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Philosophy of Sciences

2013 year, number 3

1.
On some methodological prerequisites forthe problem of falsification of knowledge

M.V. Goncharenko
Keywords: falsification, rationality, presupposition, fact, concept

Abstract >>
The paper considers the problem of falsification of knowledge within Imre Lakatoss conception of «scientific research programs. From the standpoint of critical rationalism, it analyzes grounds for formation of new knowledge. It also formulates and gives proof of the assumption that creation of new knowledge becomes possible as a result of two reasons. Firstly, interpretation of a fact (as well as a fact itself) is epistemologically possible due to actuality of a certain presupposition. Secondly, a new presupposition always structures a new concept.



2.
The sense data theory vs. adverbialism

K.G. Frolov
Keywords: perception, qualia, mental, monism, realism, reality

Abstract >>
The paper considers two quite authoritative but essentially different modern conceptions of perception cognition, these are the sense data theory and adverbialism. Their confrontation reflects the struggle between emerging consistent monistic views and the dualistic heritage of the past. However, both approaches are not without severe drawbacks. The sense data theory trying to conform to intuitively evident ideas of the structure of cognition processes faces a number of conceptual logical objections. Whereas, adverbialism basing on the contrary on building a consistent procedural epistemology has great difficulty with the task to explain the phenomenal component of experience.



3.
Methodological base of Newtons and Descartess physical conceptions

S.Ye. Ilyin
Keywords: methodological principles, picture of the world, history, periodization, physics

Abstract >>
The paper analyses Isaac Newtons and Rene Descartes views on methodology of physics. Their ideas are considered in the context of the conception of methodological principles and that of historical types of rationality. It makes possible to reveal a number of common features in Newtons and Descartes methodological approaches as well as to state the change of the role of scientific methodological principles when passing from classical type of rationality to non-classical one.



4.
Mechanisms of unification of knowledge in classical physics

E.A. Bezlepkin
Keywords: unification, theory, classical physics, metaphysics, reduction, synthesis, picture of the world, continuity

Abstract >>
From the standpoint of ontological analysis, the author studies mechanisms of unification of knowledge in the theories of classical physics, viz Newtons mechanics, Maxwell's electromagnetism and Einsteins special relativity. He proves that in its essence, a physical theory is a unification of aspects of the world which are under study. The author pays special attention to metaphysical base of theories and physical picture of the world. He shows that in classical physics, there take place reduction and synthesis of metaphysical base both inside theories and on the way from earlier theories to later ones. As a result, there arises continuity between them.



5.
The methodological function of philosophy in cosmology: its specifics in realization

A.L. Simanov
Keywords: cosmology, philosophy of science, functions of philosophy of science, the anthropic principle, metaphysics

Abstract >>
The paper considers potential of philosophy of science in solving basic problems of cosmology. It gives proof to the proposition that the anthropic cosmological principle has neither specific scientific content nor philosophic one but is merely a metaphysical hypothesis.



6.
The evolution of ancient cosmogonies: a trial to analyze rational basis of Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Greek cosmogonical myths and their substantial transferention II

I.I. Litovka
Keywords: cosmogony, mythology, natural philosophy, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, rational content

Abstract >>
The paper deals with revelation and study of rational basis in the content of ancient cosmogonical myths of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Greece. The purpose is to retrace correlation of conceptions of the origin of the Universe and their change in comparison with views of the earliest antique natural philosophers (Presocratics).The analysis is carried out by semantic unification of main concepts in the spirit of more rational Greek philosophy. It makes possible to reveal an substantial structure of knowledge as well as to find and compare signs of transcultural evolution of ancient cosmogonies.



7.
Natural philosophy tradition in antique natural history and Alexandrian school in the 3d century. Part II

D.A. Balalykin, A.P. Shcheglov, N.P. Shok
Keywords: history of medicine, history of science, Alexandrian school, antique natural history, Galen, Eusebios of Caesarea, the Great Dionysius of Alexandria, St. Augustine of Hippo, Clemens Alexandrinus, Democritus, Plato

Abstract >>
The paper deals with an urgent problem in the history of science, viz the mutual influence of natural philosophy and medicine in the 3d century. At the end of the 2nd and the beginning of the 3d century, an important turn came about in medicine: the theory was formed which began to predominate in this field all over the civilized space – Galen’s anatomic-physiological system. Also, the paper analyses in detail the special role of Alexandrian school in the development of natural science: it ensured synergy of antique philosophy and Christian theology.