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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2014 year, number 1

1.
Phase trajectories reconstruction for a laser beam propagated through a turbulent media

T.I. Arsenyan, D.Yu. Grebennikov, N.A. Sukhareva, A.P. Sukhorukov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 1/2, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Keywords: open space optical channel, space of embedding dimension, phase trajectory, turbulence

Abstract >>
The instrument of phase trajectories and phase portraits is applied to the analysis of the fluctuation processes in the open space optical channels of data transmission. Experimental time series of intensity distributions in the detection plane were used to reconstruct the space of embedding dimension for the first two spatial moments. Knowledge of the structure of the phase trajectories reconstructed would allow one to predict the dynamics of spatial-temporal fluctuation processes for different time scales.



2.
The efficiency of focusing of combined laser beams in conditions of thermal blooming

V.A. Banakh, A.V. Falits
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: thermal blooming, combined fiber laser beams

Abstract >>
Thermal defocusing of a laser beam limits its power that can be efficiently transmitted through the atmosphere. The focusing in conditions of thermal blooming can be considered effective if the minimum radius of the circle complete interception of radiation is less than the radius of the initial aperture of the radiation source. In this paper we give an estimation technique of the efficiency of focusing of combined laser beams.



3.
A new statistical method for assessment of adequacy of models of admixture distribution in the boundary air layer

V.A. Zhukov1,2, B.M. Desyatkov1, N.A. Lapteva1
1State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Novosibirsk region, Koltsovo, 630559, Russia
2Joint Stock Company "VECTOR-BEST", Novosibirsk, Pasechnaja str., 3, 630128, Russia
Keywords: boundary air layer, admixture distribution, mathematical model, adequacy, integral transform

Abstract >>
An important stage of creating mathematical models of aerosol distribution in the boundary air layer is to check their validity using the data of experimental measurements. However, the impossibility of repeating the experiments under the invariable weather conditions (with the resulting small sample size of the measurements) does not allow one to estimate model adequacy correctly. A new method of the assessment of adequacy of mathematical models based on an integral transform is proposed in this work. The method can be used even when there are only one-time measurements of concentration, including those with various laws of distribution at each point of space. It is quite possible to combine these separate experiments made under various weather conditions. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by an example.



4.
On the ambiguity of intermolecular interaction potential determined from the spectroscopic data

V.I. Starikov1,2
1Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
2Yurginskiy Technological Institute (branch) of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 652055, Kemerovo region, Jurga, Leningradskaya st., 26
Keywords: intermolecular potential, half-widths, NH3Ar, NH3He

Abstract >>
It was shown that interaction potentials for the NH3–Ar and N3 systems are determined ambiguously from the experimental data for the broadening coefficients γ of absorption spectral lines of NH3 molecule. The different sets of model interaction potential given the same accuracy of calculation of coefficients γ for room temperature determine these coefficients for other temperatures in different ways. This difference is more visible for the N3 system. For NH3Ar system this difference becomes apparent for the lines with small value of rotational quantum number K, for KJ this effect decreases.



5.
Simulation of the sea surface statistical characteristics at the remote sensing in the optical range

A.S. Zapevalov, N.E. Lebedev
Marine Hydrophysical Institute National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2, Kapitanskaya St., Sevastopol, 99011, Ukraine
Keywords: slopes of the sea surface, slope distribution, angles of slope distribution, optical image, GramCharlier distribution

Abstract >>
Currently, the most widely used distribution of slopes of the sea surface is GramCharlier distribution. Limitations of its use in the simulation of light reflection from the sea surface are analyzed. It is shown that GramCharlier distribution does not allow one to build optical image throughout the full sensing range of angles for low Earth orbit spacecraft optical scanners. Empirical relations between statistical moments of sea surface slopes and their angles are obtained.



6.
Application of the artificial neural network method to the retrieval of vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters

A.V. Polyakov
Saint Petersburg State University, 1, Ulyanovskaya str., Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg, 198504, Russia
Keywords: solution of atmospheric optic inverse problems, meteorological sounding of atmosphere, principal components, artifical neural network

Abstract >>
A simultaneous use of artifical neural networks (ANN) and principal components has considered for remote sensing of temperature and composition profiles of the atmosphere. Some modification of ANN method has been offered based on minimisation of final product errors. An example of applications of the modification is adduced. An important advantage of the new approach has shown in speed of training of ANN and in profile precision.



7.
Anomalies of stratospheric NO2 content over Siberia related to the Arctic ozone hole 2011

V.Yu. Aheyeva1, M.V. Grishaev2, A.N. Gruzdev1, A.S. Elokhov1, N.S. Salnikova2
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, ozone hole, anomalies

Abstract >>
At the end of winter and beginning of spring of 2011 significant negative anomalies of nitrogen dioxide were detected on the basis of results obtained from the ground-based spectrometric measurements of the stratospheric NO2 content in Tomsk (West Siberia) and Zhigansk (East Siberia). Negative anomalies of NO2 were observed in other years too, but in 2011 they were record. Negative anomalies of NO2 were accompanied by anomalies of total ozone content (TOC), temperatures, and heights of the isobaric surfaces in stratosphere. The analysis of the transport atmospheric trajectories and horizontal TOC distribution demonstrated that the stratospheric NO2 content decrease was caused by the transport of stratospheric air from low TOC area. Vertical NO2 profiles in Tomsk show that, most probably, some contribution to the negative anomalies in the early spring of 2011 brought by denitrification of the polar stratosphere in ozone hole area.



8.
Microwave and optical observation of ozone and temperature of the middle atmosphere during stratospheric warming at Western Siberia

V.N. Marichev1,2, G.G. Matvienko1, A.A. Lisenko1,2, D.A. Bochkovsky1, Yu.Yu. Kulikov3, A.A. Krasilnikov3, V.G. Ryskin3, V.M. Demkin3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
3Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul'yanov Street , 603950, Nizhny Novgorod , Russia
Keywords: stratosphere, mesosphere, microwave radiometry, lidar, ozone, temperature, stratospheric warming

Abstract >>
Results of joint ground-based measurements of vertical structures of ozone and temperatures with the use microwave and lidar technical equipment during stratospheric warming are presented. During winter warming (December 2012 January 2013) appreciable variations of ozone concentration and temperature in the middle atmosphere are registered. Changes of ozone concentration at height levels from 25 to 60 km increased by 1.52 times, the amplitude of their oscillations thus has considerably increased. The peak of a positive deviation of temperature from its monthly average value reached 70 K at a height of 30 km. Daily ozone oscillations at a height of 60 km, connected with sunset and sunrise, were about 30%.



9.
Reconstruction of annual average values of the Earths albedo

N.N. Zavalishin
Siberian Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, Novosibirsk, Russia, Russia, 630099, Novosibirsk, Sovetskaya, 30
Keywords: geospheres, energy imbalance, spherical albedo, albedo measurements, model, reconstruction of albedo

Abstract >>
The paper discusses the problem of reconstruction of long-term series of values of the Earths spherical albedo. The developed model reconstructs average values of albedo based on annual average surface air temperature and thermal inertia of the hydrosphere. Stability of the model to initial data variations is proved and confirmed by a practical example from 1880 series. The accuracy of reconstruction of the albedo is assessed over the interval since 1984.



10.
Optical and microphysical properties of the mixed smoke according to the polarization spectronephelometric measurements

R.F. Rakhimov, V.S. Kozlov, A.G. Tumakov, V.P. Shmargunov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: mixed smoke, polarization spectronephelometry, inverse problem, particles size distribution, complex index of refraction, soot

Abstract >>
A polarization spectronephelometer was used for measurements of spectral coefficients of angular aerosol scattering in mixed smokes during their 3-day evolution in the Large Aerosol Chamber of IAO SB RAS (1800 m3). The smokes were formed as a mixture of products of thermal decomposition of coniferous wood materials (pine) from sources of low-temperature pyrolysis (~ 400C) and high-temperature open combustion with flame (~ 800C). The inverse problem was solved to study peculiarities in formation of the disperse composition of smokes and the complex refractive index of smoke particles for three size ranges. It is shown that the dynamics of formation and evolution of mixed smokes is determined mostly by the contribution of the strongly absorbing ultra-fine fraction (particle radius of < 150 nm, the imaginary part of the refractive index of particulate matter of ~ 0.40.8 close to that of black carbon) to the optical properties. Medium and coarse particles (radius of > 200 nm) are moderately and weakly absorbing: the imaginary part of refractive index is ~ 0.030.15. The absorptivity of mixed smoke is high, and the single scattering albedo at the wavelength 525 nm achieves low values of ~ 0.600.45, decreasing during the smoke storage. At the smoke generation, bimodal particle size distributions with the medium of 350400 nm and coarse of ~ 760 nm modes are formed. After long storage of the smoke, the particle size spectrum is characterized by a single mode of ~ 600 nm, and the effective radius of the particles increases from 160 nm to 330 nm. It is shown that the mutual dynamics between the volume backscattering and extinction coefficients, single scattering albedo and effective radius of particles are described by statistically significant linear correlations.



11.
The role of tropical stratosphere volcanic heating in appearance of heat centers in the Arctic regions

V.V. Zuev, N.E. Zueva, E.S. Saveljeva, A.P. Shelekhov, E.A. Shelekhova
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: volcanic eruptions, black carbon, stratosphere, heat centers, Chukotka Peninsula, Arctic Ocean ice cover

Abstract >>
There are systematic temperature increases in stratosphere relative to long-term standard after major volcanic eruptions. The temperature anomalies in stratosphere of tropical belt cause the appearance of heat centers in the Arctic region, which in turn significant reduces ice cover boundaries in the Arctic Ocean. We analyzed the influence of the new temperature contrasts in the stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere on the climate change in the Arctic regions using the atmospheric general circulation spectral model of intermediate complexity. We investigate the influence of major volcanic eruptions on the temperature changes in tropical stratosphere and surface temperature in the Chukotka Peninsula region. All major volcanogenic aerosol perturbations of stratosphere response within 10 years to surface temperature increases in the heat center on Chukotka Peninsula is showed.



12.
Simulation of air pollution distribution from forest fires using the chemical-transport model COSMO-Ru7-ART

G.V. Surkova, D.V. Blinov, A.A. Kirsanov, A.P. Revokatova, G.S. Rivin
Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 1113, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric pollutants, modeling, fires

Abstract >>
Methods of calculating the emission of pollutants from forest fires, designed to adjust the input to the simulation of the propagation of atmospheric pollutants, applied to cases of fires in the center of the European Russia in August 2010. It is based on the type of vegetation and its biomass. It allows us to estimate the appropriate emission factor, and with the known (or assumed) fire area and duration, to model the spread of a fire plume taking into account the physical and chemical transformation of pollutants in the atmosphere. Numerical experiments are performed using the chemical transport model COSMO-Ru7-ART. Verification of the results demonstrates the ability of the model to calculate realistic plume shape and values for the concentration of pollutants in the surface layer.



13.
Investigation of the two-sectional copper bromide vapor laser operation

A.G. Filonov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: laser, cuprum bromide, gas discharge

Abstract >>
In the paper we first considered the problems of the efficiency of the synchronous operation of sections of the two-sectional copper bromide vapor laser. A comparison with the generatoramplifier system was made. For the first time, on the basis of the sounding radiation absorption phenomenon before the amplification phase the role of residual electrons in the population of the metastable level is shown.



14.
Photophoresis and accommodation

H. ROHATSCHEK
Institut fr Experimentalphysik, Johannes-Kepler-Universitt, A-4040 Linz (retired), Lfteneggerstrae 15, A-4020 Linz, Austria
Keywords: aerosols, vertical transport, photophoresis, radiometer forces, accommodation

Abstract >>
There are two types of photophoretic forces, the ΔTS - (Crookes) and the Δα-force (Knudsen). This paper deals with the fundamental problem of distinguishing by experiment between both forces by using their different dependencies on pressure. We explored gravito-photophoresis of individual particles from three materials differing in their physical properties (carbon amorphous, crystalline, aluminium). On the grounds of available aerosol theory representation of the majority of cases is not feasible. Resolvable special cases and the data in their entirety, however, secure unambiguously earlier hypotheses that the force of gravito-photophoresis is normally caused by differences in the accommodation coefficient (Δα) over the surface. That conclusion is confirmed by a method for determining the size of particles from the force-pressure diagram which yields reasonable results. Hypothetical application of gravito-photophoresis to atmospheric aerosols now obtains empirical corroboration. Some aluminium particles surprisingly show changes in behaviour depending on pressure and irradiance. Here, the levitating force is determined not only (as usual) by the momentary irradiation, but also by the previous history of this factor. We assume that with some metals the irradiation can induce variations in the accommodation coefficient. Results of the investigations are applied to clarifying lasting problems of electro-photophoresis and apparent longitudinal photophoresis.