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Philosophy of Sciences

2013 year, number 2

1.
The notion of nature and the problem of solidarity in Thomas Hobbess and John Lockes philosophy

D.R. Yavorskiy
Keywords: nature, solidarity, British philosophy, Hobbes, Locke

Abstract >>
The paper reconstructs the transition from theological symbolism of unity to naturalistic one in British philosophy of 1718th centuries. It reveals the specific of this process in comparison with continental philosophy and shows how the meaning of the concept «nature transformed in Hobbes's and Locke's works in the light of the problem of solidarity.



2.
The history and philosophy of science as an object of metatheoretic analysis

A.P. Fedyaev
Keywords: history of science, growth of scientific knowledge, the future of science

Abstract >>
The paper presents a new periodization of the development of science. The author regards the antique science as a starting point (thesis) in formation of the modern natural science; he treats the classic stage of the development of science as its opposite (antithesis); and he considers the future science to be a special synthesis of antique and modern conceptions. Also, the author developed the method of controllable growth of scientific knowledge which makes possible to foresee what main features science will possess in future.



3.
The subject and the structure of philosophy of science in the context of its development. Part I: Classical period

A.L. Simanov
Keywords: philosophy, science, theory, problem, system, unification

Abstract >>
The paper considers the evolution of ideas of philosophy of science with a regard for the development of concrete sciences. The research is aimed at trying to answer the question if it is possible to create a single unified philosophy of science.



4.
On ranking of scientific knowledge on the basis of rational skepticism

R.A. Yartsev
Keywords: rationality, skepticism, anarchism, knowledge, science, truth, investigation, method, discussion, rank, theory

Abstract >>
The paper discusses the problem of elimination of unconfirmed theories out of scientific knowledge as Paul Feyerabends objection to known rational scientific methodologies. To solve the problem, the author suggests to rank scientific knowledge according to its cognitive significance basing on the principles of rational skepticism which he introduces. One realizes ranking with the help of a procedure which the author suggests as a universal method and criterion of demarcation of scientific knowledge.



5.
Frank Ramsey on the transcendental meaning of the axiom of infinity

V.A. Surovtsev, I.A. Enns
Keywords: logic, axiom, infinity, function, Ramsey

Abstract >>
In the authors opinion, the main thing in Ramseys transcendental argument is still the fact that one treats the axiom of infinity as a tautology. Extensional functions really do not play a demonstrative part but serve just as an instrument to realize the program of logicism. However, it is not the most important thing in the transcendental argument. The most important thing is right that one may present the axiom of infinity as a tautology. And it is the possibility to write it down as a tautology in various presentations that is evidence of its transcendental truth.



6.
The methodological basis of cosmologic theories

A.Yu. Storozhuk
Keywords: methodological principle, cosmology, unification, space

Abstract >>
The paper presents results of the study aimed at revelation of the methodological basis of the standard cosmologic model. Its revelation makes possible to specify the nature of relationship between cosmology and physics and to forecast a general trend in the development of cosmologic conceptions.



7.
The post-non-classical philosophy as a methodological foundation in creation of the modern evolutional theory

V.V. Danielyan, V.A. Karpin, M.A. Filatov
Keywords: post-non-classical philosophy, post-non-classical science, evolutionary theory

Abstract >>
The post-non-classical science studies the evolution of complex self-developing systems. The third paradigm, viz. the synergetic one, as a research program underlies the post-non-classical philosophy. It should become a methodological foundation in creation of the modern theory of biologic evolution.



8.
Global geological transformations in the light of conceptions of coherent cosmic vibrations

V.V. Paraev, E.A. Eganov
Keywords: global geological processes, periodicity of planetary events, coherent cosmic vibrations

Abstract >>
The paper considers the problems of the unity of structure and development of the Megasystem where the Earth being its small part plays a strictly subordinate role of a component. In the context of general scientific (cosmological) problems, the authors show the significance of geological research and identify its function in solution of fundamental problems of natural science including cosmology.



9.
Epistemology of a technical object

N. A. Yastreb
Keywords: technical object, epistemological synthesis, direct construction, reverse construction, subject of technical cognition

Abstract >>
The author proposes an approach to interpretation of a technical object. She suggests treating it as a form of synthetic knowledge in which mathematical, logical, physical and aesthetic pieces of information integrate as a functioning system. In such a form, knowledge should meet conditions of paradigm consistency and praxeological admissibility. The paper considers epistemological aspects of direct and reverse construction and extraction of information about a subject and socio-cultural context from a technical object.



10.
The evolution of ancient cosmogonies: a trial to analyze rational basis of Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Greek cosmogonical myths and their substantial transferention I

I.I. Litovka
Keywords: cosmogony, mythology, natural philosophy, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, rational content

Abstract >>
The paper deals with revelation and study of rational basis in the content of ancient cosmogonical myths of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Greece. The purpose is to retrace correlation of conceptions of the origin of the Universe and their change in comparison with views of the earliest antique natural philosophers (Presocratics).The analysis is carried out by semantic unification of main concepts in the spirit of more rational Greek philosophy. It makes possible to reveal an substantial structure of knowledge as well as to find and compare signs of transcultural evolution of ancient cosmogonies.



11.
The physiophilosophy tradition of the antique natural history and Alexandria school in the III century. Part I

D.A. Balalykin, A.P. Sheglov, N.P. Shok
Keywords: history of medicine, history of science, antique natural history, Alexandria school, Galen, Eusebius of Caesarea, Dionysius of Alexandria

Abstract >>
Article is devoted to an actual problem of history of natural sciences to physiophilosophy and medicine interference in the III century. This period of history of antique natural sciences is characterized by huge importance of the processes happening in medicine: at a boundary of the IIIII centuries in medicine there is an important change Galen's anatomophysiological system is formed. In article the special place and value of the Alexandria school in natural sciences development within which the synergy of ancient philosophy and Christian theology was provided is also in detail analyzed.



12.
Philosophical views of Archimedes (commemorating the 2300th anniversary)

S.B. Bondarenko
Keywords: philosophy, methodology, description, picture of the world

Abstract >>
The paper recounts and analyses philosophical views of Archimedes, the great ancient Greek scientist. The specific attention is paid to methodological criteria which Archimedes used when solving mathematical, physical, astronomical and cosmologic problems. Also, the author considers factors which determined Archimedess choice of the picture of the world.