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2014 year, number 4

1.
Wave Tomography of Methane Pockets in Coal Bed

M. V. KURLENYA1, A. S. SERDYUKOV2, A. A. DUCHKOV3, S. V. SERDYUKOV1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum-Gas Geology and Geophysics Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: coal bed, methane, jointed rock zones, seismic sounding, wave tomography

Abstract >>
The wave tomography method is a finite difference analog of the classical seismic ray tomography. The computational investigation is reported in the article. The proposed approach allows identification of velocity anomalies in jointed rock zones of methane accumulations if the sizes of these zones are comparable with the dominant wavelength of seismic sounding.



2.
From the Alternating-Sign Explosion Response of Rocks to the Pendulum Waves in Stressed Geomedia. Part III

V. V. ADUSHKIN1, V. N. OPARIN2,3
1Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 38, Moscow, 119334 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3Novosibirsk Sate University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: stressed geomedia, hierarchical block structure, source area, destructive event, strength criteria, energy approach, pendulum wave spectrum, underground excavations

Abstract >>
The authors discuss application of the modern concept on rock mass structure as a hierarchy of blocks and the phenomenological basis of the pendulum wave theory in the context of source areas of destructive events in natural and nature-and-production systems. The phenomenological relationship is set between Zhurkovs concentration criterion of fracture, experimental criterion of underground excavation collapse, canonical structure of spectrum of pendulum waves by Oparin and the long-range action of heavy explosion impacts in geomedia by Sadovsky-Adushkin. The article validates the energy approach to describing transformation of elastic energy of destructive event source areas into kinetic energy of structural elements of these areas. The authors introduce a new notion of interference seismic emission events.



3.
Experimental Determination of Deviation from Coaxilaity of Stress and Strain Tensors in Granular Media

A. P. BOBRYAKOV, A. F. REVUZHENKO
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: stress, strain, coaxiality, granular medium, complex loading, rotation of axes

Abstract >>
The theoretical basis and practical implementation of a complex loading device with instrumentation for mechanical properties of granular medium are described in the article. Thereupon, the procedure to determine the deviation from coaxiality of stress and strain tensors is developed. The authors report test data obtained on sand of various grain size. It has been found that rotation of strain tensor axes outruns rotation of stress tensor axes by an approximate angle of 21º.



4.
Microand Nano-Indentation Approach to Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Minerals

S. D. VIKTOROV1, YU. I. GOLOVIN2, A. N. KOCHANOV1, A. I. TYURIN2, A. V. SHUKLINOV2, I. A. SHUVARIN2, T. S. PIROZHKOVA2
1Institute of Problems of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Tambov State University, Zashchitnyi per. 7, Tambov, 392000 Russia
Keywords: rock, local failure, micro- and nano-indentation, method, indenter, indentation, physico-mechanical properties, rock-forming mineral hardness, fracture toughness, determination, structure

Abstract >>
In focus are methodology and effect of micro- and nano-indentation method in studying local deformation and failure of rocks. By micro- and nano-indentation, numerical values of Youngs modulus, and hardness of rocks and minerals have been obtained. The values of fracture toughness are obtained for separate minerals and at grain boundary. The authors highlight the use perspectiveness of the described method in estimating strength and deformation characteristics of rocks.



5.
Rock Failure Criteria Based on a New System of Stress Tensor Invariants

O. A. MIKENINA, A. F. REVUZHENKO
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: rocks, strength, limit state, invariants, stresses

Abstract >>
The authors suggest formulating limit state and failure criteria using the known and new stress tensor invariants. The new stress tensor invariants are constructed as average and shear stresses, as well as their ratios in all areas intersected by principal directions of stress tensor. The use of the obtained limit conditions is exemplified in terms of deriving equations of geomedium deformation based on the associated flow law.



6.
Geomechanical Validation of the Parameters and Technique for Damping Layer in the Vicinity of Underground Excavation for Ground Pressure Relief

A. A. EREMENKO, V. M. SERYAKOV, L. N. GAKHOVA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: stresses, strains, rock mass, underground excavation, dynamic events, blasting

Abstract >>
The data on stress-strain state around an underground opening in an unstable rock mass are reported. For ground pressure relief, it is proved necessary to create a damping layer, and the related drilling-and-blasting parameters are determined. Zones of probable fracture of rock mass under camouflet blasting are identified.



7.
Modeling Fracture of Ore Particles in a Layer under Pressure

P. K. FEDOTOV
Irkutsk State Technical University, ul. Lermontova 83, Irkutsk, 664074 Russia
Keywords: fractures, roller press, finite element method, crushing, grinding

Abstract >>
The author has developed the model for determination of grain-size composition of fractured particles in a layer using the Bond crushing law. Furthermore, the model allows estimation of stress energy and grain-size composition of crushed particles in a layer under pressure.



8.
Support Design Criteria for Tunnels in the Affected Area of Stoping in the Zapolyarny Mine

A. P. TAPSIEV, V. A. USKOV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: affected zone of stoping, support, rock stability, stability criterion, support design, engineering method of rock bolting calculation, support parameters

Abstract >>
In focus is the methodology of the support design for a tunnel in disseminated ore mining in the Zapolyarny Mine, Transpolar Division, Norilsk Nickel. The calculation of the rock bolting parameters in the affected zone of stoping is exemplified.



9.
Diversification of Open Pit Coal Mining System with Draglining

V. I. CHESKIDOV1, V. K. NORRI1, G. G. SAKANTSEV2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Ekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
Keywords: open pit mine, draglining, dragline, scope of application

Abstract >>
The article deals with aspects of effectivization of open pit coal mining by expanding the area of application of systems with draglining. It is emphasized that this most productive and least resource-hungry system lacks attention due to exhaustion of favourable conditions of its application. The authors make examples of draglining experience and potential effectivization.



10.
Optimized Depth of Transition from Open Pit to Underground Coal Mining

A. A. ORDIN, I. V. VASILEV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: dynamic programming, lag factor, optimization, transition depth, open pit and underground mining

Abstract >>
The article formulates the problem on optimization of depth for transition from open pit to underground coal mining, considering lag factor. The main regularities are presented together with the numerical calculation of the set problem in terms of the Raspadsky Open Pit Mine using the dynamic programming method.



11.
Methodology and Development Tool for Robust Control in Open Pit Mines. Part II: Decision-Making System and Mineral Quality Control

E. V. FREIDINA1,2, A. A. BOTVINNIK1, A. S. KOVALENKO2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, ul. Kamenskaya 52, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: equipment capacity uniformity improvement, robust properties, robust control, production system, stability, fluctuation

Abstract >>
The robust control over open pit mining is validated. It is shown that the current coupling of production systems based on equality of averaged capacities of mining and transportation equipment ensures no operational stability in an open pit mine. The article presents an optimization model and the modeling procedure for scheduling equipment repair halts such that to gain sustainable productivity due to uniformly distributed capacity of operational shoveling and haulage equipment. The authors have set stability limits, which imparts robustness to a controlled system and moves management to a new level.



12.
Improvement of Deep-Level Mining Systems Based on Optimization of Accessing and Open Pit Mine Parameters

G. G. SAKANTSEV1, M. G. SAKANTSEV1, V. I. CHESKIDOV2, V. K. NORRI2
1Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Ekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: deep open pit mine, stripping, accesing, open pit bottom profile

Abstract >>
The authors discuss reduction of stripping in deep-level open pit mining by making the open bottom wedge-shaped. The article describes the calculation scheme and the correlation analysis of interaction between stripping amount and its determinants. The application constrains for the wedge-shaped open pit bottom are specified.



13.
Directional Ionized Airflow in Energy-Saving Technologies of the Production Area Ventilation

P. T. PONOMAREV1, N. A. POPOV2
1Siberian Transport University, ul. D. Kovalchuk 191, Novosibirsk, 630049 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: ionized airflow, energy-saving technology, return air system, negatively charged ions, photoelectric ionization, corona electrode, precipitation electrode, mist spray particles, air purification

Abstract >>
Under consideration is the creation and use of directional ionized airflows aimed at air purification and enrichment with light negatively charged ions in the production areas, which greatly reduces energy cost of ventilation and heating in cold weather. The article presents some data on use of ionized airflows in energy-saving technologies of the production area ventilation at mining and processing plants.



14.
Up-to-Date Approaches to Adsorption of Fatty-Acid Collecting Agents at Apatite and Shtaffelite Ore Minerals

V. A. CHANTURIA1, YU. E. BRYLYAKOV2, E. V. KOPORULINA1, M. V. RYAZANTSEVA1, I. ZH. BUNIN1, I. A. KHABAROVA1, A. N. KRASNOV1
1Institute of Problems of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2EvroKhim Research Center LLC, ul. Fersmana 24, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: apatite and shtaffelite ore minerals, apatite, shtaffelite, calcite, flotation agents, surface, adsorption, analytical electron microscopy, high resolution microscopy, IR spectroscopy

Abstract >>
The morphology and spread of micro- and nano-formations on surface of apatite and shtaffelite ore minerals (apatite, shtaffelite and calcite) due to adsorption of fatty-acid collecting agents have been studied using the methods of optical, laser confocal scanning, analytical electron and atomic force microscopy. The Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy has shown that fatty-acid collecting agents are adsorbed on surface of apatite, shtaffelite and calcite in a mixed ion-molecule form; the ion form of attachment prevails for calcite.



15.
Foam Separation Selectivity Conditioned by the Chemically Attached Agent

S. A. KONDRATEV1, N. P. MOSHKIN2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Lavrentev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrenteva 15, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: flotation, hydrophobic behavior, hydrophilic behavior, mineral particles, nanobubbles, chemical adsorption, critical film thickness, selectivity

Abstract >>
It is hypothesized that the critical thickness of rupture of a liquid film between air bubble and mineral particle depends on potential and size of area occupied by nanobubble. It is shown that the critical thickness of the film equals the height of meniscus formed under rupture. The size and shape of meniscus are characterized by its neck radius and contact angle. The proposed hypothesis is based on the assumption that the size of initial meniscus neck is connected with the diameter of attachment area of nanobubble. There are no nanobubbles on the surface of hydrophilic minerals, and the liquid film rupture is hampered in this case. Since liquid film stability is mainly affected by hydrophobic interaction, the liquid film rupture thickness is larger on hydrophilic minerals than on hydrophobic minerals. Selectivity of foam separation of minerals, governed by the chemically attached agents, depends on the ratio of the critical rupture thicknesses of the liquid film.



16.
Mineral Formations on Natural Diamond Surface and Their Destruction Using Electrochemically Modified Mineralized Water

G. P. DVOICHENKOVA
Institute of Problems of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: diamond, kimberlite, analysis, mineralogy, mineralization, hydrophilic formations, films, foam separation

Abstract >>
The article describes modeling and analysis of formation, attachment and dissolving of mineral substances on surface of diamond crystals. Based on the thermodynamic analysis and experimental research, the author validates deposition of chemical compounds as the main factor to govern mineral formations on natural diamond surface under contact with mineralized water in the occurrence conditions of kimberlite ore and during mining and processing. The efficiency of electrochemically modified water in dissolving and removal of mineral formations from diamond surface is ascertained.



17.
Metal Extraction from Old Tailings for Utilization

S. I. EVDOKIMOV1, V. S. EVDOKIMOV1,2
1North Caucasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ul. Nikolaeva 44, Vladikavkaz, 362021 Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia
2GEOS Research and Manufacturing LLC, ul. Levanevskogo 253, Vladikavkaz, 362035 Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia
Keywords: old tailings, hydroseparation, thin-layer zone, flotation, jet scheme, extraction, lead, zinc, non-metallic fraction, reclamation

Abstract >>
The authors study potential of utilizing oil tailings of a lead-zinc processing plant. Conversion of sulfides into marketable selective concentrates is carried out in two stages: sulfide product is extracted from tailings, first, and processed, second, jointly with current ore material, using the accepted technology, or separately, by jet flotation. Sulfides are extracted from tailings using a channel-type hydroseparator. A feature of flotation scheme is jet counterflow of feed (in both cycles) and rough concentrate. Conditions and composition are developed for manufacturing a quality product from non-metallic tailings: lime-sand bricks, glass containers, fiberglass and marbled glass.



18.
Peculiarities of Geochemical Oxidation Reactions in Hypergenesis Zone under Southern Far East Climate Conditions

N. I. GREKHNEV, L. N. LIPINA
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: geochemical transformation, chemical contamination, toxic elements, environment, acid condition, humide technogenesis

Abstract >>
The hypergenesis zone processes are considered in regard to oxidation of metallic sulfides that deteriorate regional ecology due to transformation of hypogene sulfides in sulfate group minerals featured with high solubility and movability in the hypergenesis zone during summer monsoon in the coastal areas. The main agents of humid technogenesis are rainfalls rich in oxygen and other gases, that, with the help of the newly formed sulfuric acid, generate chemical oxidation and transformation of prime sulfides in oxidized groups of highly soluble sulfates.



19.
Sealing of Coal Bed Methane Drainage Holes by Barrier Shielding

M. V. KURLENYA, T. V. SHILOVA, S. V. SERDYUKOV, A. V. PATUTIN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: coal bed, preliminary methane drainage, methane recovery, degassing hole, sealing

Abstract >>
The authors have developed the barrier shielding method to seal coal bed methane drainage holes. The method reduces air leakage from enclosing rocks to evacuation holes. The compositions of shields with external seal preventing from fluid leakage to ambiance are offered and analyzed.