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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2013 year, number 2

1.
THE ROLE OF SIBERIA IN RUSSIAS CIVILIZATIONAL PROCESSES

A.I. Timoshenko
Keywords: colonization of Siberia, civilizational approach, traditions and innovations, regional policy

Abstract >>
The article considers problems of civilizational development of the Siberian region within the Russian state; analyzes specifics of formation of the worlds biggest state, colonization of its borderlands in the light of historical dynamics of the Russian national traditions development .



2.
PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SIBERIA (XVII EARLY XX CENTURY) IN THE ENGLISHAND GERMAN-LANGUAGE HISTORIOGRAPHY

D.A. Ananyev
Keywords: Western historiography, Siberia, social and economic development, frontier, colonization, modernization

Abstract >>
The paper reviews major works on history of social and economic development of Siberia in the XVII early XX centuries published by the British, American, Canadian and German scholars . The author comes to conclusion that Western researchers focused on history of fur trade, agrarian colonization, development of transport communications . Although Western researchers used a rather limited range of available historical sources they offered original approaches to studying Siberias social and economic development based on the concepts of «frontier, «colonization and «modernization .



3.
CELEBRATION OF THE «SIBERIA DAY DURING THE PRE-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD

M.V. Shilovskiy
Keywords: Siberia, Siberia Day, anniversary, social life

Abstract >>
The article considers the origins and celebration of a local holiday «Siberia Day associated with seizure of the Siberian khanates capital Kashlyk by Yermak on the 26 th of October, 1581 . The tradition of its celebration took on its final form in 1881-1882 and existed until 1919 .



4.
THE RUSSIAN POPULATION OF THE XVIITH CENTURY SIBERIA IN THE RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XX EARLY XXI CENTURY

I.I. Sokolovskiy
Keywords: Siberia, population, colonization, population size, garrisons, XVII century, historiography, peasants, townsmen

Abstract >>
History of the Russian population in the XVIIth century Siberia became a topic in its own right in the middle of the XIX century . In the second half of the XX century a number of classical works appeared in Russian historiography, covering the demographic characteristics of Russian population . Such studies continued in the XXI century . The article reviews these studies, evaluates their contribution, points to common challenges and future research prospects .



5.
EXPEDITION OF BUCHHOLZ AND ISHIM PEASANT «UPRISING OF 1714

T.S. Mamsik
Keywords: M.P. Gagarin, I.D. Buchholtz, Ph-J. Strahlenberg, Ishim settlements

Abstract >>
The article presents analysis of events in Siberia provoked by the Governor Gagarin and Siberian administration in order to cover up his plans to separate the region as independent principality . In the spotlight are the actions of Peter`s agents and Gagarin`s countermeasures, in particular the so-called Ishim uprising .



6.
Secret mission of the merchant A. Verkhoturov: on the Question of Russian Intelligence Activities in Dzungaria in the middle of the XVIII century

I.P. Kamenetskiy
Keywords: Russia, Dzungaria, Dzungarian appeals, Russian intelligence, Siberian merchants, A. Verkhoturov

Abstract >>
The paper shows Siberian merchants participation in intelligence activities in Dzungaria . Owing to the merchant A . Verkhoturov and other secret agents Russian authorities obtained necessary intelligence data on domestic and international situation in the nomadic empire, which allowed Russia to secure her borders and strengthen her presence in Inner Asia .



7.
DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL AND TECHNICAL RESOURCES OF BUTTER-MAKING INDUSTRY IN SIBERIA IN THE 1920S IN THE CONTEXT OF COOPERATIVE POLICY

A.A. Nikolaev
Keywords: NEP, cooperative policy, Sibmaslosoyuz, Siberia, butter making

Abstract >>
The article describes the critical state of material and technical resources of the Siberian cooperative butter-making societies in the 1920s . The author proves that modernization of the butter-making industry was devaluated due to credit mismanagement, inefficient siting of the butter-making plants, excessive financial overpressure of dairy cooperative system and disincentives for peasants to deliver milk to dairy plants .



8.
Western Siberia in the context of Demographic modernization: First Half of the XX century

V.A. Isupov
Keywords: demographic modernization, population size, traditional society, Western Siberia

Abstract >>
The paper studies the process of demographic modernization of one of the largest regions in Russia Western Siberia . The author describes socio-historical conditions and factors of demographic modernization . Much attention is paid to analysis of regional and sub-regional peculiarities of the process, its intermediate and final results, difficulties and contradictions . Demographic modernization with demographic transition as its core process is presented as an integral part of the traditional societys modernization .



9.
STAGES OF CIVIL SERVICE REFORM IN RUSSIA (XVI EARLY XX CENTURIES)

V.E. Zubov
Keywords: public administration, public service, bureaucracy, civil service reform, Russia, governmental machine

Abstract >>
This article focuses on the comparison of two approaches to periodization of civil service reforms in Russia . The first approach is traditional and based on changing nature of service relations . The second one is offered by the author and based on changing requirements to the skill level of civil servants . The goal of these changes was to solve the main problem in the sphere of state administration to create an efficient system of public service . This task was of high priority in the course of reforms and characterized the main trend in the development of public service .



10.
ON THE FIRST PROJECT OF THE «STATUTE OF ALIEN ADMINISTRATION: HISTORY OF CREATION AND BASIC APPROACHES

A. Yu. Konev
Keywords: .. , , history of the Russian legislation, legislative project, M. M. Speransky, inorodtsy (aliens), Siberia

Abstract >>
In the present article the author, based on the study of the relevant archival sources, lays out his own version of emergence of the «Statute of Alien Administration («Ustav ob upravlenii inorodtsev) draft text, which is kept in the Fund of the I Siberian Committee . The author reconsiders the opinion of those researchers who date this legislative project back to 1798 and proves another date . The analysis of the most important provisions of the considered document is carried out .



11.
THE «FREE CHRISTIANITY OF THE BISHOP MIKHAIL (SEMENOV) AND «SOCIAL PROGRAMS OF 19051915

I.V. Vorontsova
Keywords: bishop ikhail (Semenov), free Christianity, Golgotha christians, religious reformism

Abstract >>
The religious reformism appears during the periods of historical renewal . In Russia in 1905 there were groups of «free or «social Christianity in the reformist structures . Bishop Mikhail (Semenov), one of the leaders of «free Christianity, planned to create the new, free Church . The «free Christianity was guided by programs which offered religious justification for the social demands . Which of the programs belonged to b . Mikhail (Semenov)? Why did the «neochristians support «Christianity and then refuse to help «Golgotha Christians? The author compares versions of programs and resolves these issues .



12.
THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE USSR AND ITS RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN YAKUTIA IN THE 1930S-1941

A.A. Suleymanov
Keywords: The Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Asian North, Yakutia, scientific research, expeditions

Abstract >>
The paper by the example of Yakutia shows the activities of institutes and researchers of the Academy of sciences of the USSR in the Asian North during the period which started with reformation of the Scientific Center and its de facto «Sovietiztion and ended with reorganization of work according to the wartime requirements . In connection with this the author determines factors that influenced the scale and lines of conducted research, studies history of realization of some academic initiatives, reveals their main trends and implications, as well as notes specific moments characterizing research activities of the Academy of Sciences in the Asian North in the 1930s-1941 .



13.
Research Activities of Scientists Prisoners of KarLAG in the 1930s-1950s

K.K. Abdrakhmanova
Keywords: science under conditions of political repression, GuLAG, KarLAG, imprisoned scientists, intelligentsia, Central Kazakhstan

Abstract >>
The article written on the archival materials and memoirs deals with research activities of scientists imprisoned and working at the agricultural experimental station and other subdivisions of the KarLAG in the 1930s1950s . The author shows that despite extreme conditions of camp life the political prisoners accomplished a lot in the spheres of selection, genetics and seed breeding . Their research played a significant role in the development of agriculture in Central Kazakhstan .



14.
Participation of the uSSR in «Virgin Lands campaign: modern ukrainian Historiography

A.I. Chumak
Keywords: virgin lands, virgin lands campaign, resources, ukraine, ukrainians, ukrainian historiography

Abstract >>
The article considers the role of human, material and other resources of the Ukrainian SSR in exploration of virgin and derelict lands of the Soviet Union (Siberia, Kazakhstan and other territories) . In particular it tells us about the evaluation of the «virgin land campaign in the modern Ukrainian historiography . The author makes a conclusion that Ukrainian historians have a rather critical approach to the study of this question, though some aspects of the «virgin land campaign remain partially or poorly studied . In most cases their studies are written in the context of national historical narrative «standards of modern Ukraine .



15.
Rural Bureaucracy in the Soviet Russia: touches to the Portrait

L.N. Mazur
Keywords: Soviet Russia, rural bureaucracy, social structure, functions

Abstract >>
The paper considers a possibility of using the topographical approach in the bureaucracy studies . The features of creation and functioning of rural bureaucracy in the Soviet Russia, its structure, social-professional characteristics, mechanisms of recruitment are analyzed . The rural bureaucracy appeared in the middle of the XIX century and realized a wider range of models of supremacy among which the patriarchal-democratic and Asian models were dominant .



16.
«THE MISSING LINK - MESOLITHIC PERIOD (on the Problem of Preserving Information traditions by the cultures of the Post-Paleolithic era in eurasia). PART IV. «SECRETS OF GODS - TIME NOTATION SYSTEMS IN THE MESOLITHIC CULTURES OF THE NORTH-WESTERN EUROPE

V.Ye. Larichev
Keywords: time notation systems, Ancient Art, astroarcheology, Mesolithic Age, Eurasia

Abstract >>
The paper is written in order to implement the program of studying the question of sustainable preservation of information traditions in Paleolithic cultures of Eurasia . It concludes the review of model sources from the European part of the continent and deals with an object of art found in the North-West (Denmark, Hjorring settlement; Maglemosian culture) .



17.
Paleolithic in the Seaside Dagestan: main Stages

A.A. Anoykin
Keywords: Paleolithic, small tool complexes, Acheulian, Levallois, sea transgressions, Dagestan

Abstract >>
The paper deals with research at Paleolithic sites in the Seaside Dagestan . Using vast empirical material gained during archeological excavations, the author reconstructs main stages of development of material culture in the territory of the Seaside Dagestan during the Pleistocene, from the early settlement of the Caucasus (1,8-2 million years ago) to the Upper Paleolithic complexes connected with modern humans . The Early Paleolithic complexes from Rubas-1 and Darvagchai-1 sites allow us to consider the territory of Caucasus as one of the development centers of pre-Acheulian micro-industries .



18.
ON THE TIME OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS APPEARANCE IN THE STONE AGE OF NORTHERN MONGOLIA: MICRO BLADE SPLITTING AND CERAMIC WARE

S.A. Gladyshev, A.V. Tabarev, B. Gunchinsuren
Keywords: Northern Mongolia, Tolbor-15, microblade technique, ceramics, dating

Abstract >>
In the course of stationary research of the Tolbor-15 multilayer site in 2009-2011 (Selenga River basin, Northern Mongolia) the early signs of micro blade techniques were revealed in Paleolithic horizons, while in the upper horizons dating back to the early Holocene fragments of neolithic ceramics were discovered . The paper considers circumstances and context of these archaeological finds; for the first time determines the age of these ceramics with radiocarbon dating method .



19.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES OF THE PRE-CERAMIC PERIOD IN CENTRAL AMERICA

A.S. Kravtsova
Keywords: Central America, Paleo-Indian period, archaic period, settlement

Abstract >>
The initial settlement of Central America dates back to the so-called Paleoindian period in the late Pleistocene . According to the scientific research, the earliest findings date back to approximately 11 thousand years ago . The present article for the first time in Russian historiography reviews archeological sites from the Pre-Ceramic period and characterizes problems connected with early settlement of Central America .



20.
History of Investigation of the Shuidonggou Paleolithic Site

A.N. Chekha
Keywords: , , , , , upper Paleolithic in China, Shuidonggou site, stone tool, blade component, problem of transition from the Middle to upper Paleolithic

Abstract >>
The paper deals with history of investigation of the Shuidonggou Paleolithic site, its cultural and chronological context, geochronology, stratigraphy, scientific interpretations of the stone tools . The paper is based on research done by Russian and foreign scholars whose works were published in Russian, English and Chinese . The author analyzes the earliest publications along with the recent data obtained by the Chinese archeologist .



21.
Paleolith of the north-Western tien Shan in the Light of the most Recent Findings

K.K. Pavlenok, S.V. Shneider, G.D. Pavlenok, K.A. Kolobova
Keywords: - -, , , , -, , North-Western Tien-Shan, paleolith, history of vesearch, cultural evolution, Obi-Rakhmat grotto, Kulbulak site

Abstract >>
This article covers results of research on the Paleolithic sites of North-Western Tien Shan conducted from the middle of the XX century to the present . The main attention is paid to the most recent research results (since 1998) . Complex study of basic objects of this region (Obi-Rakhmat grotto and Kulbulak site) has helped to reconsider settled views on evolution of material culture during local Middle and Upper Paleolith . Obi-Rakhmat variant of transition and Kulbulak Upper Paleolithic culture have been identified, which determined direction and dynamics of technological development during the period under consideration .



22.
CONTACTS OF POPULATION OF EASTERN AND CENTRAL ASIA IN THE PALEOLITHIC AND NEOLITHIC AGE

E. B. Barinova
Keywords: , , , , East Asia, Central Asia, Paleolithic age, Neolithic age

Abstract >>
Contacts between the people of Eastern and Central Asia have had an impact on the formation of cultures in these regions since Ancient times . The events related with the initial stage of human exploration of the territories, and especially the subsequent development within the early Stone Age cultures can only be understood as complex decision problems, involving data of geology, paleontology and archeology



23.
Heads of the «Special Administrative Bodies in the eniseysk Governorate: Social Structure of the Siberian officialdom

T.G. Karchaeva
Keywords: , , , , officialdom, provincial administration, Eniseysk governorate, Siberia

Abstract >>
The article considers heads of the Yeniseysk governorates administrative bodies that existed for a short period of history and stood high among other local authorities . Based on the newly introduced documents and archival materials the author analyzes social structure of managerial staff of the Yeniseysk administrations supervisory board, excise office, directorate of state property, prison and medical inspectors, indispensible members of peasant committees . The employees were stratified according to such criteria as social origin, religion, age, property and marital status, education, public service period etc .