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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2014 year, number 7

1.
Preface

V.V. Belov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia



2.
60 years from the first meeting on the artificial Earth satellite to the modern systems of remote sensing and monitoring the Earth from space: information and mathematical aspect (history and prospects)

T.A. Sushkevich, S.A. Strelkov, S.V. Maksakova
Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq., 4, Moscow, 125047, Russia
Keywords: history of the space age, the Chief theoretician-mathematician M.V. Keldysh, Chief engineer-constructor S.P. Korolev, the manned space flight, space & atmospheric optics, Earth remote sensing, computer science, information and mathematical aspect

Abstract >>
The article is about the pioneer atmospheric-optical space researches and conservative systems of remote sensing of the near-earth space on the basis of the Earth radiation characteristics. Space researches are such area of fundamental and applied works, which from the first steps of the formation could not develop without the use of computers. Space exploration was a significant factor in the improvement of the computers and the formation of new scientific trends connected with mathematical modeling of the Earth radiation field, the theory of image transfer, theory of vision, theory of processing and recognition of images, etc. Information and mathematical software is an indispensable part of any space project. The short history of the nuclear and space projects and formation of scientific schools on the theory of radiation transfer is presented to restore the true facts of the beginning of opening of the space era and development of the cosmonautics. Our goal is to show as the ingenious Chief theoretician-mathematician V.M. Keldysh and Chief engineer-constructor S.P. Korolev together conquered space. It is important to pay attention to the prospective scientific directions connected with the application of computer science" with parallel supercalculations, GRID and cloudy" technologies in varied space researches, the problems of the Earth remote sensing, the evolution of environment, and climate of the Earth.



3.
Possibilities of agricultural vegetation condition analysis with the VEGA satellite service

V.A. Tolpin, E.A. Loupian, S.A. Bartalev, D.E. Plotnikov, A.M. Matveev
Space Research Institute, 117997, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya Str, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: vegetation condition, Earth observation satellite technologies, agricultural land monitoring, data processing methods, satellite data, remote monitoring system

Abstract >>
This paper considers methods of estimating the state of various vegetation including agricultural from remote sensing data (satellite monitoring). This paper discusses the possibility of using the analysis of vegetation indices (VI) deviations from normal time variation based method for specific objects and regions to estimate the state of vegetation. The problems of constructing the normal VI time series for different regions are discussed. Special attention is paid to possibilities of using the VEGA satellite service created in IKI for research of Northern Eurasia vegetation to implement the proposed approach.



4.
The quantitative interpretation of pasture image parameters: an experience of low and moderate spatial resolution remotely sensed data application

D.V. Malakhov, A.F. Islamgulova
Department of Space and Technology, 050010, Almaty, Shevchenko str., 15, Kazakhstan
Keywords: vegetation index, grass-cover, productivity, pasture condition

Abstract >>
The application of vegetation indices for the quantitative evaluation of basic pasture parameters (grass-cover, productivity, unpalatable grass, pasture degradation) is discussed for low and moderate resolution optical sensors. Each vegetation index was correlated with ground-truth data. The algorithm of pasture condition estimation was developed using highly correlated indices.



5.
Cognitive technologies for processing optical images of high spatial and spectral resolution

V.V. Kozoderov1, E.V. Dmitriev2, V.P. Kamentsev3
1LomonosovMoscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia
2The Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkin str., 8, Moscow, 119333, Russia
3Tver State University, 170100, 33, Zhelyabova, Tver
Keywords: remote sensing, optical images, pattern recognition, forest canopies of various species and age

Abstract >>
Main stages of development of technologies for natural and anthropogenic objects recognition (cognitive technologies for optical images processing) using remote sensing data are considered together with computational procedures of atmospheric correction of multispectral and hyperspectral airspace images. Main attention is paid to recognition of forest ecosystems of various species and age, based on in-flight testing of a domestic imaging spectrometer for a selected test area, where ground-based forest inventory and other observations were carried out. High accuracies of the recognition of separate gradations of ages for the selected pure birch and pine species are revealed, using the elaborated softwave for airborne hyperspectral image processing.



6.
Algorithm of pattern recognition from the data of hyperspectral imaging

K.T. Protasov, K.K. Protasov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: hyperspectral aerospace observation, optimum Bayes decision rule, pattern recognition

Abstract >>
The Bayes decision rule for recognition of hyperspectral aerospace data is obtained. An example of recognition of forest stand types is given.



7.
Earth's surface brightness temperature measured by the microwave radiometer SMOS, and the problem of soil moisture recovering

P.N. Dagurov, A.V. Dmitriev, Zh.B. Dymbrylov, S.B. Radnaeva
Institute of Physical Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, 8, Sakhyanovoy str
Keywords: microwave sensing, brightness temperature, soil moisture, layered soil

Abstract >>
The angular and polarization dependencies of the brightness temperature measured by the spaceborne radiometer SMOS in L-band on different parts of the earth's surface are shown. It is found that in some cases the results are not described by the existing model for the reflection coefficient of microwaves, which leads to errors in recovering the soil moisture. It is shown by calculation that the layered structure of soil moisture has a significant impact on the behavior of brightness temperature. It is proposed to expand the moisture-recovering algorithm by the method which takes into account possible layered structure of the soil moisture.



8.
Study of landslide processes and deformations of the landscape of the Yamal peninsula by radar interferometry and texture analysis

T.N. Chimitdorzhiev, I.I. Kirbizhekova, M.E. Bykov
Institute of Physical Material Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 670047, Ulan-Ude, 8, Sakhyanovoy str
Keywords: radar interferometry, texture analysis, landslide processes

Abstract >>
This report presents the results of a study of micro-deformation of soil and landslides on the Yamal Peninsula by the methods of differential interferometry and analysis of seasonal and long-term changes in the texture of radar images.



9.
GLONASS/GPS zenith tropospheric delay based on satellite data ATOVS

V.B. Kashkin1,2, V.M. Vladimirov3, A.O. Klykov1
1Siberian Federal University, 82, Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
3Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 50, Akademgorodok, 660036, Krasnoyarsk
Keywords: global navigation satellite systems, vertical profiles of troposphere, stratosphere, tropospheric delay of GLONASS/GPS signals, barometric formulae

Abstract >>
The technique of space infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding with ATOVS instrument is discussed. The results of the sounding are vertical profiles of atmosphere. Zenith tropospheric delay was estimated with the profiles and with the Saastamoinen and Hopfield delay models using surface measurements. Biases of the model-derived estimations are -0,0186 m for the Saastamoinen model and -0,0135 m for the Hopfield one during the whole 2012. The results are valid for Krasnoyarsk (middle latitudes of Siberia).



10.
Software package for reconstruction of reflective properties of the Earth surface in visible and UV ranges

M.V. Tarasenkov1, V.V. Belov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: Monte Carlo method, atmospheric correction, radiative transfer equation

Abstract >>
A software package for reconstruction of the distribution of the Earth surface reflection coefficient is described together with procedures developed to decrease considerably the computation time. On an example of a test region in the western coast of Africa, the results obtained by the suggested algorithm, algorithm of homogeneous correction, and standard MOD09 NASA algorithm are compared. The coefficient of correlation of the results obtained for the given test region using the new algorithm and the algorithm of homogeneous correction is 0.999; it is 0.984 for the given algorithm and the MOD09 algorithm.



11.
Software for a computing system for satellite data correction

M.V. Engel, S.V. Afonin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: computing system, atmospheric correction, satellite data

Abstract >>
A description is presented of software for a computing system of satellite data correction that provides calculations in automated mode with the use of distributed data. Two types of data: predictive models and satellite measurements are used as input data on the atmospheric state. The method is developed for assessment of the relevance of meteorological satellite data, which allows estimation of the reliability of calculated results. The system provides correction for the distorting effect of the atmosphere for a wide variety of satellite sensors operating under diverse atmospheric meteorological conditions and combination of various distorting factors.



12.
Studying of variations of atmospheric aerosol properties caused by large-scale forest fires in Central Yakutia (2002)

O.A. Tomshin1, V.S. Solovyev1
Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 677980, Yakutsk, 31, Lenina ave
Keywords: forest fires, aerosols, emissions, remote sensing

Abstract >>
Aerosol optical thickness and aerosol index variations caused by large-scale forest fires in Central Yakutia in 2002 were studied by remote sensing data (NOAA, Terra, Earth Probe). Total emissions of CO2, CO, CH4 etc. were calculated using modeling approach and MODIS/Terra burned area data. A comparison of total emissions from forest fires in Central Yakutia with global fire and volcanic emissions are made. Long-range transport events of aerosol particles during maximum activity of forest fires are examined.



13.
Statistical model of cirrus cloud textural features based on MODIS satellite images

V.G. Astafurov1,2, T.V. Evsyutkin1, K.V. Kuriyanovich1, A.V. Skorokhodov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, Russia 634050
Keywords: cirrus clouds, textural features, statistical model, classification, satellite data

Abstract >>
A set of informative textural features is formed for various cirrus cloud patterns presented in MODIS satellite images with 250-m resolution. To describe the texture, the following methods are applied: Gray-Level Co-occurrences Matrix, Gray-Level Difference Vector, and Sum and Difference Histograms. Laws are determined that describe textural features fluctuations, and assessments of their parameters are presented as well. Results of cirrus cloud subtype classification using neural network technologies are presented and discussed.



14.
The use of satellite images for ecological estimate of flare firing of gas at oil fidds of Siberia

Yu.M. Polishchuk1, O.S. Tokareva2
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 4, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: air pollution, bioindication, space image, vegetation index

Abstract >>
A comparative analysis is carried out of results on changes of bioindicative tree state in the area of air pollution as a result of gas flaring at Priobskoe oil field and estimates derived from vegetation indices determined from satellite images. Acceptable matching of results of remote assessment of forest changes with data of bioindicative ground research in the taiga zone is shown.



15.
Detection of ecological changes in the natural environment from satellite measurements

M.Yu. Kataev1,2, A.A. Bekerov3
1Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, Russia 634050
2Yurginskiy Technological Institute (branch) of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 652055, Kemerovo region, Jurga, st. Leningrad, 26
3Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: ecology, methodology, satellite data, vegetation indexes

Abstract >>
The main directions of the ecological control of the territory from the space are the development of methods of remote sensing of the parameters of Earth surface and atmosphere and monitoring of the state of the environment. Monitoring data are necessary for investigation of natural processes and analysis of impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors on the natural environment. For receiving, processing, and analysis of data of the satellite remote monitoring, it is necessary to create appropriate software. The article considers a program-analytical complex based on MODIS satellite data allowing counting vegetation indexes and analysis of their behavior. On the basis of statistical data, the dependence of natural variations in the indexes is determined that allows detecting changes in the variations due to anthropogenic impacts.