Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia

Log In   /  Register




Advanced Search

2014 year, number 6

1.
Seasonal and long-term variations in atmospheric circulation indices and air mass transport to the Russian Arctic

A.A. Vinogradova
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: atmosphere, Arctic, long-range transport, atmospheric circulation indices, solar activity

Abstract >>
Seasonal and long-term variations in six atmospheric circulation indices (ACI) and in air transport to three points in the Russian Arctic were concurrently analyzed for the period of 1986-2010. The monthly mean values of ACI and of air mass transport frequencies from some territories were studied for the central months of the seasons. The principal differences between winter and summer ACI systems were found, as well as its transitional structures. Correlations between atmospheric transport pathways and ACI (or their group) show some connections and seasonal features in processes under investigation. Some statistically significant differences between the years with maximal and minimal solar activity were revealed as for ACI and for air transport to the Russian Arctic.



2.
Seasonal and diurnal variability of particulate matter PM10 in surface air of Moscow habitable districts

I.N. Kuznetsova1, A.A. Glazkova1, I.Yu. Shalygina1, M.I. Nakhaev1, A.A. Arkhangelskaya1, A.M. Zvyagintsev2, E.G. Semutnikova3, P.V. Zakharova3, E.A. Lezina3
1Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
2Central Aerological Observatory, 3, Pervomayskaya str., Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, 141700, Russia
3Mosjekomonitoring, 11/1, Novyj Arbat, 1119019, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: ir quality, particulate matter 10, daily and seasonal variability 10, pollution episodes

Abstract >>
Seasonal and diurnal characteristics of particulate matter (PM10) variability in surface air of Moscow for period January 2008 - August 2013 are presented. In the cold season, the mean PM10 concentrations, their average and standard deviations were of the order of 17-21, 15-18, and 9-12 mg × m-3 at urban background network stations. In the warm season (April-October), the mean PM10 concentrations, their average and standard deviations were of the order of 25-31, 21-27, and 14-20 mcg × m-3. Differences of aerosol pollution regimes in Moscow and Western European megacities (including London) are analyzed. In distinct from Moscow the aerosol seasonal maximal concentrations in the Western Europe are observed during the cold season. In summer, aerosol concentrations in Moscow and Western European megacities are close. The study establishes a great influence of climatic conditions and different sources of aerosol pollution in regions, which are thousands kilometers distant. It is suggested that aerosol episodes due to local emissions under adverse meteorological conditions are mostly frequent in Moscow, but short (2-3 days) episodes caused by long-range air transport of PM10 are observed every year.



3.
Insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki strains isolated from atmospheric aerosols of Southwestern Siberia

I.S. Andreeva1, A.S. Safatov1, O.S. Mokrushina1, G.A. Buryak1, L.I. Puchkova1, N.A. Mazurkova1, L.I. Burtseva2, G.V. Kalmykova3
1State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Novosibirsk region, Koltsovo, 630559, Russia
2Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 930091, Novosibirsk, 11, Frunze str
3Siberian Research Institute pererabotki sel'skohozjajstvennoj produkcii Rossel'hozakademii, Novosibirsk region, Krasnoobsk, 630501, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric aerosols, Bacillus thuringiensis, insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral activity

Abstract >>
The article presents data on insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains, isolated during microbiological analysis of high-altitude and ground-based samples of atmospheric aerosol collected in Southwestern Siberia. According to the results of intraspecies tests, among 36 isolated bacteria identified as belonging to Bt species, 15 strains were classified as Bt ssp. kurstaki subspecies and tested for the presence of antagonistic characteristics. Despite their long-term soaring under extreme conditions as a part of atmospheric aerosols, including high-altitude ones (up to 7000 m), the isolated Bt ssp. kurstaki strains preserved high levels of entomopathogenic activity characteristic for this subspecies, were able to inhibit the reproduction of pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella thyphimurium, Shigella sonnei, Candida albicans, etc. and to effectively neutralize the replication of avian influenza virus A/chicken/Kurgan /05/2005 (A/H5N1) and human influenza virus A/Aichi/2/68 (A/H3N2). The properties of Bt strains isolated from atmospheric aerosols not only confirmed their well-known resistance to adverse environmental factors, entomopathogenic and antimicrobial activities, but also demonstrated the possibility of their use for antiviral drugs development.



4.
Dynamics of the elemental composition of the snow cover in the north-eastern zone of influence of Tomsk-Seversk industrial agglomeration

A.V. Talovskaya, E.A. Filimonenko, E.G. Yazikov
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: dust aerosol, snow, solid residue of snow, Tomsk-Seversk agglomeration, heavy metals, rare, rare earth and radioactive elements

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of analysis of data on dust aerosol inflow with a complex of heavy metals, rare, rare-earth, and radioactive elements on the snow cover in the north-eastern zone of influence of Tomsk-Seversk industrial agglomeration from 1990s to 2006-2013. The positive dynamics of reducing the daily average inflow of most chemical elements considered in the composition of dust aerosol from the atmosphere during the observation period was marked. This may indicate a reduction of anthropogenic load from local sources in the settlements and industrial facilities of Tomsk and Seversk. Also, the paper presents the results of synchronous research of the content of chemical elements in the melted snow water and solid residue snow. Most elements concentrate in the solid residue of snow and, probably, it is related to the processes of sorption of elements on solid aerosol particles.



5.
Hydrocarbon composition of tropospheric aerosol in the south of West Siberia

N.G. Voronetskaya1, G.S. Pevneva1, A.K. Golovko1, A.S. Kozlov2, M.Yu. Arshinov3, B.D. Belan3, D.V. Simonenkov3, G.N. Tolmachev3
1Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric aerosol, composition, hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, cyclanes, alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenanthrenes

Abstract >>
In this paper, some methodical aspects of airborne sampling of aerosol particles, extraction of organic matter form aerosol samples, and identification of organic compounds are discussed. The investigation of a possible influence of aviation fuel and lubricants (kerosene, oil, hydraulic fluid) on measurement data has been performed. The composition of organic particulate matter sampled during winter and spring 2013 in the 500-7000 m atmospheric layer over Karakan Pine Forest located near the shore of Novosibirsk reservoir has been analyzed. The following compounds were identified: n-alkanes, cyclanes, and alkylarenes. For the first time in the particulate matter sampled in West Siberia the saturated cyclic and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons have been revealed.



6.
Estimation of the Pinatubo volcano eruption effect on stratospheric O3 and NO2, taking into account variations of solar activity

A.N. Gruzdev
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: ozone, NO2, Pinatubo volcano, solar activity

Abstract >>
Effects of the Pinatubo volcano eruption and variations of solar activity on stratospheric O3 and NO2 are estimated, using data of satellite measurements of ozone concentration by SBUV/SBUV-2 instruments and results of ground-based measurements of the column NO2 content in the NDACC. The NO2 decrease related to the Pinatubo eruption is within 19-23% at different stations, the NO2 decrease in the Southern hemisphere (SH) is on the whole something larger than in the Northern hemisphere (NH). The decrease in O3 concentration in the NH extratropical lower stratosphere (~ 10%) is, on the contrary, much larger than in the SH. Maximal decrease in ozone concentration is noted in the neighbourhood of 10 hPa level (32 km) at 10-15°S. The effect of the 11-year solar cycle in stratospheric ozone is approximately symmetrical about the equator. Altitude maxima of the O3 response to the solar cycle are noted at altitudes of 50-55, 35-40, and below 25 km. The changes in O3 concentration in these layers are usually within several percents. Essential interhemispheric difference is noted in the NO2 response to the 11-year solar cycle. The NO2 content at most of SH stations is usually lower during the phase of maximum than during the phase of minimum of solar activity. The NO2 content at the low- and mid-latitude stations of the NH is often larger during a solar activity maximum compared to that during its minimum. NO2 changes related to the solar cycle are usually within 5%.



7.
Biogenic organic compounds as a vertically distributed source of atmospheric aerosol over the forests of West Siberia

T.A. Maksimova1, A.A. Maskaeva2,3, G.G. Dultseva1,4, S.N. Dubtsov1
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 20, K. Marksa av., Novosibirsk, 630073, Russia
3Novosibirsk State Technical University
4Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric organic aerosol, aldehydes, photonucleation

Abstract >>
Results of airborne measurements of aldehyde concentrations above forests of West Siberia are presented. A chemical model describing the mechanism of formation of aldehydes and solid nuclei in the course of oxidation of biogenic isoprene is constructed. It is demonstrated that the detected episodes with high (up to 9 mg/m3) formaldehyde concentration are due to the photooxidation of hydrocarbons, which act as a vertically-distributed source of aldehydes and aerosol.



8.
Certain regularities of synoptic and mesoscale processes in the troposphere, found with the help of a network of receivers of global positioning systems

O.G. Khutorova, G.M. Teptin, V.E. Khutorov
Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlyovskaya St., Kazan, 420008, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation
Keywords: remote sensing of troposphere, integral moisture, mesoscale disturbances, synoptic processes

Abstract >>
This paper presents results of the troposphere spatial and temporal variability studies from the network of global satellite navigation system receivers. According to experimental data from GPS receiver network, spaced at distances from 1 to 35 km, the seasonal variability of the intensity of mesoscale variations and daily dynamics of mesoscale inhomogeneity is estimated, horizontal structure functions of zenith tropospheric delay are calculated. A relationship with the fields of humidity, pressure, and wind speed is found.



9.
Mathematical simulation of runoff of main Siberian rivers

V.I. Kuzin, N.A. Lapteva
Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: mathematical simulation, climatic river runoff, the basins of Ob, Yenisei and Lena

Abstract >>
The paper presents a climatic discharge model for the greatest Siberian Rivers: Ob, Yenisei, and Lena. The model in use is a linear reservoir model, i.e., each cell of the model is a reservoir or cascade of reservoirs. The flow of water is divided into surface runoff, river flow, and groundwater flow, defined by the climatic model of the surface. As the initial data for the numerical simulation of river runoff for the Ob-Irtysh, Yenisei, and Lena, the ERA40 and MERRA reanalysis data were used. For the comparison with observational data, the measurements at the hydrological stations Ob-Salekhard, Yenisey-Igarka, and Lena-Kyusyur were used. The analysis of the numerical simulations results is presented in the paper.



10.
Interaction of oxygen-containing compounds of the atmosphere gas phase with the surface of the sedimented aerosol produced from a TiO2 crystal

V.S. Zakharenko1, E.B. Daybova2
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, pr. Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
2Siberian Research Institute of agriculture and peat Russian academy of agricultural sciences, 3 Gagarin str., Tomsk, Russia, 634050
Keywords: TiO2 monocrystal, dispersion under ambient air, TiO2 aerosol, 2 photoadsorption, TiO2 photoreduction

Abstract >>
It was found that under UV irradiation absorbed by titanium dioxide, in the absence of oxygen, water effectively reacts with oxygen of titanium dioxide grating. Oxygen is subsequently released into gaseous phase in the dark, thus retrieving titanium dioxide. It is supposed that the filling with oxygen of Earths atmosphere may take place during a similar process of reduction of oxygen-containing metal compounds of lithosphere and tropospheric solid aerosols by water under hard UV irradiation.



11.
Some features of gassing from annual rings of conifers

B.G. Ageev, V.A. Sapozhnikova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: annual rings, carbon dioxide, annual distribution

Abstract >>
Results of our investigations of gas content in rings of tree discs have shown that a significant part of CO2 generated under cell respiration remains in tree stems. Content of this CO2 exceeds the atmospheric CO2 content in most cases and forms the annual distribution over a disc. For these investigations, for the first time we use the method of laser photoacoustic gas-analysis. In this work, some features of the obtained chronologies (year-to-year distributions) of gas probes are discussed.



12.
Spatial distribution of carbon dioxide fluxes, nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in the pelagic zone of Lake Baikal in spring 2010-2012

V.M. Domysheva1, M.V. Usol'tseva1, M.V. Sakirko1, D.A. Pestunov2, M.N. Shimaraev1, G.I. Popovskaya1, M.V. Panchenko2
1Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: carbon dioxide flux, air-water, biomass, Lake Baikal

Abstract >>
The paper presents the results of measurements of concentrations of oxygen, biogenic elements, phytoplankton biomass and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in water and near-water atmosphere in the pelagic zone of Lake Baikal in June 2010-2012. The contrast weather conditions were observed in the region in winter and spring 2010-2012, which determined the behavior of hydrological and biological processes in the pelagic water zone of Baikal. The radical difference in weather conditions before expeditions of 2010-2012 made it possible to estimate a wide range of variability of the characteristics under study and to analyze their role in formation of fluxes at different stages of spring warming on the basis of three data arrays. The quantitative characteristics of phytoplankton biomass are compared with the difference of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the air-water system.



13.
Study of the liquid water in clouds with the Microradkom microwave system

E.N. Kadygrov, A.G. Gorelik, T.A. Tochilkina
Central Aerological Observatory, 3, Pervomayskaya str., Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, 141700, Russia
Keywords: cloud physics, microwave remote sensing, integral water vapour, liquid water in clouds

Abstract >>
Results of study of liquid water in thin clouds and mist with the multichannel microwave radiometric system Microradkom are presented in the paper. The system includes 4 microwave radiometers: multichannel with frequencies of 53-58 GHz (tropospheric temperature profiling); scanning 56.6 GHz (atmospheric boundary layer temperature profiling); 22.235 GHz (with a sensitivity of 0,04 K at 1 s integration time for integral water vapor measurements); 37.5 GHz (with a sensitivity of 0.02 K at integration time of 1 s for integral liquid water measurements), and automatic meteostation and video system for cloud observations. Observations were provided in Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, from February 2012 to January 2014.



14.
Agglomerate composition of pollen aerosol in the atmosphere of Novosibirsk

V.V. Golovko1, K.P. Koutsenogii1, V.L. Istomin2
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, 15, Ac. Lavrentieva ave
Keywords: pollen, agglomerate, sedimentation, aerodynamic diameter, atmospheric aerosol, number concentration, mass concentration

Abstract >>
The pollen component of atmospheric aerosol has been studied in the air of Novosibirsk during the vegetation period of 2004. Taxonomic composition, the dates of ingress of pollen of various taxons of anemophilous plants into the atmosphere, pollen number and mass concentrations have been determined upon blossoming. It has been established that during the entire vegetation period the pollen component of atmospheric aerosol is represented by both single pollen grains and their agglomerates. The aerodynamic characteristics of the individual pollen grains of anemophilous plants and their agglomerates have been estimated. The agglomerate composition was determined for the pollen aerosol of Novosibirsk.



15.
Assessment of environmental risk associated with gas flaring in Western Siberia

I.G. Yashchenko, L.I. Svarovskaya, M.N. Alexeeva
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: associated oil gas, atmospheric pollution, satellite images, ecological risk, flare, numerical maps, oil field

Abstract >>
Negative impact of oil production complex on the ecology of Western Siberia is the chemical pollution of the atmosphere from the burning of associated gas flaring. The technique has been developed to construct maps of thermal anomalies and environmental risk of plant communities under the influence of combustion products of associated oil gas in flares, polluting the atmosphere. We have considered the use of thermal satellite images Landsat and MODIS products for environmental monitoring of anthropogenic impact on vegetation areas of oil fields in Western Siberia - Vatinskoye, Samotlorskoye (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area) and Sovetskoye (Tomsk region).



16.
To Georgij Vladimirovich Rozenberg's 100 anniversary