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Russian Geology and Geophysics

2013 year, number 6

1.
CHEMOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE VENDIANCAMBRIAN CARBONATE SEDIMENTARY COVER OF THE TUVAMONGOLIAN MICROCONTINENT

I.A. Vishnevskaya, E.F. Letnikova
Keywords: Isotope chemostratigraphy, Vendian, Neoproterozoic, carbonate rocks, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr

Abstract >>
The carbonate sediments from the VendianCambrian shelf of the TuvaMongolian microcontinent were dated by Sr and C isotope chemostratigraphy. Analysis of the Sr-isotopic characteristics (0.707250.70873) and δ 13C variations (+10.5 to 3.5), as well as their comparison with the data on the key sections of Siberia, Africa, Central Asia, Australia, South America, and Spitsbergen, showed that the carbonate sedimentary cover of the TuvaMongolian microcontinent accumulated at 600520 Ma and the carbonate sediments of the Muren Formation and the basal horizons of the Bokson Group near the Ukha-Gol River are the oldest. Their sedimentation followed the Marinoan global glaciation.



2.
THE SHAKHTAMA PORPHYRY Mo ORE-MAGMATIC SYSTEM (eastern Transbaikalia): AGE, SOURCES, AND GENETIC FEATURES

A.P. Berzina, A.N. Berzina, V.O. Gimon, R.Sh. Krymskii, A.N. Larionov, I.V. Nikolaeva, P.A. Serov
Keywords: Moporphyry deposits, ore-bearing magmatism, granitoid magmatism, K-adakites, sources of magmatism, Pb and Nd isotopes, geochemistry of granitoid magmatism, mantle plume, Shakhtama deposit, eastern Transbaikalia

Abstract >>
Two intrusive complexes are recognized at the Shakhtama deposit: Shakhtama and ore-bearing porphyry. The UPb zircon dates (SHRIMP II) are 161.7 1.4 and 161.0 1.7 Ma for the monzonites and granites of the Shakhtama complex and 159.3 0.9 and 155.0 1.7 Ma for the monzonite- and granite-porphyry of the ore-bearing complex. The igneous complexes formed in a complex geodynamic setting in the late Middle Jurassic and early Late Jurassic, respectively. The setting combined the collision of continents during the closure of the MongolOkhotsk ocean and the influence of mantle plume on the lithosphere of the Central Asian orogenic belt. The intrusion of the Shakhtama granitoids took place at the end of the collision, and the intrusion of the porphyry of the ore-bearing complex, during the change of the geodynamic setting by a postcollisional (rifting) one. The complexes are formed by monzonitegranite series with similar geochemical characteristics of rocks. The performed geological, geochemical, and isotope-geochemical studies suggest that the sources of magmas were juvenile crust and Precambrian metaintrusive bodies. The juvenile mafic crust is considered to be the predominant source of fluid components and metals of the Shakhtama ore-magmatic system. The granitoids of both complexes include calc-alkalic high-K rocks with typical geochemical characteristics and with characteristics of K-adakites. These geochemical features indicate that the parental melts of the former rocks were generated at depths shallower than 55 km, and the melts of the latter rocks, at depths of 5566 km. K-adakite melts resulted from the melting of crust submerged into the mantle during the lithosphere delamination, which was caused by the crust thickening as a result of the repeated inflow of basic magma into the basement of the crust and of tectonic deformations in its upper horizons. The high-Mg monzonitic magma produced under these conditions was mixed with melts in the upper horizons, which accounts for the high Mg contents of the Shakhtama granitoids. The similar compositions and petrogeochemical characteristics of the granitoids of the Shakhtama and porphyry complexes point to the same sources, transport paths, and evolution trend of their parental melts. This indicates that the igneous rocks of both complexes are products of the same long-living magmatic system, which produced Mo mineralization at the final stage. The favorable conditions for the ore production in the magmatic system during the formation of the porphyry complex were induced at the preceding stage during the formation of the Shakhtama complex, which we regard as a preparatory stage in the evolution of the ore-magmatic system.



3.
GRANITOID MAGMATISM OF EARLY PALEOZOIC OROGENS

A.N. Distanova
Keywords: Global, Early Paleozoic granite formation, mantle plumes and superplumes, large igneous provinces

Abstract >>
Global manifestations of Early Paleozoic granite formation in the Central Asian Mobile Belt and some other orogenic areas worldwide are considered. The work is based on the authors studies of Early Paleozoic granitoids from the AltaiSayan and West Transbaikalian orogenic areas as well as abundant literature data on other world provinces. Special attention is paid to the scales of granitoid magmatism in the Early Paleozoic, its geodynamic settings, periods, and stages, compositional evolution over time, lateral variability in structures of different types, relationship with LIPs, and, correspondingly, connection with mantle plumes and superplumes.



4.
SHONKINITES AND MINETTES OF THE RYABINOVYI MASSIF (Central Aldan): COMPOSITION AND CRYSTALLIZATION CONDITIONS

E.Yu. Rokosova, L.I. Panina
Keywords: Shonkinites, minettes, silicate and carbonatesalt inclusions, immiscibility, geochemistry of rocks and minerals, sources of magmatism and mineralization, gold, alkaline complexes of the Aldan Shield, Rybinovyi massif

Abstract >>
Dikes of biotitic shonkinites and minettes of the complex Ryabinovyi alkaline massif (Central Aldan) have been studied. The dikes are localized in a neck of K-picrites in the northeast of the massif, which intrudes gold-bearing microclinemuscovite metasomatites (Muscovitovyi site). The obtained data on the chemical and trace-element compositions of the rocks and minerals and study of melt inclusions in clinopyroxenes indicate that the biotitic shonkinites and minettes crystallized fr om the same deep-seated high-pressure alkaline ultrabasic magma during its evolution. Apparently, at the early stage of crystallization of diopside in the biotitic shonkinites, homogeneous carbonatesilicate melt was separated into immiscible fractions of silicate, carbonatesalt, and carbonate melts. The temperature of melt immiscibility was >11201190 C, i.e., higher than the homogenization temperature of silicate inclusions in the diopside. The contents of trace elements in the biotitic shonkinites and rock-forming clinopyroxenes were one or two orders of magnitude higher than the mantle values. The Eu/Eu* ratios of both the considered rocks and the clinopyroxenes were close to those of chondrites, which testifies to their crystallization from mantle magma. The HREE/LREE ratio indicates that the magma source was localized at the depths wh ere garnet-spinel assemblages existed. The negative Nb and Ti anomalies in the trace-element spectra and the high (>5) La/Nb ratios in the rocks and clinopyroxenes point to the influence of crustal material on the parental magma. Crystallization of magma took place in reducing conditions, which is evidenced by the low (47) Ti/V ratios in clinopyroxenes and the presence of chloridesulfate inclusions in them. Since gold in the Ryabinovyi massif is associated with late sulfatechloride and sulfatecarbonate fluids, it might have been transported by alkaline chloridesulfate and carbonate (carbonatite) melts, found as inclusions in clinopyroxenes of the biotitic shonkinites, at the early stages of Mesozoic magmatism.



5.
PETROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CARBONACEOUS SHALES IN THE EASTERN BUREYA MASSIF AND THEIR PRECIOUS-METAL MINERALIZATION

A.I. Khanchuk, V.G. Nevstruev, N.V. Berdnikov, V.P. Nechaev
Keywords: Carbonaceous shales, geodynamic setting, noble-metal specialization

Abstract >>
Some geological, petrochemical, and geochemical characteristics of carbonaceous shales as a new unconventional natural source of gold and PGE are considered by the example of the Kimkan and Sutyr units of the Bureya massif (southern Far East, Russia). It is shown that shales of the units belong to the terrigenous-carbonaceous and siliceous-carbonaceous formations. They accumulated in deep-water trenches, and the active continental margin was probably their main provenance. The carbonaceous terrigenous units and precious-metal ores in them show specific petrochemical characteristics different for complexes with predominantly PGE and gold mineralization. According to these characteristics, carbonaceous complexes with high Fe contents, low total contents of alkalies, and high K/Na ratios are promising for PGE-rich ores. Gold ores are usually localized in black-shale strata with high total contents of alkalies and low K/Na. In this respect, the shales and Fe-ores of the Kimkan unit obviously contain high-PGE mineralization, while the rocks of the Sutyr unit can bear gold deposits. We assume that the PGE mineralization is genetically related to the formation and transformation of carbonaceous rocks. At the same time, most of gold in the carbonaceous shales is native and is not related to carbon; it is present in mineral assemblages resulted from superimposed sulfidization and silicification.



6.
INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ORGANIC ACIDS ON THE Mg/Ca RATIO IN THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF HIGHLY MINERALIZED LAKES

O.L. Gaskova, O.A. Sklyarova
Keywords: Thermodynamic model, magnesian calcites, fulvic and humic acids, paleoclimate reconstructions, bottom sediments

Abstract >>
Thermodynamic modeling of equilibria in the system waterrockorganic acids was used to study the influence of organic acids on Ca and Mg redistribution between a solution and a solid phase in connection with the use of calcites of variable composition Ca x Mg 1x CO 3 as indicators of paleoclimatic environments. In the thermodynamic model, high-molecular humic substances (fulvic + humic acids) were represented by a set of independent metal-binding centers. Therefore, their number was preset based on the given density of proton- or metal-binding sites. The numerical implementation of several geochemical situations involving the dissolution/deposition of calcites with different Mg contents showed that the main effect of fulvic and humic acids is the acidification of solutions and the reduction of carbonate stability. Although humic substances can play an important role in fixing Ca and Mg and removing them from solution, their actual concentrations in natural media (<<1 g/L) do not cause significant changes in the composition of Cax Mg 1x CO 3 phases. On the other hand, there is quantitative evidence that variations in the Mg/Ca ratio in a solution and a solid phase are significantly influenced by the evaporative concentration of Mg-oversaturated solutions, alkalization/acidification during their evolution, or CO2 content variations owing to changes in climate and lake activity.



7.
SULFURSELENIUM ISOMORPHOUS SUBSTITUTION AND MORPHOTROPIC TRANSITION IN THE Ag 3Au(Se,S) 2 SERIES

Yu.V. Seryotkin, G.A. Palyanova, N.E. Savva
Keywords: Uytenbogaardtite, fischesserite, solid-solution series Ag3 Au(Se, S)2, morphotropic transition, structural features

Abstract >>
Goldsilver sulfoselenides of the series Ag3 AuSex S2x (x = 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1; 1.5) were synthesized from melts on heating stoichiometric mixtures of elementary substances in evacuated quartz ampoules. According to X-ray single-crystal analysis, the compound Ag3 AuSe0.5S1.5 has the structure of goldsilver sulfide Ag3AuS2 (uytenbogaardtite) with space group R 3 c . The volume of this compound is 1.5% larger than that of the sulfide analog. According to powder X-ray diffractometry, compounds Ag3 AuSe0.25S1.75 and Ag3AuSe 0.75S1.25 also show trigonal symmetry. Compounds Ag3AuSeS and Ag3AuSe 1.5S0.5 are structurally similar to the low-temperature modification of goldsilver selenide Ag3AuSe 2 (fischesserite) with space group I 4132. These data suggest the existence of two solid solutions: petzite-type cubic Ag3AuSe2Ag 3AuSeS (space group I 4 132) and trigonal Ag3AuSe0.75S1.25 Ag 3AuS2 (space group R 3 c ). It was found that fischesserite from the Rodnikovoe deposit (southern Kamchatka) contains 3.54 wt.% S. At the Kupol deposit (Chukchi Peninsula), fischesserite contains up to 2.5 wt.% S and uytenbogaardtite contains up to 5.3 wt.% Se. At the Olcha and Svetloe (Okhotskoe) deposits (Magadan Region), uytenbogaardtite contains up to 0.5 and 1.8 wt.% Se, respectively. Literature data on the compositions of silvergold selenides and sulfides from different deposits were summarized and analyzed. Analysis of data available on the S and Se contents of natural fischesserite and uytenbogaardtite confirms the miscibility gap near composition Ag3AuSeS.