Farber
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation

Abstract >>
The Response of the Authors of the Article «Ordination of Forest Types by Climate and Terrain Indices at Ulughem Forest Plant District in the Republic of Tuva to the Review of E. I. Parfenova



11.
All-Russian with International Participation Scientific Conference «Forest Biogeocenoses of the Boreal Zone: Geography, Structure, Functions, and Dynamics (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 16-19 September, 2014)

L. I. Milyutin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation



12.
World Biodiversity Congress (Colombo, Sri Lanka, 24-27 November, 2014)

E. N. Muratova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation



13.
Vyacheslav Veniaminovich Tarakanov (to 60 Years of Birthday)