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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2013 year, number 1

1.
HISTORY OF SIBERIA (LATE XVI – EARLY XX CENTURIES) IN THE ENGLISHAND GERMAN-LANGUAGE HISTORIOGRAPHY: BASIC CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES

D.A. Ananyev
Keywords: Siberia, historiography, modernization, colonization, frontier, heartland, “Russian eastward expansion”

Abstract >>
The paper deals with basic theoretical and methodological approaches as well as concepts of Siberian history offered by Western scholars in the XX century (“Russian eastward expansion”, “colonization”, “modernization”, theories of “heartland” and “frontier”). The author comes to conclusion that in Western scholarship there has been no dominating methodological precepts or common patterns of Siberian history shared by all researches. Certain contradictions in the Siberian historiography were resolved on a basis of thorough analysis of sources which allowed achieving a qualitatively new level in Siberian studies.



2.
COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF COLONIZATION OF THE ARCTIC AND SUB-ARCTIC REGIONS OF SIBERIA AND EASTERN CANADA IN THE XVII – EARLY XVIII CENTURIES

I.R. Sokolovskiy
Keywords: Siberia, Canada, the Arctic, sub-Arctic, colonization, fur trade, population, colonization methods, military operations, garrisons, XVII-XVIII century

Abstract >>
The article presents a comparative analysis of colonization of Siberian area north of 60 º N. and parts of western Canada located north of 50 º N in the XVII and early XVIII centuries. The author compares general and specific characteristics of these processes and makes the assumption that they were interconnected.



3.
POPULATION OF THE MANGAZEYA UYEZD ACCORDING TO THE 1739 QUESTIONNAIRE’S DATA

A. Kh. Elert
Keywords: questionnaires of the Academy of Sciences, G.F. Müller, the Second Kamchatka Expedition, Mangazeya uezd, population, demography, history

Abstract >>
The article analyzes data from the “Bulletin” prepared in 1739 by the Mangazeya uyezd administrative office (chancery) and based on the 1739 Questionnaire of Academician G.F. Müller. The study is focused on the issues of number, social structure, displacement of population (both service men and tax-paying population), number and ethnical structure of indigenous population, as well as specifics of the local authorities’ yasak policy.



4.
EPISTOLARY HERITAGE OF THE DECEMBRIST I.D. YAKUSHKIN

Ye.N. Tumanik
Keywords: Decembrists, worldview, liberation movement, Siberian exile, epistolary heritage

Abstract >>
The article focuses on epistolary heritage characteristics of one of the most famous Decembrists. Nowadays many of I.D. Yakushkin’s letters are kept in the Russian archives. For many years historians have been actively publishing his correspondence. Along with general classifying and organizing I.D. Yakushkin’s letter-heritage the author characterizes the Decembrist’s personality and mentality, his psychological type, which contributes a lot to the reconstruction of general history of the Decembrist movement where I.D.Yakushkin was one of the key and typological figures.



5.
THE KRASNOYARSK MERCHANTS IN THE IRKUTSK MARKET DURING THE FIRST THIRD OF THE XIX CENTURY

E.V. Komleva
Keywords: merchantry, trade, range of goods, contemporary evidence

Abstract >>
The article is written on the newly introduced historical sources – manuscript collection of the Larionov merchant family. It characterizes activities of the Krasnoyarsk merchants in the Irkutsk market in the first decades of the XIX century. The list of expenses written by Peter F. Larionov in 1808 is published.



6.
Russian Army in the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries: Conscripts’ Delivery in Siberia and Far East

V.I. Bayandin
Keywords: conscripts of the Tsarist Army, conscripts’ delivery to the Siberian military unnits, conscripts’ movement within Siberia, means of conscripts’ transportation to the Far East in the XIX – early XX century

Abstract >>
The paper considers an issue of conscripts’ delivery to the troops deployed in Siberia and Far East in the 1880s- early 1900s. The historical period under consideration is marked by a substantial increase of the Russian armed forces’ manpower in the Far East including the Kwantung peninsula leased to Russia by China. It was Russia’s response to the challenge of other Asian and European powers’ growing presence in the region. Siberia’s vast territories and underdeveloped transport infrastructure significantly hampered the army’s personnel replacement and conscripts delivery to the military districts of Siberia and Far East. The author evaluates how these problems were solved and finds out whether these solutions were effective.



7.
The “Road to Calvary” of the Lawyer V.P. Lamanskiy in 1918-1919

V.I. Shishkin
Keywords: underground organization, officers, power, commissar, administrator

Abstract >>
The article throws light on the ups and downs of the lawyer V.P. Lamansky’s life during the Civil War in Siberia. His vicissitudes were due to the fact that at the beginning of 1918 by order of the Anti-Bolshevik underground organization this young man worked in the Soviet judicial bodies for counterrevolutionary purposes. After the overthrow of the Soviet power in Siberia he faithfully served in the Anti-Bolshevik administration of the Kansk uyezd. However, the attitude of the Kolchack’s authorities (especially of the military circles) to Lamansky made him play a tragic role of being “a foe among friends”.



8.
UNIONS OF CONSUMERS’ COOPERATIVES IN THE CITIES OF SIBERIA: PROBLEMS AND CONTRADICTIONS OF INSTITUTION-BUILDING (1913-1920)

G.M. Zaporozhchenko
Keywords: Siberia, consumers’ co-operation, cooperative union

Abstract >>
The article explores the history of unions of consumers’ cooperatives formation in Siberia in 1911-1920. The study focuses on the activities of district and regional consumers’ cooperative societies aimed at creation of the All-Siberian Union of urban and worker co-operation. The author concludes that the process of centralization of the cooperative movement deformed free and active institution-building of the consumer’s co-operation.



9.
Courts of Siberia Defending Rights of Women in the 1920s

V.I. Isaev
Keywords: sexual equality, moral consciousness, legal status of women, labor relations, trade unions, family, law of marriage, court, female crime

Abstract >>
The paper deals with living conditions and legal status of women in Siberia in the 1920s. The author describes the judicial bodies’ activities in Siberia aimed at defending women’s personal rights and rights of property.



10.
Bureau of the Siberian Regional Committee of the RKPb – VKPb (Sibkraikom): Competence, Structure, Forms and Methods of Activities (May, 1924 – August, 1930)

T.I. Morozova
Keywords: bureau, Communist Party, party apparatus, Sibkraikom, Siberia

Abstract >>
The article considers competence, staff, principles of organization, forms and methods of work of the Bureau of the RKPb (VKPb) Siberian Regional Committee – Sibkraikom – the superior body of the Bolshevik Party in Siberia. Based on a wide range of archival sources and materials from the periodical press the author characterizes relations between the regional center, the Central Committee and local party organizations. Bureaucratization of the regional party apparatus is traced. The role and place of the Sibkraikom’s Bureau in the system of party leadership in Siberia is determined.



11.
October Celebrations in the West Siberian Cities in the 1930s: Commemorative Aspect

E.I. Krasilnikova
Keywords: October celebrations, commemoration, politics of memory, public holidays

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to a commemorative component of October celebrations held in the cities of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Omsk, Barnaul) in the 1930s. The author reveals origins of the October holiday practices, describes their implications for representation of certain forms of collective memory and expression of political solidarity. She also explains the festive commemoration’s specificity in the 1930s compared to the previous decade.



12.
The Role of Youth in Shaping the Human Potential of Siberia on the Eve of the World War II (în the 1939 Soviet Census Materials)

R. Ye. Romanov
Keywords: World War II, Siberia, human potential, youth

Abstract >>
The paper characterizes the role of young people aged 15 – 25 in the development of various components (demography, military mobilization, migration, labor, sociocultural aspects) of human potential of Siberia on the eve of World War II. In particular, the author shows the youth’s effect on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the age and sex structure of the population (structure of male population subject to military conscription during the war; local population involved into migration processes; working-age and literate population). The author concludes that during the period under consideration the youth played one of the leading roles in human capital formation in Siberia. This demographic factor served as an important prerequisite for an intensive use of youth as a major military manpower and labor resource during the World War II.



13.
“HOW ARE REGIME AND CONTROL ORGANIZED HERE?”

N.N. Ablazhey, L.M. Salakhova
Keywords: ethnic exile, special settlement headquarters, department of special settlements, regime

Abstract >>
The authors introduce into scientific use a document originated in the Special Settlements Department of the UMGB (Ministry of State Security Directorate) of the Irkutsk oblast. It is a typical annual report of one of the special settlements’ regional headquarters belonging to the 9 th department of the UMGB of the Irkutsk oblast. The document shows reporting procedures as well as regulations of the deportees’ life in special settlements. The shorthand report of the special settlement commandants’ meeting on March 28, 1952 serves as a commentary to the above-mentioned document.



14.
ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION IN THE KARA SEA IN REGARD TO DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE DURING THE “COLD WAR”

I.M. Savitskiy
Keywords: disposal of nuclear waste, nuclear reactor, navy, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), the Kara Sea, scientific expeditions, ecological state of the sea

Abstract >>
The article considers locations and methods of nuclear waste disposal in the Kara Sea; analyzes measures undertaken in order to study the radiation environment as well as their results. The growing topicality of this problem is connected with further development of the Northern Sea Route (including the international consignments) and the area around the Belyy Island in the Kara Sea, where one fourth of the world’s hydrocarbon reserves, gas and condensate are located.



15.
URBANIZATION IN WESTERN SIBERIA IN 1959-1989

O.B. Dashinamzhilov
Keywords: urban population, Western Siberia, post-war period, economic development

Abstract >>
The process of population formation in urban settlements of Western Siberia during the post-war period is considered in the article. Quantitative changes in the structure of urban contingents are studied. Having analyzed different types of urban settlements (small, average, large) the author reveals qualitative characteristics of urbanization in 1959 – 1989 and its specifics.



16.
REALIA OF THE SOVIET SOCIALISM IN THE WORKS OF A NOVOKUZNETSK OLD-BELIEVER

N.D. Zolnikova
Keywords: Old-Belief, prophets, eschatology, Antichrist, Judgement Day

Abstract >>
The paper studies eschatological views shared in the 1980s by the “Tokarevtsy” – a branch of the Pomortsy Old-Believers’ consent. The author analyzes links with the Pomorian tradition in the XVIII-XIX centuries; shows how the original theoretical schemes of the Tokarevtsy reflected the XX century realia.



17.
The Journal “Vsemirnaya Illyustratsia” (World in Pictures) and Representations of Siberia on Its Pages

N.N. Rodigina
Keywords: representation of Siberia, images of region, illustrated weekly magazines

Abstract >>
The article deals with researching Siberia’s representations in a weekly journal “Worldwide Illustrations” in the second part of the XIX century. The author determines subjects of the texts about Siberia, characterizes the circle of their authors, soundly argues for the specifics of the region’s representations in the illustrated weeklies.



18.
Theophylact (Savkin), the Hegumen of the Kazanskiy skit of the Old-Believers’ Belokrinitskiy Consent, and His Epistolary Heritage

N.A. Starukhin
Keywords: Belokrinitskiy consent, monarchism, Chasovennye, polemics

Abstract >>
The paper considers works by hegumen Theophylact (Savkin), a writer of great originality who belonged to the Belokrinitskiy monkhood. Based on the extant epistolary heritage of the Siberian monk the author defines stages of his creative life; analyzes his epistles; determines key trends in the outer- and inner-Old Believers’ polemics of the Siberian “Austrians”.



19.
MASS RIOTS AMONG THE DEMOBILIZED SOLDIERS IN SIBERIA DURING THE SECOND HALF OF JULY, 1914

M.V. Shilovskiy
Keywords: World War I, mobilization, mass protests, riots

Abstract >>
The article considers mass protest actions of Siberian soldiers called up for the military service in the course of mass mobilization in July, 1914. The author reveals causes of protests and describes pacification measures undertaken by the authorities.



20.
AGRICULTURAL CROP HARVESTING BY THE “THE WHITES” CIVIL AUTHORITIES IN UKRAINE IN 1919

S.V. Kornovenko
Keywords: agrarian policy, peasantry, Ukraine, Armed Forces of the South of Russia, Special Council

Abstract >>
The article is devoted to a little-known aspect of history of Revolution and Civil war in 1917–1920. On the basis of archival materials and published sources the author studies activities of “the Whites” civil authorities aimed at agricultural crop harvesting in Ukraine in 1919.



21.
S.V. Obruchev’s Book “To the Unexplored Lands” as a Source on the Means of Transport in the North-East of Russia in the 1920s – 1930s

O.N. Kationov
Keywords: transport (animal-drawn, river, sea, arosleigh, air transport), traditions, novations, aborigines, scholars

Abstract >>
The study is aimed at describing the traditional and new means of transport in the North-Eastern areas of Siberia during the socialist modernization based on the materials from S.V. Obruchev’s book “To the Unexplored Lands”. The author characterizes specifics of the means of transport used by the indigenous population and surveyors (mapping and spatial scientists); shows adaptation of the aboriginal peoples to the environmental and climatic conditions in terms of using the means of transport. Attention is paid to the fact that S.V. Obruchev’s scientific expeditions used up-to-date means of transport (aerosleigh, motor boats, steamboats, airplanes) and introduced traditional Russian means of transport to the aboriginal population.



22.
SYSTEM OF CATTLE BREEDING MANAGEMENT IN SIBERIA IN THE LATE 1920S-1930S

V.A. Ilyinykh
Keywords: public administration, agricultural policy, agriculture, cattle breeding, collectivization, Siberia

Abstract >>
The study reconstructs the process of creation and development of the Soviet system of cattle breeding management in the late 1920s-1930s. It is clear from the documents that during the period under consideration this system was unstable, permanently reformed, multi-layered and suffered from administrative parallelism.



23.
PLANNING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND PROCUREMENT IN KOLKHOZES AND SOVKHOZES IN WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 1960S – FIRST HALF OF THE 1980S

D.S. Orlov
Keywords: agriculture, agricultural policy, kolkhozes, sovkhozes, agricultural planning, procurement, Western Siberia

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes understudied problems of agrarian and economic history of the USSR in the second half of the 1960s – first half of the 1980s, connected with the state’s efforts to boost production in the kolkhozes and sovkhozes by limiting regulatory dictate in the sphere of agricultural production and procurement planning. Using the data on Western Siberia the author proves that in the second half of the 1960s the mechanisms of economical incentives led to increase of agricultural production while the growing administrative pressure on farms in the early 1970s made for the low rate of future agricultural growth.