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Journal of Mining Sciences

2014 year, number 2

1.
Interaction of Geomechanical and Physicochemical Processes in Kuzbass Coal

V. N. OPARIN1,2, T. A. KIRYAEVA1, V. YU. GAVRILOV3, R. A. SHUTILOV3, A. P. KOVCHAVTSEV4, A. S. TANAINO1, V. P. EFIMOV1, I. E. ASTRAKHANTSEV1, I. V. GRENEV3
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrenteva 5, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
4Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrenteva 13, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: stress-strain state, temperature, coal, volatile yield, specific surface, structure, porosity, density, oxidation, combustion, outburst hazard, coal ranks, classification

Abstract >>
The paper presents laboratory and in situ research data on interaction of geomechanical and physicochemical processes in Kuzbass coal of various ranks, considering temperature effect. Under analysis is the relation of stress-strain state, temperature and infrared radiation of coal. The authors study the role of temperature and microstructure of coal in energy and mass exchange processes (variation of mass, volatile yield, specific surface, internal methane relaxation energy and moisture content). Interrelation of outburst hazard and fire hazard in coal is discussed from the viewpoint of uniform stage-wise thermomechanics and thermochemistry of coal behavior in the course of coal formation and extraction. The article introduces an index for quantitative description of petrographic properties of coal. Using this index, the authors classify and describe petrographic groups of Kuzbass coal.



2.
Dynamic Microplasticity Phenomenon in Rocks during P-Wave Propagation

E. I. MASHINSKII
Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: local inelasticity, dynamic microplasticity, time lag and deformations, inelastic seismic parameters, amplitude dependence of wave velocities and attenuation

Abstract >>
The article describes effects of local microplastic inelasticity in loam during propagation of P-wave with a frequency of 240–1000 Hz between two shallow wells, one holding piezoelectric pulse emitter and the other containing piezoelectric pulse receiver. Seismic record displays microplasticity phenomenon as the step-wise change of signal amplitude with time and the flat sections in the curve from microsecond to dozens microseconds long. The flats create short-terms breaks of the process-the time lags that depend on the signal amplitude. As a result, the first arrival time of the wave is changed, and the wave is transformed. It is presumable that microplasticity is conditioned by stress concentration at damages. The research findings are of use to solving applied problems in mining engineering and seismology.



3.
Mining-Induced Seismicity at Open Pit Mines in Kuzbass (Bachatsky Earthquake on June 18, 2013)

A. F. EMANOV1,2,3, A. A. EMANOV1,2, A. V. FATEEV1,2, E. V. LESKOVA1,2, E. V. SHEVKUNOVA1, V. G. PODKORYTOVA1
1Altay-Sayan Division, Geophysical Service, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: induced earthquake, induced seismicity, Bachatsky Open Pit Coal Mine, Kuzbass, after-shocks, temporal seismic net

Abstract >>
The data on the world-strongest earthquake induced by hard mineral mining-Bachatsky earthquake (ML = 6.1) in Kuzbass on June 18, 2013-are reported. Seismic activation of the territory at the Bachatsky Open Pit Mine in 2012-2013 awoke three large earthquakes, sensibly affecting the Kuzbass towns. The authors have analyzed the results of experiments on temporal seismology nets in 2012 and the records of the after-shock train following the Bachatsky earthquake in 2013. The low energy seismic activity is revealed in rocks under the Bachatsky and Shestaki OPMs. It is found that small earthquakes cluster under the center of the open pit mine bottoms, and the larger earthquakes crowd under the pitwalls, and the depth of the earthquake sources is 3–4 km.



4.
Deformation of Granular Material around a Rigid Inclusion

S. V. KLISHIN, O. A. MIKENINA, A. F. REVUZHENKO
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: stress state, granular material, numerical analysis, discrete element method, rigid inclusion, viscosity

Abstract >>
The authors investigate numerically stress-strain state of a granular material around a rigid circular inclusion in case of combined loading with continuous turn of shearing. Dilatancy, dry friction and viscosity are taken into account. It is shown that under certain conditions, the rigid inclusion undergoes the influence of a momentum of turn contrariwise the shearing. The numerical investigation results are compared with the relevant experiment data.



5.
Simplest Deformation Models for a Fluid-Saturated Poroelastic Medium

O. B. BOCHAROV1, V. YA. RUDYAK2, A. V. SERYAKOV1
1Baker Hughes Russian Science Center, pr. Kutateladze 4, Novosibirsk, 630128 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, ul. Leningradskaya 113, Novosibirsk, 630008 Russia
Keywords: poroelasticity, theory of mixtures, scaling method, saturated porous medium, compatibility model, unchanged volume medium, analytical solutions

Abstract >>
Under analysis is the compatibility model of two-phase flow in porous medium and deformation of the pore space. The model includes the equations of transfer of the medium components (fluid and porous matrix), derived from the conservation laws, the deformation consistency condition and the closing equations in the form of the generalized Hook law. It is shown that the system of the constitutive equations contains a series of small parameters, and the small parameter expansion allows a hierarchical sequence of models of certain deformation conditions. The null approximation and first approximation models are written in explicit form. It is found that if compact phases are incompressible, the first approximation equations go to the Buckley–Leverett modellike system with account for the change of the porous space. The zero approximation equations describe the porous medium behavior under condition of the unchanged volume. In this case, the equation of the pore pressure is separated from the equation of the elastic matrix. The analytical solutions derived for the zero approximation model in cylindrical coordinates feature shear stresses capable to cause failure.



6.
Experimental Analysis of Thermally Stimulated Acoustic Emission in Various-Genotype Rock Specimens under Uniaxial Compression

V. L. SHKURATNIK, E. A. NOVIKOV, R. O. OSHKIN
National University of Science and Technology (MISiS), Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
ftkp@mail.ru
Keywords: rocks, genotype, uniaxial compression, thermally stimulated acoustic emission, theoretical basis, stress-strain state, porosity

Abstract >>
The consistent patterns of low temperature-stimulated acoustic emission (TAE) in rocks of various genotypes and porosity, under uniaxial mechanical compression are experimentally examined and theoretically based. It is shown that these consistent patterns obtained in magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks qualitatively coincide. The authors compare limits of deformation stages in the tested rocks, found by a conventional method based on strain measurements in specimens under mechanical compression and by the TAE method. It is explained that the thermal acoustic emission phenomena are associated with the transfer of the studied objects between deformation stages depending on the initial faulted-porous structure of a geomaterial. The applicability of the TAE method to controlling stresses and their time and space dynamics in rocks is illustrated.



7.
Frequency-Time Presentation of Georadar Profiles Based on Continuous Wavelet Transform

K. O. SOKOLOV
Chersky Institute of Mining of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lenina 43, Yakutsk, 677980 Russia
Keywords: georadio location, wavelet-analysis, permafrost zone, rock mass joints

Abstract >>
The article proposes to estimate electromagnetic energy saturation in a medium using a new processing method of georadar profiles based on continuous wavelet transform. The proposed method applicability to location of joints in a highly electroconductive frozen rock mass is illustrated.



8.
Deformational Criteria for the Stability of Roof Rocks and Rock Bolts

M. A. ROZENBAUM, D. N. DEMEKHIN
National Mineral Resources University (University of Mines), VO 21-ya liniya 2, Saint-Petersburg, 199106 Russia
Keywords: mine working, rock bolts, stage-wise rock bolting, stability, permissible displacements, critical displacements, equivalent material model

Abstract >>
The authors discuss issues of stage-wise rock bolting of mine workings. Using equivalent material models, permissible roof rock lamination for roof bolting in conformity with the excavation support standards is evaluated. The critical displacements of roof rocks that make stage-wise roof bolting impossible are calculated.



9.
Hydrofracture Growth in a Compressed Quasi-Regular Blocky Rock Mass

P. A. MARTYNYUK, E. N. SHER
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, blocky rock mass, compression field, fracture opening

Abstract >>
Effect of irregular structure of a compressed blocky rock mass on propagation of a hydrofracture in it is analyzed in the limit case when biaxial compression field is isotropic.



10.
Local Minimum of Energy Consumption for Hard Rock Failure in Negative Temperature Range

E. V. ZAKHAROV, A. S. KURILKO
Chersky Institute of Mining of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lenina 43, Yakutsk, 677980 Russia
Keywords: energy consumption for failure, negative temperature, carbonate rocks, kimberlite

Abstract >>
The article reports studies into the influence of negative temperature on energy consumption for failure of rocks. In terms of limestone sampled at the Udachny and Mokhsogollokh open pit mines and kimberlite sampled at the Internatsionalnaya and Udachnaya pipes, it is found that energy consumption for failure greatly decreases in the temperature range between −5 and −15 °.



11.
Rock Failure Prediction in Mines by Seismic Monitoring Data

V. I. GERMAN
Krasnoyarsk Research Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, pr. Mira 55, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia
Keywords: failure prediction, seismic monitoring, failure concentration criterion, parameter of contingence of seismic events

Abstract >>
The author analyzes the physical sense of the seismicity characteristics most often used in assessment of failure hazard in mines. Based on the failure mechanics, the modified failure concentration criterion successfully used in failure prediction in Zhezkazgan copper mine is described and validated.



12.
Methodology and Development Tool for Robust Control at Open Pit Mines.
Part I: Decision-Making System and the Mineral Quality Control

E. V. FREIDINA1,2, A. A. BOTVINNIK1, A. N. DVORNIKOVA1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University of Economics and Management, ul. Kamenskaya 52, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: robustness, open pit mining, robust control, permissibe variation range, quality control, geoinformation modeling, complete and conditionally dynamic models, quality maps, control maps

Abstract >>
Topicality, concept, principles and tool of the robust control in open pit mineral mining are given. It is shown that each stage of the product quality control must have permissible range of fluctuation for coal properties and loading equipment capacity as well as spatial limits for components of the open pit work area. The goal and capabilities of the robust control is the stable operation of the production system within the set limits and constraints. The article presents methodology and implementation tool for the robust control at open pit coal mines.



13.
Analysis of the Effect of Cable Saw Work Mode on Cutting Cost of Stone Blocks

G. D. PERSHIN, M. S. ULYAKOV
Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, pr. Lenina 38, Magnitogorsk, 455000 Russia
Keywords: cable saw, capacity, tool wear, specific work of cutting, cost

Abstract >>
Relations of the main characteristics of cutting (capacity, energy consumption and diamond tool wear) and the cable saw mode are presented for various heights of a cutting bench. The authors develop the cable saw control mode selection procedure accounting for the said relations of the cutting performance, cutting cost and the bench height. For the selection of the rational mode of the cable saw control, the integrated technical-and-economic index is offered, characterized by the cost related with the cutting intensity of stone blocks.



14.
Multi-Criterion Analysis of Land Reclamation Methods at Klenovnik Open Pit Mine, Kostolac Coal Basin

B. DIMITRIJEVIC1, S. VUJIC2, I. MATIC1, S. MAJIANAC2, J. PRAŠTALO2, J. NIKOLIC2, V. ČOLAKOVIC2
1University of Belgrade, Studentski trg. 1, Belgrade, 11000 Serbia
2Mining Institute of Belgrade, Batajnicki put 2, Belgrade-Zimun, 11080 Serbia
Keywords: reclamation, open pit coal mine, multi-attribute and multi-criterion analysis, decision-making

Abstract >>
Klenovnik open pit mine in the Kostolac coal basin has been closed after coal reserves depletion. The land reclamation and renovation project is in process. The key concern is selection of the land reclamation method. Considering objectives of the reclamation project and the environmental conditions, 10 alternative scenarios are offered based on analysis of the influences and the project feasibility criteria. The ranging of the alternatives and the sound selection of the best scenario is possible using multi-attribute decision making techniques Promethee and Electre.



15.
Influence of Train Piston Effect on the Subway Fans

A. M. KRASYUK1, P. V. KOSYKH2, E. YU. RUSSKY1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Keywords: Train frequency, air distortion, spectrum analysis, subway fan, vibration amplitude, fan load, fatigue strength, frequency spectrum

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of the spectrum analysis of air distortion under train piston effect in the subway. The authors offer a procedure for estimating influence of air distortion on torsional behavior of tunnel fan rotor. It is shown that with a variable frequency drive, it is possible that harmonic frequencies of the disturbed flow coincide with the eigenfrequencies of the rotor.



16.
Mathematical Methods of Forecasting Microclimate Conditions in an Arbitrary Layout Network of Excavations

L. YU. LEVIN, M. A. SEMIN, A. V. ZAITSEV
Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sibirskaya 78a, Perm, 614007 Russia
Keywords: network of excavations, microclimate, thermal environment, unsteady heat transfer, rock mass, mathematical modeling, air distribution, heat liberation sources

Abstract >>
The mathematical methods of forecasting microclimate conditions in an arbitrary layout network of excavations are developed based on analysis of formation of thermal environment in mines. The mathematical models allow calculation of heat distribution in excavations, considering hydrostatic compression-expansion of air in vertical and inclined workings, presence of heat liberation (absorption) and moisture transitions.



17.
Ecological Evaluation of the Industrially Induced Change of the Lithosphere

K. N. TRUBETSKOY, YU. P. GALCHENKO, G. V. SABYANIN
Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: lithosphere, industrially changed interior of the Earth, geophysical ecotone, stress-strain state, rock mass, ecological indicators, index, density

Abstract >>
In focus are the conditions and features of a new ecological object of the lithosphere-the industrially changed interior of the Earth. The authors hypothesize on formation of geophysical ecotone and present the procedure for evaluating ecological indicators of the ecotone as applied to underground mineral mining.



18.
Forecasting Preliminary Mechanical Activation Effect on Ilmenite and Arizonite Concentration Involving X-Ray Crystal Analysis

E. V. BOGATYREVA1, A. V. CHUB2, A. G. ERMILOV1
1National University of Science and Technology (MISiS), Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
2Solikamsk Magnesium Works, ul. Pravdy 9, Solikamsk, 618500 Russia
Keywords: ilmenite concentrate, arizonite concentrate, mechanical activation, hydrochloric acid leaching, X-ray crystal analysis

Abstract >>
It is possible to forecast variation in energy content and reactivity of ilmenite and arizonite concentrates after their mechanical activation using data of X-ray crystal analysis. It is found that energy of ilmenite and arizonite after mechanical activation differs from energy of structural failures within the minerals. Effect of the energy, accumulated in the course of mechanical activation in the form of the surface energy and microstrains, on the subsequent leaching process has been proved. The efficient preliminary mechanical activation of ilmenite and arizonite makes the background for manufacturing of artificial rutile from available mineral raw material.



19.
Gravity Dressing of Namibia Shelf Phosphorite

V. I. BELOBORODOV, G. P. ANDRONOV, I. B. ZAKHAROVA, N. M. FILIMONOVA, E. D. RUKHLENKO
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Fersmana 24, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: phosphorite, gravity dressing, concentration table, phosphate concentrate

Abstract >>
The authors present research findings on dressing of Namibia shelf phosphorite. Alternative circuits of gravity dressing of phosphorite specimens having different chemistry and grain size composition are offered. The resultant phosphate concentrate contains 27% P2O5 at 81.2% P2O5 recovery.



20.
Processing of Gold Ores Using Guinean Bauxite Waste

M. DOUMBOUYA1,2, K. EL KACEM1, S. KITANE2, A. BELHAJ1
1Universit Mohammed V, Rabat, Morocco
2Ecole Nationale de l'Industrie Minrale, Rabat, Morocco
Keywords: gold, bauxite waste, cyanidation, leaching, gravity separation, carbon

Abstract >>
This paper describes the treatment of gold ores via the bauxite waste mud used as a pH modifier in the cyanidation of gold. The red mud is irrefutable in modifying the pH of gold ore sludges. So any gold contained in the red mud is concentrated by gravity separation and is recovered along with gold from the gold ore. Carbon tests are carried out on cyanide leach solutions to determine the level of deactivation resulted by organics in the bauxite waste mud.