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Journal of Mining Sciences

2014 year, number 1

1.
Computer Simulation of Effective Viscosity of Fluid-Proppant Mixture Used in Hydraulic Fracturing

V. A. KUZKIN1,2,3, A. M. KRIVTSOV1,2,3, A. M. LINKOV1,3
1Rzeszow University of Technology, al. PlowstańcуwWarszawy 12, Rzeszуw, 35-959 Poland
2Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnic University, ul. Politekhnicheskaya 29, Saint-Petersburg, 195251 Russia
3Institute for Problems of Mechanical Engineering, Russian Academy of Sciences, Bolshoi pr. V.O. 61, Saint-Petersburg, 199178 Russia
Keywords: проппант, гидроразрыв, эффективные свойства, вязкость, суспензия, метод динамики частиц, метод гидродинамики сглаженных частиц, proppant transport, hydraulic fracture, effective properties, viscosity, suspension, particle dynamics, smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Abstract >>
The paper presents results of numerical experiments performed to evaluate the effective viscosity of a fluid-proppant mixture, used in hydraulic fracturing. The results, obtained by two complimenting methods (the particle dynamics and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics), coincide to the accuracy of standard deviation. They provide an analytical equation for the dependence of effective viscosity on the proppant concentration, needed for numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracture propagation.



2.
Geomechanical Assessment of Mining Conditions at the Khingansky Manganese Ore Body

I. YU. RASSKAZOV, B. G. SAKSIN, M. I. POTAPCHUK, V. I. USIKOV
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: горно-геологические условия разработки, геодинамическое районирование, горные породы, физико-механические свойства, напряженно-деформированное состояние, математическое моделирование, система разработки, целики, удароопасность, mining-and-geological conditions, geodynamic zoning, rocks, physico-mechanical properties, stress-strain state, mathematical modeling, mining method, pillars, rockburst hazard

Abstract >>
The article reports the geomechanical assessment of rockburst-hazardous Khingansky manganese ore body (Poperechny extraction site) at the early stage of development. The researchers accomplished geodynamic zoning of the ore body, analyzed mining-and-geological and mine-technical conditions, and estimated parameters of physico-mechanical properties of host rocks and ore. Using numerical modeling, the stress state of the ore body and rock mass at various mining stages is assessed, and the bottom part of the Khingansky ore body is considered rockburst-hazardous.



3.
Stress-Strain State of Enclosing Rock Mass around an Arbitrary Cross-Section Excavation by Measurement of Displacements of the Excavation Walls

A. I. CHANYSHEV1,2, I. M. ABDULIN1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: напряжения, деформации, смещения, измерение смещений, потенциалы Колосова-Мусхелишвили, stresses, strains, displacements, displacement measurement, Kolosov-Muskhelishvili potentials

Abstract >>
The stress-strain state in rocks around an excavation is assessed by the values of stresses “at infinity”, i.e., it is required to know stress distribution in an intact rock mass. The authors propose a new method of the stress-strain state assessment for an arbitrary cross-section excavation based on direct measurement of displacements of the excavation walls, using the Kolosov-Muskhelishvili formulas. Under analysis are the excavations shaped as circular and elliptical cylinders.



4.
Detection of Inhomogeneities in Concrete Lining of Underground Excavations Using GeoRadar Method

V. D. BARYSHNIKOV, A. P. KHMELININ, E. V. DENISOVA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: горная выработка, бетонная обделка, метод георадиолокации, радарограмма, неоднородности, арматура, пустоты, excavation, concrete lining, georadar method, radargram, inhomogeneity

Abstract >>
The authors present the results of underground excavation lining examination aimed at detecting inhomogeneities in the lining (reinforcement metal, voids, weakening) and recommend on selecting the lining sites to be optimal for measurement hole drilling based on field observations.



5.
Zonal Disintegration of Rock Mass around an Underground Excavation

V. E. MIRENKOV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: зональная дезинтеграция, выработка, напряжения, аналитическое решение, разрушение, упругость, zonal disintegration, excavation, stresses, analytical solution, destruction, elasticity

Abstract >>
In focus is the problem of mathematical modeling of zonal disintegration of rocks around a deep-level excavation. In the framework of the elastic model of isotropic material, the author analyzes the two-dimensional case on stress field in rocks around a circular cross-section excavation. The acting compressive stresses at infinity depend on the depth of the excavation occurrence. The shear stress analysis has shown that in rocks around the excavation, the increased shear stress circle zone appears at the distance from the excavation center. The increased stresses come before the rock mass disintegration and create conditions for next destruction circles. The author dwells on probable influence of initial hydrostatic stress on the disintegration law. In modeling, the zonal disintegration circles appear at larger distance from the excavation center than in the experiment, due to the idealization of the classical problem formulations in rock mechanics.



6.
Elastic Wave in a Coal Bed under Nonuniform Desorption

A. V. FEDOROV
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Institutskaya 4/1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: многофазные среды, неравновесная фильтрация, multi-phase media, nonequilibrium filtration

Abstract >>
The processes of free and absorbed coal gas filtration and diffusion are described using the earlier offered mathematical model in the form of the set of nonhomogenous parabolic equations. Movement of such medium is considered in the form of a progressive (shock) wave, i.e., the self-similar approximation. It is proved that the problem reduces to the plane boundary value problem of the quality theory of the regular differential equations. The effect of the gas sorption relaxation time on the shock wave structure is quantitatively estimated.



7.
Focalization of Deformation and Prognostibility of Rock Failure

L. B. ZUEV1,2, S. A. BARANNIKOVA1,2,3, M. V. NADEZHKIN1,4, V. V. GORBATENKO1
1Institute of Physics of Strength and Material Science Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademicheskii 2/4, Tomsk, 634055 Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, pr. Lenina 36, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
3Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, pl. Solyanaya 2, Tomsk, 634003 Russia
4National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk 634050 Russia
Keywords: деформация, разрушение, горные породы, локализация, автоволны, deformation, failure, rocks, focalization, self-sustained structures

Abstract >>
The general regular patterns in focalization of deformation at pre-failure stage in rocks under compression are found and analyzed (sylvinite, marble sandstone). Applicability of speckle-photography methods in problems on rock deformation and failure is proved. The authors define the self-sustained behavior of the focalized plastic deformation in rocks under compression, due to effect of various plastic micromechanisms. The self-sustained structures in rock specimens under compression propagate at a rate of ~ 10-5 ÷ 10-4 m/s (0.3-3 km/yr), which is close to slow motions induced in the earth crust by an earthquake or a rockburst. The ratio of the experimental and calculated failure times is correlated with the coordinates of the failure points in the test rock specimens.



8.
Influence of Vertical Fracture on the Stress-Strain State of the Edge Flat Sheet Area under Mining

V. A. TROFIMOV
Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Kryukovskiitupik 4, Moscow, 11102 Russia
Keywords: разрывное нарушение, краевая часть пласта, метод комплексных потенциалов, численные методы, метод граничных элементов, метод разрывных смещений, fracture, edge bed area, complex potential method, numerical methods, boundary element method, displacement discontinuity method

Abstract >>
Under consideration is the stress-strain state in the edge area of a bed when mine faces approach a vertical fracture. The author illustrates the stress-strain state analysis using the previously derived analytical solution for a single pillar located symmetrically in a mined-out void. Comparison of the analytical and numerical results shows their admissible precision.



9.
Methane Emission in Degassing Holes ahead of a Stoping Face

V. S. BRIGIDA1, N. N. ZINCHENKO2
1Donetsk Research Institute of Coal, ul. Artema 114, Donetsk, 83048 Ukraine
2Donetsk National Technical University, ul. Artema 58, Donetsk, 83001 Ukraine
Keywords: дегазация скважины, явление зональной дезинтеграции горных пород, концентрация метана, degassing holes, zonal disintegration of rocks, methane concentration

Abstract >>
The authors have revealed features of local methane concentration minimums in undermined degassing holes and causes of their zonality. The offered hypothesis on methane emission in underground wells accounts for zonal disintegration of rock mass around a stope.



10.
Variation of Pitwall Stability with Deepening of the Pit Depth

A. G. BAGDASAR’YAN1, V. N. SYTENKOV2
1All-Russian Design- Exploration and Research Institute of Industrial Technology, Kashirskoeshosse 33, Moscow, 115409 Russia
2Fedorovsky All-Russian Research Institute of Mineral Raw Materials, Staromonetnyi per. 31, Moscow, 119017 Russia
Keywords: механика горных пород, структура разрушения, неоднородная среда, устойчивость бортов карьера, rockmechanics, failure structure, inhomogeneous medium, pitwall stability

Abstract >>
It is known that under certain conditions, the structural geology, seismic, design and technology factors do not inhibit increase in the inclination of the limit pitwalls in deep open pit mines. The evaluation of the limit pitwall stability is made by the pitwall stability index, considered in ideal case. In practice, , which flattens pitwalls, expands the open pit mine limits on the surface and expands stripping. Therefore V.N. Sytenkov has proposed to construct a convex pitwall with the depth-wise decreasing stability index. It is assumed that when an open pit mine reaches its design depth and depletes its design reserves, the open pit mine stability coefficient cannot exceed 1. The article shows that this approach has both economical and physical preconditions.



11.
Analytical Solutions of Some Heat Transfer Problems in Mining Practice

N. N. SMIRNOVA, N. V. NIKOLAEVA, V. N. BRICHKIN, V. B. KUSKOV
National Mineral Resources University, 21-ya liniya 2, Saint-Petersburg, 199106 Russia
Keywords: сушка, теплопроводность, температура, гетерогенная среда, потери тепла, drying, heat conduction, temperature, heterogeneous medium, heat loss

Abstract >>
The article reviews analytical methods of studying heat transfer processes running in the conditions of resource-saving underground coal processing, heat drying in processing facilities and in the course of heat accumulation and emission in caved rocks. The author considers problems with boundary conditions formulated at the moving boundary of the heat transfer domain.



12.
Selection Procedure for Positive-Displacement Hydropercussion System Parameters

L. V. GORODILOV, D. V. VAGIN, O. A. PASHINA
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: ударная система, предельный цикл, оптимизация параметров, критерии подобия, percussion system, limit cycle, optimized parameters, selection criteria

Abstract >>
The developed procedure for selecting parameters of positive-displacement hydropercussion systems has two stages. The first stage is the picking of the key parameters; the second stage is the engineering design of the system, adjustment of the selected parameters using the multivariate optimization procedure and the improvement of the system performance.



13.
Selection of Efficient Parameters and Operation Modes for the Valve Synchronizer of the Bidirectional Sealing Device

YU. M. LEKONTSEV1, P. V. SAZHIN1, O. A. TEMIRYAEVA1, S. YU. USHAKOV2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Romanovskaya Mine, Gornyak Ltd, ul. NizhniBarzas ABK, Berezovsky, 652421 Russia
Keywords: направленный гидроразрыв, уравновешенный герметизатор, клапанный синхронизатор КС-1, directional hydraulic fracturing, bidirectional sealing device, valve synchronizer KS-1

Abstract >>
Based on the mine investigations of directional hydraulic fracturing using the bidirectional sealing device, aimed at weakening of a dirty band in a coal bed, the researchers have refined the valve synchronizer and eliminated detected vibration defects. The article presents the laboratory analysis of the KS-1 valve synchronizer operation and validates its efficient performance parameters.



14.
Excitation of Polyharmonic Vibrations in Single-Body Vibration Machine with Inertia Drive and Elastic Clutch

S. L. BUKIN, V. P. KONDRAKHIN, V. N. BELOVODSKY, V. N. KHOMENKO
Donetsk national State University, ul. Artema 58, Donetsk, 83000 Ukraine
Keywords: вибромашина, дебалансныйвибровозбудитель, трансмиссия, упругая муфта, спектр, супергармонические колебания, vibration machine, unbalance vibration exciter, drive train, elastic clutch, spectrum, superharmonic vibrations

Abstract >>
The authors analyze excitability of polyharmonic vibrations in a single-body vibration machine. The developed mathematical model of the vibration system accounts for an elastic component element included in the design of the unbalance vibration exciter drive. The operating limits, frequency content and effect of the main design factors on the flow data of the vibration machine are examined. It is found that superharmonic vibration greatly contributes to the polyharmonic spectrum at certain frequencies, depending on the stiffness of the elastic component element of the clutch connecting the vibration exciter and the rotary drive.



15.
Appraisal and Exploitation of Mining and Dressing Waste at Dredge Sites

V. I. SNETKOV, B. L. TAL’GAMER
Irkutsk State Technical University, ul. Lermontova 83, Irkutsk, 664074 Russia
Keywords: золото, алмазы, россыпь, пески, драга, техногенные запасы, разведка, переработка, gold, diamods, placer, gold sand, dredge, mining and dressing waste accumnulations, exploration, re-processing

Abstract >>
The article gives analytical review of the mining and dressing waste situation and the experience gained in the waste exploration and reprocessing in Russia. The authors offer a new procedural approach to the appraisal and calculation of the mining and dressing waste accumulations with intent of their re-processing. The approach has been tested under conditions of diamond-containing mining and dressing waste sites.



16.
Geomechanical Assessment of Combined Geotechnology in Thick Flat Ore Body Mining

A. A. NEVEROV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: система разработки, технологические схемы, массив пород, напряженно-деформированное состояние, лавная подсечка, временные поддерживающие целики, рудная консоль, кровля, устойчивость, безопасность работ, mining method, process layouts, rock mass, stress-strain state, longwall undercutting, temporal pillars, ore overhang, roof, stabiluty, mine safety

Abstract >>
The developed technology for thick and very thick flat ore body mining combines a number of mining methods using various ground control techniques. The regular patterns of stress distribution in the geotechnology elements are found. Analysis of rock mass stability yields the safe application range for the proposed geotechnology.



17.
Assessment of Emergencies in Return Air System Design

B. P. KAZAKOV1, A. V. SHALIMOV2, N. A. TRUSHKOVA2
1Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Komsomol’skii pr. 29, Perm, 614990 Russia
2Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sibirskaya 78a, Perm, 614007 Russia
Keywords: депрессия, рециркуляция, вентиляционная сбойка, предельно допустимая концентрация, аэродинамическое сопротивление, напорная характеристика, рудники, depression, recirculation, vent cross cut, critical concentration, aerodynamic resistance, head characteristic, underground mines

Abstract >>
The upside potential of an underground mine ventilation by return air systems is analyzed in the article. It is shown that subsidiary air supply depends on the ratio of the pressure head of a recirculating draught producer to the mine depression at the recirculating draught producer site. By calculation of the actual example, the authors prove that air leaks can cause emergencies due to drastic reduction of fresh air supply in working areas.



18.
Cloud Technologies in Mining GeoInformation Science

I. V. BYCHKOV1, V. N. OPARIN2, V. P. POTAPOV3
1Institute for System Dynamics and Control Theory, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 134, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3Kemerovo Division, Institute of Computational Technologies Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Rukavishnikova 21, Kemerovo, 650025 Russia
Keywords: задачи горной геоинформатики, облачные технологии, мониторинговые системы, геомеханико-геодинамическая безопасность, экология, сейсмические события, mininggeoinformation science problems, cloud technologies, monitoring systems, geomechanical-geodynamic safety, ecology, seismic events

Abstract >>
The article discusses a new approach to implementation of the geoinformation environment for the mining geoinformation science problem solution using cloud technologies. In focus are the types of the cloud service as applied to the distributed geomonitoring networking for the wider range problem handling in mining. The authors describe specific structures of software support of the offered approach and exemplify problem solution in various spheres of mining geoinformation science.



19.
Satellite Monitoring of Vegetation Mantle Response to the Sorsky Copper-Molybdenum Deposit Mining Impact

G. V. KALABIN1, V. I. GORNY2, S. G. KRITSUK2
1Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskiitupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Research Center for Ecological Safety, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Korpusnaya 18, Saint Petersburg, 197110 Russia
Keywords: горнопромышленный комплекс, техногенная нагрузка, растительность, спутник, вегетационный индекс, реакция, mining industry, industrial impact, vegetation, satellite, vegetation index, response

Abstract >>
The timely character of the digital space data utilization for regional and local day-to-day assessment of the environmental situation in the area of surface / underground mines and processing plants is proved. The natural environment situation is analyzed in terms of the Sorsky copper-molybdenum opencast mine (Republic of Khakasia, Russia).



20.
Mechanisms of Oleinic Acid Flotation of Nonsulfide Minerals

V. A. CHANTURIA1, S. A. KONDRAT’EV2
1Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskiitupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: флотация, оксигидрильный реагент, физическая и химическая формы сорбции, поверхностное давление, собирательная активность, flotation, oxyhydryl reagent, physical adsorption and chemical adsorption, surface pressure, collecting ability

Abstract >>
By the analysis of oleinic acid flotation of fluorite and hematite, it is inconsistent to use thermodynamic approach to explain the flotation effect by the chemical adsorption of the reagent only. The authors propose a hypothesis that collecting ability of a flotation reagent relates with the activity of its physical adsorption at the air-liquid interface. The hypothesis is supported with the data on flotation of rutile, zircon and fluorite. Capability of surface pressure of film generated by molecules or ion-molecule associates as the criterion of collecting ability of a flotation agent is defined.



21.
Productivity of Chemical-Electrochemical Leaching of Gold from Rebellious Ore

A. L. SAMUSEV, V. G. MINENKO
Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskiitupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: упорные золотосодержащие руды, арсенопирит, хлор, гипохлорит, электрохимическое выщела-чивание, хлорид натрия, rebellious gold-bearing ore, arsenopyrite, chlorine, hypochlorite, electrochemical leaching, sodium chlorite

Abstract >>
The authors describe experimental research findings on chemical-electrochemical leaching of gold from rebellious minerals. A laboratory-scale plant has been designed for studying the leaching kinetics. Rational parameters of chemical-electrochemical leaching are specified (duration of the process, electrode current density, NaCl concentration). The researchers analyze the changed microstructure and phase composition of arsenopyrite surface after the leaching and substantiate the leaching improving practices.



22.
Selective Flotation of Fine-Ingrained Carbonate-Fluorite Ore in Pulp of Increased Dispersion Uniformity

L. A. KIENKO, O. V. VORONOVA
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: флотация, флюорит, кальцит, карбонатный модуль, тонкодисперсные частицы, шламы, flotation, fluorite, calcite, carbonate index, fine-ingrained particles, slurry

Abstract >>
The studies into the fine-ingrained high-carbonate fluorite ore concentration show that increasing of pulp dispersion uniformity results in higher selectivity of flotation. The researchers find out availability of quality fluorite concentrate in processing of low-grade ore with carbonate index less than 1 CaF 2 recovery up to 70%.



23.
Comparative Analysis of Various Decision-Making Methods in Automated Gas Shielding Systems

L. A. AVDEEV, I. V. BREIDO
Karaganda State Technical University, bulv. Mira 56, Karaganda 100027 Kazakhstan
Keywords: автоматизированные системы газовой защиты, статистические фильтры, амплитуда и дли-тельность выбросов, двухпороговые элементы, интервалы опроса датчиков, pre-emergency, emergency and post-emergency control, technological environment, operating regimes, electric machinery, coal mine, data reading, processing and storage subsystems

Abstract >>
The actual safety regulations elide dynamics of air and gas conditions and their probabilistic nature, which results in underutilization of options of the advanced air and gas control in mines. The article proposes the decision-making using statistics filters, based on estimations of amplitude and duration of blow-outs. The authors derive relations for calculating the rational discrete intervals of explosimetric sensor sampling.