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Russian Geology and Geophysics

2015 year, number 4

1.
100th ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF B.S. SOKOLOV: THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE

A.V. Kanygin1,2, A.E. Kontorovich1,2, Yu.I. Tesakov1
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.002



2.
GENERAL STRATIGRAPHIC SCALE OF RUSSIA: STATE OF THE ART AND PROBLEMS

A.I. Zhamoida
A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute, Srednii per. 74, St. Petersburg, 199106, Russia
Keywords: International and General stratigraphic scales, system and stage boundaries

Abstract >>
The history of the development of the General Stratigraphic Scale (GSS), its significance, purpose, and difference from the International Stratigraphic Scale (ISS) are briefly reported. The most global achievements in the GSS refinement based on the Proceedings of the All-Russian conference at the Geological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (May 2013) are considered. The main problems related to the GSS improvement are formulated: the structure of the Precambrian and Quaternary stratigraphic scales, the location of the Vendian System in the GSS, formal substantiation of the Russian stages of the Cambrian, Carboniferous, and Permian Systems, and the significance of the regional limitotypes of the ISS subdivisions.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.003



3.
THE INTERNATIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC CHART: STATE OF THE ART

A.S. Alekseev1,2
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow, 119991, Russia
2Borissiak Paleontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya ul. 123, Moscow, 117647, Russia
Keywords: International Stratigraphic Chart, state of the art, GSSP, types, geography, General Stratigraphic Scale of Russia

Abstract >>
The International Stratigraphic Chart of the Phanerozoic is constructed by drawing lower boundaries of stratigraphic units with reference to Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point . Some systems retain former, usually European, names of stages, whereas new sequences of stages are proposed for others, such as Cambrian and Ordovician. The boundaries of 64 stages of 100 had been approved by the beginning of 2014. Fifty-three of these boundaries were drawn with regard to biostratigraphic criteria; one, ichnological; six, magnetostratigraphic; two, chemostratigraphic; one, impact; and one, climatic criteria. Their type sections are distributed over continents as follows: thirty-nine in Europe, twelve in Asia, nine in North America, and four in Africa. They are located in 19 countries: ten in China, nine in the United Kingdom, nine in Italy, seven in the United States, six in France, five in Spain, three in Czech, two in Morocco, two in Sweden, and one in each of several more countries. Although none is in Russia, candidates are proposed for stages of the Cambrian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic Systems. Type sections for the Sakmarian and Artinskian have already been agreed. With the present work speed, it will take two or three decades to complete the scale construction. The General Stratigraphic Scale of Russia and the International Chart gradually converge. Their similarity at the stage level is 84%. Major disagreements exist only in the Cambrian and Permian Systems.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.004



4.
PARADOXES OF STRATIGRAPHY

V.V. Chernykh
A.N. Zavaritskii Institute of Geology and Geochemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pochtovyi per. 7, Yekaterinburg, 620075, Russia
Keywords: Orthostratigraphic group, chronostratigraphy, chronology, chronometry, chronological scale, zonal subdivision, GSSP concept, stratigraphic boundaries

Abstract >>
Some contradictory positions and concepts of the theory and practice of stratigraphy regarded as paradoxes are discussed. Attention is paid to the fundamental impossibility to associate the wide geographic distribution of a group of organisms with a high rate of speciation of these organisms. However, it is this feature that is commonly used as the basis for determining orthostratigraphic groups of fossil organisms. The dualism of time in stratigraphy, which led to the emergence of chronostratigraphy and the GSSP concept, is considered. The incompatibility of chronological and chronometric datings in stratigraphy is proved. Finally, the paradox of the smallest chronological unit is examined, which is related to the existence of not one but several smallest units (zones) in zonal chronology.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.005



5.
THE ROLE OF GLACIATIONS IN THE BIOSPHERE

N.M. Chumakov
Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevskii per. 7, Moscow, 119017, Russia
Keywords: Glacioeras, glacioperiods, ecologic crises, extinction, stagnation, bionovation

Abstract >>
Glaciations took place in five long intervals of the geologic history, called glacioeras: Kaapvaal (Late Archean), Huronian (Early Proterozoic), African (Late Proterozoic), Gondwanan (Paleozoic), and unfinished Antarctic (Late Cenozoic). The glacioeras were similar in structure, duration, and dynamics of evolution. They consisted of three to six glacioperiods including several discrete glacio-epochs. The glacioeras lasted ~200 Myr. They started with small regional glaciations, which expanded, reached intercontinental sizes, and then quickly degraded. There were serious differences between the Precambrian and Phanerozoic glacioeras. A series of ecologic crises related to numerous glacial events led first to abiotic and then to biotic factors. Glaciations caused extinction and stagnation of the Earths biota, the appearance of crucial bionovations and new biota, and acceleration of evolution processes. Thus, the glacioeras were the turning intervals of the biosphere evolution.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.006



6.
THE ROOM FOR THE VENDIAN IN THE INTERNATIONAL CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC CHART

D.V. Grazhdankin1,2, A.V. Maslov3
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3A.N. Zavaritsky Institute of Geology and Geochemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, per. Pochtovyi 7, Yekaterinburg, 620075, Russia
Keywords: Vendian, Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Chart

Abstract >>
The Vendian was proposed by B.S. Sokolov as a stratigraphic subdivision comprising the last of the Proterozoic glacial periods (the Laplandian Glaciation) and the overlying strata delineated by a full stratigraphic range of fossil soft-bodied organisms. For over three decades the Vendian had been an informal part of the Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Chart, until 2004, when it gave place to the new Ediacaran System. Further research has shown that the Ediacaran System significantly exceeds the stratigraphic range of the Vendian in Sokolovs definition and includes stratigraphic analogs of the Laplandian Glaciation in sections across North America, Australia, Newfoundland, Scotland, Ireland, Chinese Tien Shan Range, and Tasmanian microcontinent. Carbon isotope variations in carbonates provide criteria for subdivision of the Ediacaran into two series. If a relationship between the Laplandian Glacial Period (600-580 Ma) and the negative excursions EN2 and EN3 on the δ 13 curve for the Doushantuo Formation of China is established, the Vendian might take its place in the Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Chart as a formal upper series of the Ediacaran System. The Vendian Series, in turn, might be further subdivided into the Laplandian, Redkinian, Belomorian, and Kotlinian stages typified by regional stages of the Vendian of the East European Platform.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.007



7.
VENDIAN of THE FORE-YENISEI SEDIMENTARY BASIN (southeastern West Siberia)

D.V. Grazhdankin1,2, A.E. Kontorovich1,2, V.A. Kontorovich1,2, S.V. Saraev1, Yu.F. Filippov1, A.S. Efimov3, G.A. Karlova1, B.B. Kochnev1,2, K.E. Nagovitsin1,2, A.A. Terleev1, G.O. Fedyanin2
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineral Resources, Krasnyi pr. 67, Novosibirsk, 630091, Russia
Keywords: Vendian, Fore-Yenisei sedimentary basin, Cloudina, West Siberia

Abstract >>
Fossiliferous Upper Vendian strata are discovered in the Upper Proterozoic to Lower Paleozoic ForeYenisei sedimentary basin under a thick MesozoicCenozoic cover in the southeastern West Siberia. Two depositional systems are recognized based on sedimentological features: (1) wave and currentagitated shorefaceforereefbiohermal reef system (Vostok-3 Borehole section) and (2) tidalflatevaporite basin (Averinskaya150 Borehole section). The forereef facies yielded fossilized tubular calcareous skeletons of reefbuilding metazoans Cloudina riemkeae, Cloudina hartmannae, and Cloudina carinata, phosphatized Namacalathuslike fossils, and a diversity of tubular phosphatized and agglutinated tubular fossils. The fossil assemblage can be interpreted as the evidence of ecological complexity of the reef system. Paleontological characteristics suggest correlation of the Vendian strata with the lowermost Purella antiqua Assemblage Zone and the boundary interval with the underlying Anabarites trisulcatus Assemblage Zone of the Siberian Platform. Therefore, at least in the late Proterozoic, the ForeYenisei sedimentary basin was part of a larger pericratonic depositional system on the western margin of the Siberian Platform.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.008



8.
DURATION OF THE FIRST BIOZONE IN THE SIBERIAN HYPOSTRATOTYPE OF THE VENDIAN

V.I. Rogov1, G.A. Karlova1, V.V. Marusin1, B.B. Kochnev1,2, K.E. Nagovitsin1,2, D.V. Grazhdankin1
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Vendian, biostratigraphy, Olenek Uplift

Abstract >>
The first biozone (Anabarites trisulcatus Assemblage Zone) in the Siberian hypostratotype of the Vendian (northwestern slope of the Olenek Uplift) is represented by the Turkut Formation of the Khorbusuonka Group and most of the Syhargalakh Formation of the Kessyusa Group. The lower part of the Kessyusa Group in some of the sections includes stratiform breccia coeval with the middle part of the Syhargalakh Formation. The breccia is shown to be the alteration product of tuff breccia which is widely distributed in the region and occurs as diatremes. A UPb zircon date of 543.9 0.24 Ma for tuff breccia provides the best constraint on the age of the boundary between the Anabarites trisulcatus and Purella antiqua Assemblage Zones. The first appearance of small skeletal fossils Cambrotubulus decurvatus (which define the base of the Anabarites trisulcatus Assemblage Zone) is 1.4 m above the lower boundary of the Turkut Formation. Ichnofabric in the underlying Khatyspyt Formation is globally distributed in the 553551 strata Ma, always predating the first appearance of small skeletal fossils of the Anabarites trisulcatus Assemblage Zone. The base of the Anabarites trisulcatus Assemblage Zone is therefore younger than 553551 Ma, whereas the duration of the assemblage zone does not exceed six million years.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.016



9.
MICROFOSSILS AND BIOFACIES OF THE VENDIAN FOSSIL BIOTA IN THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN PLATFORM

K.E. Nagovitsin1,2, B.B. Kochnev1,2
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Vendian, Nepa Horizon, microfossils, sedimentation environments, paleoecology, Siberian Platform

Abstract >>
Based on the study of the litho- and biofacies of the Vendian Nepa Horizon in the central area of the Siberian Platform inland, a paleoecological model for the Vendian microbiota has been developed. The sedimentation environments of the Katanga saddle have been reconstructed, and three sedimentary systems have been recognized: (1) lower continental, formed by the deposits of proluvial fans and riverbeds of temporary streams; (2) middle transgressive, made up of littoral sand facies in the lower part and of fine-clastic shelf strata in the upper part; and (3) upper, of sea highstand, composed of alternating sand bank facies and fine-clastic lagoon deposits. Four biofacies have been recognized in the fine-terrigenous deposits of the Nepa Horizon: (1) Appendisphaera, represented by a Doushantuo-Pertatataka acanthomorph assemblage; (2) Transitional, with a great diversity of plankton and benthic (including complex) taxa; (3) Vanavarataenia, dominated by Vanavarataenia complex benthic algae; and (4) Oscillatoriopsis, represented by taxonomically poor biotas with morphologically simple (mainly prokaryotic) remains. These biofacies are confined to the following sedimentation environments: Appendisphaera is widespread in the distal open-sea areas; the Transitional biofacies is localized in the distal settings of the semi-isolated inner basin; Vanavarataenia occurs in the proximal areas; and Oscillatoriopsis is typical of the shallow-water environments, both extended (corresponding to the highstand period) and local.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.009



10.
ZONATION OF THE SIBERIAN ORDOVICIAN DEPOSITS BASED ON PELAGIC GROUPS OF FAUNA

N.V. Sennikov1,2, T.Yu. Tolmacheva3, O.T. Obut1,2, N.G. Izokh1, E.V. Lykova1
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI), Srednii pr. 74, St. Petersburg, 199106, Russia
Keywords: Graptolites, conodonts, Ordovician, zones, stratigraphy, Siberia

Abstract >>
We summarize data on the biostratigraphic units of the Siberian Ordovician deposits based on pelagic groups of fauna: graptolites, conodonts, and chitinozoans. It is shown that graptolite and conodont zones and beds have a high potential for correlation. We have determined the precise zonal position of most of the lower boundaries of the Ordovician stages and informal Ordovician substages of the International Stratigraphic Chart in the Lower Paleozoic key sections of the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberian Platform, and Altai-Sayan Folded Area.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.010



11.
BIOFACIES ZONATION OF ORDOVICIAN DEPOSITS OF THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN PLATFORM

N.I. Stepanova1, V.I. Byalyi1, A.V. Kanygin2,3
1JSC Irkutskgeofizika, ul. Dekabrskikh Sobytii 29, Irkutsk, 664007, Russia
2A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Ordovician, biofacies, paleogeographic environments, zonation, Siberian Platform, Irkut amphitheater

Abstract >>
Based on the inventory, revision, and analysis of stratigraphic, paleontological, and lithofacies data on the area of Ordovician deposits in the southern Siberian Platform (Irkut amphitheater), the refined and detailed schemes of biofacies zonation of this paleobasin are substantiated. Schemes of zonation have been compiled for the Nyaian, Ugorian, Kimaian, Mukteian, Volginian, Kirenskian-Kudrinian, Chertovskian, and Baksanian Horizons of the regional Ordovician stratigraphic chart of the Siberian Platform. The schemes present biofacies different in lithologic composition, spread of dominant groups of fauna, and hydrochemical regime (normal-marine salinity, freshwater, or high salinity). It is shown that contrasting changes in paleogeographic environments and the spread of faunal communities under changing environmental conditions were influenced by the transgression-regression cyclicity of the evolution of the Siberian Platform paleobasin and by the proximity of the land. Specific groups of fauna localized in particular facies are described. These groups are regarded as communities that were the first to occupy the littoral zones of epicontinental sea basins in the Ordovician.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.011



12.
CORRELATION OF CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHIC AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS (example of the Silurian System)

Yu.I. Tesakov
A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Silurian, stage, boundary stratotype, type section, chronozone, biozone

Abstract >>
It is suggested to perform chronostratigraphic division using type sections instead of boundary stratotypes, which are rather virtual units devoid of material content representing the respective deposition events. In this respect, global chronozones are more preferable for subdivision of stages than biozones poorly constrained in space and time. The stratotype-based approach to division of stages is advantageous, being associated with the deposition of chronostratigraphic units recorded in holo- and hypostratotypes.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.012



13.
THE JURASSIC/CRETACEOUS BOUNDARY IN NORTHERN SIBERIA AND BOREALTETHYAN CORRELATION OF THE BOUNDARY BEDS

B.N. Shurygin1,2, O.S. Dzyuba1
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Jurassic, Cretaceous, lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, Siberia

Abstract >>
There is no international consensus regarding the GSSP for the Berriasian, the basal stage of the Cretaceous System. Any of the events discussed by the international expert community can be regarded as a marker of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary: a phylogenetic change of taxa, paleomagnetic reversal, or isotopic excursion. However, the problem of identification of this level in Boreal sections can be solved only using a combination of data obtained by paleontological and nonpaleontological methods of stratigraphy (bio-, chemo-, magnetostratigraphy, etc.). With any of the accepted markers, the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in Siberian sections will be within the upper part of the regional Bazhenovo Horizon. The least interval of the uncertainty of the position of this boundary in Siberian sections will be ensured by the selection of one of two markers: biostratigraphic (base of the Pseudosubplanites grandis Subzone) or magnetostratigraphic (base of the M18r magnetozone).

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.013



14.
HIGHRESOLUTION STRATIGRAPHY OF THE UPPER JURASSIC SECTION (Laptev Sea coast)

B.L. Nikitenko1,2, V.G. Knyazev3, E.B. Peshchevitskaya1, L.A. Glinskikh1, R.V. Kutygin3, A.S. Alifirov1
1A.A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3Institute of Diamond and Precious Metal Geology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lenina 39, Yakutsk, 677891, Russia
Keywords: Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian, Volgian, ammonites, foraminifera, dinocysts, zonal scales, stratigraphy, shelf, Laptev Sea, Nordvik Peninsula

Abstract >>
Jurassic strata are widespread through Arctic Siberia and host oil and gas fields. However, in most cases, the geology of such vast areas still remains unexplored, and study of the Jurassic stratigraphy and reconstructions of geologic history are possible only through analysis of sediment cores. In this connection, there is a clear need for detailed studies of microfaunas (foraminifera, ostracods) and palynomorphs (dinocysts, spores, and pollen). The studied reference section of the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous is located on the left side of Anabar Bay of the Laptev Sea (Nordvik Peninsula, Cape Urdyuk-Khaya). An uninterrupted and continuous section from the Upper Oxfordian to the Lower Valanginian is exposed in coastal cliffs and consists mainly of silty clay deposits with abundant macro- and microfossils. Integrated field studies (biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, sedimentology) allow a more detailed characterization of the regional geologic framework. A detailed subdivision of the section is based on the systematic composition of ammonites from Upper Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian deposits. Several foraminiferal zones of the Upper Oxfordian and Lower Volgian are defined, and some of them are denfined for the first time. The distribution of ostracods in the section is analyzed for the first time. The section is also studied using palynological analysis, that results in its detailed subdivision on palynological data and recognition of two sequences of palynostratigraphic units. The integrated stratigraphy is used to establish the precise position of stage and substage boundaries. The continuity of the section is defined based on micropaleontological and palynological data.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.014



15.
THE QUATERNARY SYSTEM/PERIOD AND ITS MAJOR SUBDIVISIONS

Ph.L. Gibbard
Cambridge Quaternary, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EN, England, UK
Keywords: Quaternary, Pleistocene, Holocene, Anthropocene, Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP)

Abstract >>
The Quaternary System/Period represents the past 2.58 million years and is officially subdivided into the Pleistocene and Holocene series/epochs, with the base of the Holocene assigned an age of 11,700 calendar years before AD 2000. The lowest two stages (ages) of the Pleistocene, the Gelasian (base 2.58 Ma) and the Calabrian (base 1.80 Ma), have been officially approved and constitute the Lower Pleistocene Subseries/Subepoch. The Middle and Upper Pleistocene have yet to be formally defined, which is a crucial future challenge, along with the subdivision of the Holocene, consideration of the Anthropocene, and fine-scale subdivision of the Quaternary.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rgg.2015.03.015