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2013 year, number 1

1.
Analysis of the Effect of Climate-Depending Factors on the Formation of Zooplankton Communities of Arctic Lakes in the Anabar River Basin

L. A. FROLOVA1, L. B. NAZAROVA2, L. A. PESTRYAKOVA3, U. HERZSCHUH1
1Kazan (Privolzhskiy) Federal University, 420008, Kazan, Kremlevskaya str., 18
2Alfred Vegener Institute of Polar and Marine Research, 14473, Germany, Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, A43
3North-East Federal University, 677891, Yakutsk, Belinsky str., 58
Keywords: zooplankton, Arctic lakes, indirect ordination method, canonical concordance analysis
Pages: 3-15

Abstract >>
Main functionl and structural characteristics of zooplankton communities of 35 arctic lakes from catchment basin of the Anabar river (Yakutia) were analyzed. The ecological state of the lakes was evaluated. CCA has revealed main abiotic factors that have the greatest influence on the formation and structuring of zooplankton communities.



2.
Larval Trematodes in Lymnaea saridalensis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) from Chany Lake (the South of West Siberia)

S. V. VODYANITSKAYA, N. I. YURLOVA
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
Yurlova@ngs.ru
Keywords: trematoda, larval trematoda, freshwater pulmonata mollusks, Lymnea saridalensis, Lake Chany, south of West Siberia
Pages: 17-25

Abstract >>
The results of long-term (1993–1996, 19992007) monitoring study of the species composition of trematode larvae parasitizing in their first intermediate hosts of Lymnaea (Stagnicola) saridalensis from Chany Lake, Western Siberia are presented. It was established that 50% of L. saridalensis population were infected with 11 trematode species of parthenitae and cercariae belonging to the families: Plagiorchiidae, Echinostomatidae, Diplostomatidae, Strigeidae, Notocotylidae, Schistosomatidae. Double infections were detected in 0.8% of infected snails. The trematodae of Plagiorchiidae family dominate in larval community. There is a very similar spectrum of the most common species of cercariae still stable during the period of study. Cercariae P. mutationis and P. multiglandularis are registered for the first time in Lymnaea saridalensis snail in West Siberia.



3.
Landscape-Ecological Patterns of Earthworms Distribution in Soils of the Southern Part of Middle Siberia

E. P. BESSOLITSYNA
V. B. Sochava Institute of Geography SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, / 379, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 1
bessol@irigs.irk.ru
Keywords: number and biomass of earthworms, structure of communities, soil, ecological factors, landscape distribution, anthropogenic impact
Pages: 27-36

Abstract >>
The structure of earthworm communities and their distribution in the ecosystems of the southern part of Middle Siberia at the local (biogeocenotic), topological (facies) and landscape-regional levels were studied. Long-term observations from permanent stations were used to construct schematic maps portraying the landscape-ecological patterns of variation in quantitative characteristics and species composition of lumbricides depending on abiotic factors and anthropogenic impact.



4.
Quantitative Estimation of the Role of ithyniidae Snails (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in the Ecosystems of the South of West Siberia (Russia)

E. A. SERBINA
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
serbin@ngs.ru
Keywords: Gastropoda, ithyniidae snails, abundance, biomass, trematod, Shannons index
Pages: 37-44

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of species composition, abundance and biomass of Gastropoda in the ecosystems of the south of West Siberia are presented, for the Karasuk river and Lake Krotovo (Karasuk District of the Novosibirsk Region) as examples. We detected 18 species of 7 families: Lymneidae, Planorbidae, Bulinidae, Bithynhdae, Physidae, Succineidae, Zonitidae. The fractions of mollusks of the ithyniidae family among Gastropoda in the species composition, abundance and biomass were evaluated; their role as the hosts for 20 trematode species of 11 families was revealed. The species diversity of mollusks and trematodes was estimated using the K. Shannon – U. Weaver index.



5.
Vertical Distribution of Collembola, Lumbricidae and Elateridae in Alluvial Soil of Flood Plain Forests

A. A. KOLESNIKOVA, A. A. TASKAEVA, E. M. LAPTEVA, S. V. DEGTEVA
Institute of Biology Komi Scientific Center UrB RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya, 28
kolesnikova@ib.komisc.ru
Keywords: collembolas, earth worms, snapping beetles (wireworms), composition, vertical distribution, alluvial soil, flood plain forest
Pages: 45-55

Abstract >>
Species composition, number and vertical distribution of Collembola (53), Lumbricidae (6) and Elateridae (12 species) in alluvial soil of middle taiga flood plain forests were evaluated. The role of separate species in the formation of invertebrate communities in various biotopes was demonstrated, the species adapted to increased humidity conditions were revealed. Preference of invertebrates in inhabiting the soils of higher elements of flood plain relief was detected. The effect of relative deepening of the groups of collembola and earth worms in overwetted soil of interhill troughs was revealed.



6.
New Bark Beetle Species Dryocoetes krivolutzkajae Mandelshtam, 2001 (Scolytidae), Discovered at Kamchatka

A. N. SMETANIN
Kamchatka branch of the Russian State University of Tourism and Service, 683902, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Biyskaya str., 8a
Smetanin@yandex.ru
Keywords: bark beetle, Rhodiola rosea L, Verkhoturov island, coastal terraces, ecology
Pages: 57-59

Abstract >>
Discovery of bark beetle Dryocoetes krivolutzkajae Mandelshtam, 2001 (Scolytidae) (Crassulaceae) on the Verkhoturov island (Bering sea, North-Eastern Kamchatka) in the roots of Rhodiola rosea L. is reported. This is the first and solitary bark beetle of tundra forestless landscapes; the species is ranked as endemics of Kamchatka and Russia in general.



7.
The Influence of Colour Preferences on the Foraging Behavior of Pieris napi L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)

O. K. NUZHNOVA, N. V. VASILEVSKAYA
Murmansk State Pedagogical University, 183720, Murmansk, Kapitan Egorov str., 15
nujnovaolga84@mail.ru
Keywords: Pieris napi, behavioral experiment, color preferences, foraging behavior
Pages: 61-67

Abstract >>
Color preferences of Pieris napi (Linnaeus, 1758) in relation to its foraging behavior were investigated in the experiment with artificial flower models. It was revealed that newly emerged inexperienced butterflies searching for nectar prefer visiting blue or red flower models, yellow ones are chosen considerably more rarely. Subsequently the individuals exhibit color constancy, showing a strong preference for the first chosen color. Males and females of the studied species have the same color preferences.



8.
Features of the Summer Distribution of Birds in the Central Altay

E. N. BOCHKAREVA1,2, S. G. LIVANOV1,3, K. V. TOROPOV1, N. P. MALKOV4
1Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
benbirds@mail.ru
2State Natural Reserve “Tigirekskiy”, 656049, Barnaul, Nikitin str., 111
3State Natural Reserve Denezhkin Kamen, 624480, Severouralsk, Lenin str., 6
4Gorno-ltaysk State University, 649000, Gorno-Altaysk, Lenkin str., 1
Keywords: birds, species classification, distribution, the Central Altay
Pages: 69-76

Abstract >>
Results of bird route surveys over the territory of the Central Altay during summer seasons of the years 1968–2001 were analyzed. Hierarchic classifications of species by the similarities of residence and distribution were compiled on the basis of multivariate factor analysis. The basic environmental factors determining non-uniformity of bird distribution were revealed. It was demonstrated that the classifications of bird species in the central Altay province and in the Altay physiogeographic mountainous region in general are close to each other in their structures. The provincial specificity of distribution of bird enhances with an increase in the altitude of the territory.



9.
Changes in the Vegetation Cover of Ostrovnoy Peninsula (Tauysk Bay, the Sea of Okhotsk) under the Influence of Sea Birds

O. A. MOCHALOVA, M. G. KHOREVA
Institute of Biological Problems of the North FEB RAS, 685000, Magadan, Portovaya str., 18
mochalova@inbox.ru
Keywords: ornithogenic action, flora, vegetation, sea birds, North of the Okhotsk sea
Pages: 77-86

Abstract >>
Changes of the vegetation on Ostrovnoy peninsula with its large rookery of sea birds are described. The number of birds increased substantially since early 1990es. The most intensive effect of birds falls at the middle of 2000es, resulting in the disappearance of about ten species from the flora, while the dry grass meadow was substituted by ornithogenic reedgrass-wormwood meadow. At present the action of birds somewhat weakened, and changes in the composition of vegetation slowed down; partial recovery of thr grass cover on previously distorted regions is observed. The equilibrium in the “island” ecosystem is disturbed. Further processes that will take place in the vegetation cover are unpredictable yet and depend first of all on the dynamics of bird number.



10.
Ecology of the Range, Nesting and Migrations of the Eastern Population of Siberian Crane ( Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773)

N. I. GERMOGENOV, N. G. SOLOMONOV, A. E. PSHENNIKOV, A. G. DEGTYAREV, S. M. SLEPTSOV, N. N. EGOROV, I. P. BYSYKATOVA, M. V. VLADIMIRTSEVA, V. V. OKONESHNIKOV
Institute of Biological Problems of Cryolitozone SB RAS, 677891, Yakutsk, Lenin ave., 41
bio@ibpc.ysn.ru
Keywords: range, breeding ground, migration, reproduction, Eastern Yakutia, China
Pages: 87-99

Abstract >>
The structure of Siberian Crane range and population in the regular breeding area, in the tundra of north-eastern Yakutia, as well as migration terms, intensity, routes and transit stops were studied. Territorial pairs (71.7–97.1 % of summer population) represented by birds in ages of +8 +21, mainly 20 (45.4 %) years old in 2006, held permanently in an area of 7.316.5 km2, regardless of their participation in breeding. Breeding success of the population varies from 4.38.7 to 65.083.3% and depends on climatic conditions during the beginning of egg-laying. The climatic conditions are unpredictable from year to year and notable for seasonal volatility. For this reason, the population has generations that are particularly vulnerable to natural eliminating factors because of low number. Bird migration in Yakutia occurs in a narrow corridor and most intensively in the valley of the Middle Aldan. From 30 to 50 % of the total population are visually counted here at the fall time.



11.
Ecological Features of Booted Warbler Hippolais caligata in the Baraba Forest-Steppe

V. M. CHERNYSHOV
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
chernyshov@ngs.ru
Keywords: Hippolais caligata, egg-laying period, clutch size, egg size variability, nest predation, reproduction efficiency, Hippolais caligata
Pages: 101-109

Abstract >>
Ecological features of booted warbler in the central part of its range were analyzed on the basis of the data collected in 1973–2005 in the vicinity of Lake Chany (south of West Siberia). Special attention was paid to the parameters of reproduction as the basis of adaptations of this species to habitat condtiions.



12.
Theriofaunistic Zoning of Northern Eurasia

Yu. S. RAVKIN1,2, I. N. BOGOMOLOVA2, O. N. NIKOLAEVA3
1Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin ave., 36
zm@eco.nsc.ru
2Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
3Siberian State Geodesic Academy, 630108, Novosibirsk, Plakhotny str., 10
rektorat@ssga.ru
Keywords: zoning, fauna, mammals, Palaearctic, Northern Eurasia, cluster analysis, factors, correlation
Pages: 111-121

Abstract >>
For the purpose of zoning on the basis of theriofauna, Northern Eurasia taken within the boundaries of the USSR in 1991, was divided into 245 grounds. This was made over the vegetation map of the world with plotting scale 1 2 000 000 so that each ground occupied a territory within the limits of natural subzone extended over the latitude for 10°. A list of met species was compiled for the ranges of mammals. Jacquard quotients of similarity were calculated according to these lists; the quotients were taken as the basis to perform cluster analysis of theriofauna of the assigned grounds. The hierarchic classification was composed on the basis of calculation results; it includes three theriofaunistic regions divided into seven subregions that can be represented in the form of two series of changes, mainly on the islands or on the continent. All the subregions except one were divided into 18 provinces and 17 districts; one of the districts was divided into four subdistricts. Environmental factors correlating with theriofaunistic inhomogeneity of the studied territory were revealed. The proposed division is 1.9–3 times more informative than previously developed schemes and takes into account 69 % dispersion of similarity coefficients of the faunas of specific regions (coefficient of multiple correlation is 0.83). Connection with environmental factors and natural regimes may explain 83 % of the inhomogeneity of theriofauna (correlation coefficient is 0.91). Comparing the results of zoning carried out over different classes of ground vertebrates we followed substantial similarity of the reasons of faunas inhomogeneity (zonal features, provincial features, heat supply and the integral effect of these factors). Along with this, the differences in tolerance to environment between the considered classes of animals raise during zoning substantial mismatch of the boundaries of assigned taxons and their hierarchy. Because of this, the general concept concerning inhomogeneity of the fauna of ground vertebrata can be achieved only after the joint analysis of their fauna in general.



13.
Mammals of the Periglacial Hyperzone of the End of Pleistocene and the Formation of the Modern Rodent Fauna of the Mountains of West and Middle Siberia

T. A. DUPAL1, O. V. ANDRENKO2, V. V. VINOGRADOV3
1Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, 630091, Novosibirsk, Frunze str., 11
gf@eco.nsc.ru
2Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, 660022, Krasnoyarsk, Partizan Zheleznyak str., 1
3Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, A. Lebedeva str., 89
vlad-vin@yandex.ru
Keywords: late Pleistocene, Holocene, fauna, rodents, mountains, West and Middle Siberia
Pages: 123-134

Abstract >>
Fossil and modern faunas of small mammals of the end of Pleistocene to modern time in the south of West and Middle Siberia were anlyzed. It is shown that during Sartan the typical hyperborean complex of mammals was spread to the middle reach of the Yenisey. In the north-west of the Altay, the hyperborean complex of the mammals of southern type existed at the end of Pleistocene; it had its specific regional features. Warming and an increase in humidity in Holocene caused the disappearance of periglacial landscape and reduction of the area occupied by the tundra-steppe ecotopes. Expansion of the forest belt caused degradation of the hyperborean complex of mammals. In the second half of Holocene, the formation of forest and forest-steppe complexes of small mammals occurred.



14.
Group and Regional Specificity of ear Trees

S. V. PUCHKOVSKY
Udmurt State University, 426034, Izhevsk, Universitetskaya str., 1
vpuch@mail.ru
Keywords: reserves, bear trees, marks, natural park, marking regime
Pages: 135-144

Abstract >>
Data on population communicative systems of brown bear obtained in the reserves of the Upper Pechora (2002, 2004 and 2005) and West Sayan (2007–2009) were compared. The described bear trees were subdivided according to the marking regime into four groups. The fractions of bear trees of different groups, intensity of marking and occurrence of the marks of 18 types were determined, Explanations of the originality of bear trees from different groups were proposed. Differences between the bears of the Upper Pechora and West Sayan in the parameters of communicative systems under discussion were revealed. The possibilities to use these parameters for monitoring the brown bear populations are discussed.



15.
Behavior of Asiatic Black Bear Cubs (Ursus (Selenarctos)thibetanus G. Cuvier, 1823) in the Process of Adaptation to Natural Environment

K. V. SKRIPOVA
Ussuri reserve FEB RAS, 692519, Ussuriysk, Nekrasov str., 1
medvedi_2003@rambler.ru
Keywords: black bear, orphaned bear cubs, adaptive complexes, behavior types, reserve, reintroduction
Pages: 145-153

Abstract >>
The work presents a detailed description of the basic types of behavior of Asiatic black bears cubs, which were fostered for reintroduction. The research of behavior of orphaned bear cubs in the Ussuri reserve of the Primorye Territory showed that behavior formation is caused by the parameters of the environment among which trees and bushes are the most influential ones. Bear cubs start to eat vegetative parts of plants since the age of 2 months. Trees are used by them for games and as refuges. The skills of defensive behavior initially arising in games on a congenital basis help further survival. This is confirmed by the data received after placing bear cubs in natural environment and recognizing their destiny in the wild. Success of the development of adaptive behavior showed the correctness of elaborated techniques of fostering.



16.
Basic Causes of the Death of Hoofed Mammals in the Ussury Reserve and at the Adjacent Territory

M. V. MASLOV, V. A. KOVALEV
Biological and Soil Institute of the Far East Branch of RAS, 690022, Vladivostok, 100-letiya Vladivostoka ave., 159
nippon_mvm@mail.ru
Keywords: the Ussury reserve, hoofed mammals, death causes, predators, hunting, poaching, exhaustion
Pages: 155-163

Abstract >>
Basic causes of the death of hoofed mammals in the Ussury Reserve and at the adjacent territory during the years 1974 to 2011 are hunting and poaching, tiger predatoriness and exhaustion. The largest number of established death facts since 90es relate to sika deer because this species became dominating in the fauna of hoofed mammals in the reserve as a result of acclimatization. Before 80es, the main preys for tigers were red deer (52 %) and wild boars (44 %); the fraction of sika deer in preys was 4 %. During the recent 10 years, the fraction of sika deer in the trophic link tiger-prey in separate stations of the reserve is 68 %, wild boar 20.6 %, red deer 6.9 %.