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2013 year, number 3

1.
Distribution of natural and man-made radioactivity of samples of soil and dusty haze in the south of Tajikistan

S.F. Abdullaev, B.I. Nazarov, V.A. Maslov, A.A. Djuraev
Keywords: arid aerosol, dusty haze, dust storm, the elemental composition, isotopes

Abstract >>
The paper presents the analysis results of the elemental composition of dust aerosol samples collected in the deposition in Ayvadj and Dushanbe, formed by a dusty haze. Data on the distribution of radioactive isotopes of uranium and thorium series, K-40 and other man-made isotope are analyzed.



2.
Functions of aerosol probability density and concentration in air of an industrial city (Barnaul city, as an example)

K.Yu. Sukovatov, N.N. Bezuglova, K.O. Shutova
Keywords: functions of the probability density, air pollution, aerosol

Abstract >>
The calculations of probability density functions (PDF) of the mass concentration of atmospheric aerosols using satellite data are presented. The software, developed in the IWEP SB RAS, was used for the calculations. The program offers non-parametric method of the smoothing kernel. The computed PDF qualitatively represent the logarithmically normal ones.



3.
Components of atmospheric aerosol in the Novosibirsk region in summer

V.V. Golovko, K.P. Koutzenogii, M.A. Bizin, S.A. Popova
Keywords: pollen, atmospheric aerosol, counting concentration, mass concentration, daily dynamics

Abstract >>
The taxonomic composition, daily average concentration and daily dynamics of the content of the pollen component of atmospheric aerosol in the atmosphere have been determined in the village of Kluchi of the Novosibirsk region. From June, 22 to July, 19, 2011, in the atmosphere prevailed the pollen of cereals. It amounted to 90 and more percent of the total number of pollen grains. The daily average mass concentration of the pollen was ≈ 3.7% of the overall concentration of atmospheric aerosol. During cereal blossom the mass concentration of the pollen is comparable and even exceeds the daily average concentration of the atmospheric aerosol.



4.
Forecast of the intensity of thermal radiation and aerosol emission from forest fires at the Central European region

A.Yu. Yurova, A.V. Paramonov, I.B. Konovalov, I.N. Kuznetsova, M. Beekmann
Keywords: fires, forecast, radiative power, satellite measurements, threshold autoregression

Abstract >>
A new approach is developed to forecast the fire radiative power (FRP) observed by the satellite sensor with a lead time of one day. The method is based on a threshold autoregression model. Visualization of the t-statistics of the sorted time series has helped to discern six regimes, for which the model coefficients were specified separately. Nesterov fire index was used as one of the predictors. Data for European part of Russia for summer 2010 were used. It was shown that threshold autoregression forecast is superior to inertial forecast of FRP. Aerosols emissions (PM10 concentrations) were also predicted based on FRP forecast for the next day. The forecast errors were lower then the errors of inertial forecast of PM10 for four of six regimes that were dominating either in terms of number or coverage area. The method will be incorporated into the air quality model.



5.
Method of detection of oil pollution on the earth's surface based on fluorescence radiation recording within three narrow spectral bands

Yu.V. Fedotov, O.A. Matrosova, M.L. Belov, V.A. Gorodnichev
Keywords: laser, fluorescence spectra, oil pollution, earth's surface, detection

Abstract >>
The problem of detection of oil pollution on the earth's surface is considered. The results of experimental investigations of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of petroleum products, and petroleum products on earth's surfaces are presented. It is shown that the use of a laser method, based on fluorescence radiation recording within three narrow spectral bands, allows detection of oil pollution on the earth's surfaces with a probability of correct classification close to unity, and small probability of false alarm.



6.
Accuracy of estimation of the turbulent energy dissipation rate from wind measurements by a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar at conical scanning by the probing beam. Part I. Algorithm of data processing

I.N. Smalikho, V.A. Banakh
Keywords: coherent lidar, conical scanning, wind turbulence

Abstract >>
Data processing procedure for estimation of the turbulent energy dissipation rate from wind measurements by a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (PCDL) at conical scanning by the probing beam is presented. The procedure is tested by the numerical simulation and used for investigation of the feasibility and accuracy of estimation of the dissipation rate from conically scanning PCDL data. Error of the lidar estimate of the dissipation rate versus number of full scans is calculated.



7.
Accuracy of estimation of the turbulent energy dissipation rate from wind measurements by a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar at conical scanning by the probing beam. Part II. Numerical and atmospheric experiments

I.N. Smalikho, V.A. Banakh, Y.L. Pichugina, W.A. Brewer
Keywords: coherent lidar, conical scanning, wind turbulence

Abstract >>
Feasibility of measurement of the turbulent energy dissipation rate with a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (PCDL) at conical scanning by the probing beam has been investigated, using numerical simulation with consideration of the averaging of radial velocity over the sensing volume and the error of radial velocity estimation. Error of the lidar estimate of the dissipation rate versus number of full scans and signal-to-noise ratio has been calculated. Results of msimultaneous measurements of the dissipation rate with sonic anemometers and 2-µm PCDL have been analyzed.



8.
Total water vapor content retrieval from the Sun photometer data

K.M. Firsov, T.Yu. Chesnokova, E.V. Bobrov, I.I. Klitochenko
Keywords: total water vapor content, Sun photometer, atmospheric radiation

Abstract >>
A simulation of the Sun photometer measurements for two regions of Russia is made and estimations of total water vapor content retrieval errors, caused by variation of meteorological parameters and application of empirical formulas, used in AERONET, are found.



9.
Features of the vertical structure of air temperature and humidity fields within the atmospheric boundary layer above East Siberia depending on cloudiness conditions. Part 1. Background characteristics and variability

V.S. Komarov, S.N. Il’in, N.Ya. Lomakina, D.P. Nakhtigalova
Keywords: background characteristics, variability, temperature, air humidity, the atmospheric boundary layer, Eastern Siberia, heavy overcast

Abstract >>
The vertical statistical structure of air temperature and humidity ( specific humidity) fields within the atmospheric boundary layer of East Siberia are analyzed for cloudless conditions and heavy overcast, using many-year (2002–2012) data of four aerological stations (Tura, Yakutsk, Kirensk, Chita). The features of the altitudinal distribution of the background (average climatic) characteristics and the dispersions of air temperature and humidity are considered up to a height of 1600 meters with the account of cloud state of the atmosphere and depending on the season and geographical location of the station.



10.
Features of the vertical structure of air temperature and humidity fields within the atmospheric boundary layer above East Siberia depending on cloudiness conditions. Part 2. Characteristics of vertical correlation

V.S. Komarov, S.N. Il’in, N.Ya. Lomakina, D.P. Nakhtigalova
Keywords: autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions, temperature, air humidity, the atmospheric boundary layer, East Siberia, clear and cloudy days

Abstract >>
According to the data of many-years (2002–2012) observations of four aerological stations (Tura, Yakutsk, Kirensk and Chita), representing different physical-geographical regions of East Siberia, the general regularities and features of interlevel and cross-correlation relations of air temperature and humidity ( specific humidity ) in the atmospheric boundary layer are analyzed depending on the degree of the sky coverage with lower clouds.



11.
High sensitive Fourier transform spectroscopy with small multipass absorption cell

V.I. Serdyukov, L.N. Sinitsa, S.S. Vasil’chenko, B.A. Voronin
Keywords: Fourier transform spectroscopy, multipass cell

Abstract >>
This paper describes a highly sensitive spectrometer in the range 20000–9000 cm–1 with an absorption sensitivity of 1x10–8 cm–1 and a spectral resolution of 0,05 cm–1, created on the basis of Bruker IFS-125M Fourier spectrometer with a small multipass cell. The high sensitivity of the spectrometer was achieved through the use of the multipass absorption cell (base length is 60 cm) with a high aperture ratio (the ratio of the diameter of the collective mirror to the base length is 1:4) and a high intensity light source. A comparison of the recorded spectra with the experimental and theoretical spectra of the water vapor shows that the spectrometer reliably detects the presence of absorption lines of natural isotopomers of water. The threshold sensitivity of the spectrometer was defined from the signal/noise ratio and from the recorded water lines with minimal intensities.



12.
Filamentation length of high-power sharply focused femtosecond laser radiation in air. Effect of light beam size

D.V. Apeksimov, O.A. Bukin, E.E. Bykova, Yu.E. Geints, S.S. Golik, A.A. Zemlyanov, A.M. Kabanov, G.G. Matvienko
Keywords: ultrashort laser radiation, sharp focusing, filamentation, plasma channel, Kerr effect

Abstract >>
The results of the laboratory experiments on measurements of length and position of filamentation zone of femtosecond laser GW radiation at wavelengths of 800 and 400 nm with millimeter-sized aperture propagating in air under conditions of sharp external focusing are presented. Dependencies of length of the radiation filamentation zone on its initial radius and power are studied. Qualitatively new regularity is obtained, which consists in invariance of the observed length of the beam filamentation zone with respect to variation of its diameter with the assumption of equality of the initial intensities. The regularity is not a characteristic of collimated radiation and connected with geometrical focusing dominance over Kerr self-focusing of the beam during filament formation.



13.
The passive monostatic method of estimation of the height and speed of the clouds movement

V.P. Galileyskii, A.I. Grishin, A.M. Morozov
Keywords: the cloud height, the velocity of the clouds, a digital image of the cloud field, the angular velocity

Abstract >>
A method of estimating the height and speed of movement of clouds from observations of the angular velocities at different points in the cloud field is considered. We discuss the hardware implementation of this method.