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2013 year, number 7

1.
On the selection of spectroscopic data for intermolecular potential determination

V.I. Starikov1,2
1Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, Russia 634050
vstarikov@yandex.ru
2Yurginskiy Technological Institute, 652055, Kemerovo region, Jurga, st. Leningrad, 26
Keywords: helium broadening, selection and comparison of experimental data, 2 and H2S

Abstract >>
The procedure of the selection of halfwidths of absorption spectral lines measured in different works for intermolecular potential determination is proposed. The procedure is based on the analytical model for half-widths. Two examples connected with spectral lines of 2ν1 + ν2 + ν3 vibrational band of H2O molecule and ν2 band of H2S molecule broadened by helium pressure are discussed.



2.
Reconstruction of the pressure signal shape from the pulse microphon signal

B.A. Tikhomirov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
bat@iao.ru
Keywords: pulse photoacoustic signal, laser molecular spectroscopy, collisional relaxation

Abstract >>
A technique for computer reconstruction of the pressure signal shape from the pulse microphone signal is offered. It is shown that the time of collisional relaxation of molecules from the excited state to the ground one can be measured on its basis with the use of a time-resolved photoacoustic spectrometer.



3.
Aerosol disturbances in the stratosphere after eruption of Grimsvtn volcano (Iceland, May 2011) according to data of observations at stations of CIS lidar network CIS-LiNet in Minsk, Tomsk, and Vladivostok

S.I. Dolgii1, V.D. Burlakov1, A.P. Makeev1, A.V. Nevzorov1, K.A. Shmirko2, A.N. Pavlov2, S.Yu. Stolyarchuk2, O.A. Bukin3, A.P. Chaikovskii4, F.P. Osipenko4, D.A. Trifonov1,5
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
dolgii@iao.ru
2Institute of Automation and Control Processes, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 5, Radio Street, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia
shmirko.konstantin@gmail.com
3Maritime State University named after admiral G.I. Nevelskoy, 50a, ul. Verkhneportovaya, Vladivostok, 690059, Russia
o_bukin@mail.ru
4B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Belarus, 220072, Minsk, Independence Avenue, 68
chaikov@dragon.bas-net.by
5National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
dmitriy.trifonov.91@mail.ru
Keywords: stratosphere, volcanic aerosol, lidar

Abstract >>
We present the observations results of aerosol disturbances in the stratosphere in the second half of 2011; the observations were performed at stations of CIS lidar network CIS-LiNet in Minsk (53.9N; 27.60E), Tomsk (56.5N; 85.0E), and Vladivostok (43.0N; 131.9E). Based on the lidar measurement data at the sensing wavelengths of 353, 355, and 532 nm, an increased aerosol content was observed in the lower stratosphere up to altitudes of 18 km from JuneJuly and practically until the end of 2011. A well-defined and temporally stable aerosol layer was observed until October 2011 in the altitude range 1317 km. An increased aerosol content in the lower stratosphere was observed until January 2012. The trajectory analysis of air mass transport in the stratosphere on the basis of NOAA HYSPLIT MODEL with the use of CALIPSO satellite data shows that the observed increased aerosol content was due to the transport of eruption products of Grimsvötn volcano (May 21, 2011, Iceland: 64.4N; 17.3W).



4.
Lidar measurements of air density in the middle atmosphere. Part 1. Modeling of the potential capabilities in the visible spectral range

V.N. Marichev1,2, D.A. Bochkovsky1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
marichev@iao.ru
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: air density, middle atmosphere, lidar

Abstract >>
In the present paper, the potential capabilities of lidar measurements of the atmospheric density in the middle atmosphere are analyzed. Calculations are performed for a lidar with quite moderate specifications: transmitter comprising a solid Nd:YAG-laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, pulse energy of 0.8 J, and repetition frequency of 20 Hz; and receiving system comprising primary mirrors with radii of 0.3 and 0.5 m, field-of-view angles of 0.1 and 1 mrad, and spectral widths of the filter of 0.5, 1, and 10 nm. The signal acquisition time is 10 min for spatial resolution of 1 km. Three sensing options are analyzed: from the ground level, from an aircraft (at 10-km flight altitude), and from an ISS with orbit altitude of 414 km.



5.
On the accuracy and speed of RTM algorithms for atmospheric correction of satellite images in the visible and UV ranges

V.V. Belov1,2, M.V. Tarasenkov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
belov@iao.ru
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
tmv@iao.ru
Keywords: Monte Carlo method, atmospheric correction, radiative transfer equation, re-reflection, adjacency effect, solar haze, spherical geometry

Abstract >>
Algorithms for reconstruction of the Earths surface reflection coefficient from the data of satellite measurements are suggested. They allow the main components of radiation, forming an Earths surface image, to be taken into account with different degrees of accuracy. The algorithms involve a solution of the radiative transfer equation with the use of the linear system theory, Monte Carlo method, approximation formulas, and criterion of image isoplanarity. The algorithms are validated based on numerical experiments and comparisons with results of calculations by other authors.



6.
Estimates of aerosol radiative forcing for three regions of the Ocean

I.M. Nasrtdinov, T.B. Zhuravleva, S.M. Sakerin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
wizard@iao.ru
Keywords: aerosol, radiative forcing of aerosol over ocean, numerical simulation

Abstract >>
The results of numerical simulation of aerosol radiative forcing for three regions of the Ocean are presented: the coastal area of Antarctica, the Sea of Japan, and the Sea of Darkness. In the simulation of aerosol radiative forcing in these regions the results of ship measurements of aerosol optical depth and water vapor content are used. Data on the single scattering albedo and asymmetry factor are represented by the model (coastal Antarctica – model OPAC) and long-term observations at AERONET photometric stations (Sea of Japan Noto site and the Sea of Darkness Cape Verde site). Calculations showed that cooling effect of aerosol over the Japan Sea/Sea of Darkness on the borders of atmosphere increases by about an order of magnitude as compared to the clear atmosphere near Antarctica. In this case, the daily averaged values of the aerosol radiative forcing change as follows: at the level of the underlying surface from 2.3 (Antarctica) to 30.3/32.6 W/m2 (Japan Sea/Sea of Darkness), at the top of the atmosphere from 1.9 to 16.1/18 W/m2. The estimates obtained are in good agreement with the results of other authors.



7.
Climate conditions of low clouds over the territory of Siberia and its modern change. Part 1. Features of low clouds conditions

V.S. Komarov, S.N. Ilin, A.V. Lavrinenko, N.Ya. Lomakina, E.V. Gorev, D.P. Nakhtigalova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
gfm@iao.ru
Keywords: low-level clouds, amount of clouds, cloud base height, climatic characteristics, Siberian region

Abstract >>
The low clouds conditions over the territory of the Siberian region are researched, using the 47-year (1966-2012) observation data of 25 meteorological stations. The spatial distribution of the seasonal average values of the amount of low-level clouds and their frequency according to five gradations (amount of clouds: 0, 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, and 10), as well as the cloud base heights and its standard deviations was analysed for four seasons (winter, spring, summer, autumn).



8.
Climate conditions of low clouds over the territory of Siberia and its modern change. Part 2. Changes of low clouds conditions

V.S. Komarov, S.N. Ilin, A.V. Lavrinenko, N.Ya. Lomakina, E.V. Gorev, D.P. Nakhtigalova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
gfm@iao.ru
Keywords: low-level clouds, amount of low clouds, long-period changes, Siberian region

Abstract >>
The results of the analysis of climatic changes of the amount of low clouds over the territory of Siberia for the last 47 years (1966-2012) are presented according to the data of ground-based meteorological observations of 25 stations with annual and seasonal averaging. It has been found that the significant long-term fluctuations of the lower clouds are typical for the concerned period (relative to the standard of the 1966-1975 or 1976-2005). The amount of low clouds increased everywhere at the end of the XX century and at the beginning of the XXI (from 1976 to 2005), when global warming was observed over the territory of the Northern hemisphere. Over the period of the started cooling (2006-2012) a significant decrease of the amount of low clouds has been observed over the Western Siberia, and the marked weakening of its growth has been observed over the Eastern Siberia.



9.
Automated path photometer

V.N. Uzhegov, A.P. Rostov, Yu.A. Pkhalagov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
uzhegov@iao.ru
Keywords: measuring of the spectral transparency of the atmosphere, interference filters, aerosol extinction coefficients, photometer controller, field measurements

Abstract >>
The description of an automated multi-wavelength path photometer, which serves for the convenience of transparency measurements of the atmospheric surface layer (the total length of optical path is 1000 meters) at 13 discrete points of the wavelength range 0.45÷4.6 mm. The fundamental difference of the photometer from the previous version is that all receiving modules with their interference filters and optimally matched optical radiation detectors are rigidly fixed in a circle on the fixed panel. At the center of this panel on the axis of a step motor, a small flat mirror is fastened, directing the incoming radiation to the appropriate collecting module according to the program.



10.
Application of the laser photoacoustic leak detector for tightness control of lung and tracheobronchial sutures

V.A. Kapitanov1, E.B. Topolnitskiy2,3, Yu.N. Ponomarev1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
venedikt@iao.ru
2Autonomous regional state health agency "Tomsk Oblast Clinical Hospital", 96, str. Ivan Chernyh, Tomsk, 634063, Russia
3Siberian state medical university, 2, Moscowski Trakt, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: respiratory system, leak tightness of surgical suture, sulfur hexafluoride, laser photoacoustic leak detector

Abstract >>
The simple and effective method (technique) of the leakage test of the respiratory system using medical ventilation apparatus and laser photoacoustic leak detector “LaserGasTest” was suggested. The technique was tested in model experiments and experiments on animals. Sulfur hexafluoride is inert and biologically harmless gas and its concentration in medical ventilation apparatus does not exceed 5000 mg/m3 (0.077%). The proposed technique provides precise location and size of leakage.



11.
Modeling of snow water dielectric properties with small concentration of solution matters

A.N. Romanov1, A.Yu. Sukovatova2, V.F. Raputa3
1Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 656038, Barnaul, 1, Molodezhnaya str
ran@iwep.ru
2Altai State University, 656015, Barnaul, 61, str. Lenina
usanna1311@gmail.com
3Russian Academy of Sciences Mathematical Department Novosibirsk Scientific Centre Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics SB RAS, prospect Akademika Lavrentjeva, 6, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
raputa@sscc.ru
Keywords: dielectric characteristics, multivariate analysis, snow cover

Abstract >>
In this paper the dependence of snow water dielectric characteristics on pollutants accumulated in snow cover for all the period of snow accumulation is defined. The results of calculation of dielectric characteristics considering the accumulated pollutants are presented. A technique that characterizes the impacts of accumulates pollutants in snow cover on the dielectric properties of snow water using regression analysis is suggested.



12.
Influence of discharge circuit inductance on output characteristics of CuBr laser

F.A. Gubarev1,2, M.V. Trigub1,2, G.S. Evtushenko2, K.V. Fedorov2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
gubarevfa@tpu.ru
2Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University" (TPU), 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
trigub@tpu.ru
Keywords: metal-vapor laser, copper-bromide laser, current rise rate, discharge circuit, efficiency

Abstract >>
The dependence of energy characteristics of a CuBr laser of an average active volume with and without HBr addition on the rate of the current rise is under study. The variation of the energy characteristics is conditioned by connecting an additional inductance in the discharge circuit. It is shown that at the increase of the inductance up to 4 mH, the average lasing power of the CuBr laser decreases tenfold. Under similar conditions, the average generation power of the CuBr laser with HBr addition decreases by less than two orders of magnitude. The portion of yellow line generation also changes by a less degree. Thus, the presence of the electronegative addition to the CuBr laser active medium decreases requirements to the pulse power supply.



13.
Traces of Tunguska space body and Chebarkul meteorite

O.G. Gladysheva
Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russia
Olga.Gladysheva@mail.ioffe.ru
Keywords: the Tunguska cosmic body, the Chelyabinsk object (Chebarkul meteorite)

Abstract >>
The interaction of the Tunguska cosmic body and the Chelyabinsk object (Chebarkul meteorite) with the atmosphere has many common characteristics. The water vapor, caused by fragmentation of objects before their penetration in the atmosphere, was registered at the altitude of the mesopause in both events. The rainbow bands, which were seen in the tail of the Tunguska body, are connected with refraction and reflection of sunny rays in horizontal (parhelic) ring. A forming of explosion rejections of the substance from the Chelyabinsk object with a speed of ~ 1 km/s (which is typical for comets) and a fragmentation of the object outside the atmosphere lead to conclusion about the comet nature of the Chelyabinsk object.