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2013 year, number 1

1.
Model of a Persistent Photodetector for Analyzing the Threshold Sensitivity in the Problem of Detection of a Moving Point Object

V. A. Ivanov, V. S. Kirichuk
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
vaivanov@iae.nsk.su
Keywords: photodetector, direction-finding characteristic, point object
Pages: 3-10

Abstract >>
A model of the direction-finding characteristic of a moving point object for a persistent photodetector is proposed. The model ensures the calculation of the direction-finding characteristic as a function of photodetector parameters and object velocity, which form the basis for calculating the probability of detection of moving point objects. Results of numerical experiments are reported



2.
Detection of Dynamic Objects on the Basis of Space-Time Anomalies in Video Sequences

S. M. Borzov
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
borzov@iae.nsk.su
Keywords: search for dynamic objects, small-size objects, processing of IR video sequences, space-time anomalies
Pages: 11-17

Abstract >>
Codes and algorithms are developed for detecting small-size dynamic thermal objects on the basis of searching for space-time anomalies in the observation field formed by a sequence of infrared images. Results of studying the method effectiveness, based on data obtained under conditions of a real background-target environment, are presented



3.
Method of Choosing the Best Distribution Law for a Random Variable Based on Experimental Data

I. A. Klyavin1, A. N. Tyrsin2
1Chelyabinsk State University, ul. Br. Kashirinykh 129, Chelyabinsk, 454021 Russia
2ivank@mail.ru
2Reliability and Life of Large Systems and Machines Scientific-Engineering Center, ul. Studencheskaya 54a, Ekaterinburg, 620049 Russia
at2001@yandex.ru
Keywords: random variable, distribution law, probability density, random sampling, Monte Carlo statistical simulation, goodness-of-fit test
Pages: 18-25

Abstract >>
This paper describes a new method for choosing a distribution law from a given set of experimental data that provides the best fit to a measured random variable. The method is based on a comparison of empirical distributions constructed for the original sample with the set of given laws using a continuous mapping of the distribution function onto the interval [0, 1]. As a result, the distribution for which the corresponding value of the functional is maximal is taken as the most probable distribution law for the original sample. Examples of implementing the method using statistical Monte Carlo simulation are given



4.
Algorithms of Calculating of Approximating Spline Functions with Optimization of the Location of Spline Nodes

V. G. Getmanov
Geophysical Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Molodezhnaya 3, Moscow, 119926 Russia
v.getmanov@gcras.ru
Keywords: digital filtering, approximation, optimization, spline functions, spline nodes
Pages: 26-41

Abstract >>
The problem of computing spline approximation functions taking into account the possibility of optimizing the location of spline nodes is considered. Algorithms are developed to compute spline approximation functions with free conditions at the ends of observation intervals, with controlling of splines by the zero and first derivatives at the ends of observation intervals, and with the provision of optimal locations of spline nodes. The results of mathematical modeling of the algorithms for computing spline approximation functions are presented



5.
Application of the Fractal Dimension for Estimating Surface Images Obtained by Various Detectors

S. V. Panin1, Yu. A. Altukhov1, P. S. Lyubutin1, A. V. Byakov1, S. A. Khizhnyak2
1Institute of Strength Physics and Material Science, pr. Akademicheskii 2/4, Tomsk, 634021 Russia
vp@ispms.tsc.ru
2Joint-Stock Company “Sykhoi Design Bureau”, ul. Polikarpova 23B, Moscow, 125284 Russia
Keywords: fractal dimension, image processing, filtration, optical image, noise
Pages: 42-49

Abstract >>
The influence of various methods of obtaining surface images on the calculated value of their fractal dimension as a quantitative characteristic of the surface state is studied. It is demonstrated that images obtained both by a scanning electron microscope and by a photocamera are characterized by a noticeable noise level, which alters the behavior of the fractal dimension. Various methods of correction of the observed effect are discussed



6.
Statistical Model of Exchange Rate Formation

E. L. Kuleshov
Far Eastern Federal University, ul. Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok, 690950 Russia
kuleshov@lemoi.phys.dvgu.ru
Keywords: random process, exchange rate, covariance function, spectral density, autoregression processes, Elliott waves
Pages: 50-60

Abstract >>
The exchange rate formation process is represented as the sum of a low-frequency deterministic trend and a high-frequency stationary random component for which the covariance function, the spectral density, and the increment correlation function are obtained. Theoretical results are in good agreement with the results of processing of observed data. The model explains the occurrence of Elliott waves on exchange rate paths and generates a parametric family of random processes with spectral characteristics ranging from white noise to a first-order autoregression process



7.
Parametric Synthesis of Technical Systems Based on the Linear Approximation of the Operational Capability Range

A. B. Saushev
St. Petersburg State University for Water Communications, ul. Dvinskaya 5/7, St. Petersburg, 198035 Russia
saushev@bk.ru
Keywords: parametric synthesis, operational capability range, operational capability reserve, R-functions
Pages: 61-67

Abstract >>
A method for determining the optimal internal parameters of technical systems, based on the analytical description of the operational capability range, which is defined as a set of linear constraints, is considered. An expression for the objective function, which allows one to use any known search method for optimizing the system by the criterion of the operational capability reserve, is derived



8.
Method of Optical Tomography for Studying the Amplitude and Phase Components of a Volume Golographic Grating

P. E. Tverdokhleb, Yu. A. Shchepetkin
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
tverdokhleb@iae.nsk.su
Keywords: acousto-optical scanning, amplitude-phase grating, Doppler tomography, collinear heterodyning, coupled-mode approach, testing of light-sensitive materials
Pages: 68-79

Abstract >>
By solving coupled-mode equations in laser Doppler tomography, expressions for output signals are found, which describe light diffraction on a volume grating with a mutual (in the general case) shift of the amplitude and phase components. Signal parameters that are least prone to the influence of uncontrolled characteristics of the optical system and studied medium are found. The phase shift between the signals of a two-channel heterodyne detector of scattered light is obtained as a function of the character of the amplitude-phase components of the test grating



9.
Experimental Study of a Model System of Dynamic Scene Generation for Testing Infrared Imaging Systems

I. S. Gibin, V. I. Kozik, E. S. Nezhevenko
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
nejevenko@iae.nsk.su
Keywords: DLP technologies, micromirror systems, infrared systems, spectral range, IR image
Pages: 80-85

Abstract >>
An experimental model of a test rig for formation of images in a computer and insertion of these images into the optical-electron path of an infrared imaging system is considered. Experiments on synthesizing images in the range of 3–5 µm and dynamic scenes are performed. Experimental estimates of the model test rig are given



10.
Diffractive Attenuators of Laser Radiation: Fabrication and Optical Characteristics

A. G. Poleshchuk, A. R. Sametov, V. V. Dontsova, R. V. Shimanskii
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
poleshchuk.a.g@iae.nsk.su
Keywords: diffraction, phase attenuators, circular diffraction gratings, variable transmission, powerful lasers
Pages: 86-95

Abstract >>
This paper reports on theoretical and experimental studies of a new class of zero-order diffractive elements — diffractive light attenuators with variable transmission. Results of tests of circular diffractive attenuators for wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm with amplitude and phase transmission functions are presented. Methods of fabrication of the attenuators are discussed, and the characteristics of prototype modles are considered. It is shown that phase attenuators in the form of embossed circular diffractive gratings with a period of 2 to 6 µm and a variable duty cycle are not selective to polarization and allow controlling the radiation power of pulsed (including femtosecond) and continuous lasers over a wide range (> 100 times)



11.
Microbeam X-ray Lithography Apparatus for Direct Production of Deep LIGA Structures

B. G. Gol’denberg, E. F. Reznikova, A. G. Lemzyakov, V. F. Pindyurin
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent’eva 11, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
goldenberg@inp.nsk.su
Keywords: synchrotron radiation, X-ray lithography, LIGA technology
Pages: 96-102

Abstract >>
A microbeam X-ray lithography apparatus, a new device for the direct production of microstructures in thick layers of X-ray resists, in particular, for the fabrication of X-ray lithography masks, was developed on the basis at the LIGA station of the VEPP-3 storage ring of the Siberian Center of Synchrotron and Terahertz Radiation. A microstructure pattern with given arbitrary topology was produced directly in a SU-8 negative resist layer up to 1 mm thick on a substrate moved in a vector mode using a collimated beam of synchrotron radiation with a special software. The design of the device and its technological capabilities and limitations are described. Examples of the fabricated microstructures with a high aspect ratio and X-ray lithography masks are presented



12.
Magneto-Optical Resonances in Cells with an Antirelaxation Coating for Elliptically Polarized Radiation

K. A. Nasyrov
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russia Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
nasyrov@iae.nsk.su
Keywords: magneto-optical resonance, elliptical polarization of radiation, optical Bloch equations
Pages: 103-110

Abstract >>
It is predicted theoretically that the combination of elliptically polarized radiation and an antirelaxation coating of the walls of a vacuum cell containing alkali metal vapor provides an asymmetric shape of the magneto-optical resonance. The cause of the asymmetry is the optical pumping of the ground-state hyperfine component which is not destroyed upon collision of the atom with the wall. The effect is most pronounced when the laser frequency is tuned to the resonance with the the FF + 1 transition



13.
Increasing the Mechanical Strength of Hybrid Photodetectors Based on Mercury—CadmiumTelluride Heteroepitaxial Layers

A. R. Novoselov, I. G. Kosulina, A. G. Klimenko, N. A. Valisheva, V. V. Vasil’ev, S. A. Dvoretskii
Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent’eva 13, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
novoselov@isp.nsc.ru
Keywords: photodetector, heteroepitaxial layers of mercury—cadmium—tellurium, indium bumps
Pages: 111-118

Abstract >>
Results of the research aimed at improving the strength of hybrid photodetectors (PD) based on mercury—cadmiumtelluride heteroepitaxial layers are presented. It is shown that annealing of silicon multiplexers at 157 ºC in a hydrogen flow in vacuum changes the shape of indium bumps to hemispherical and levels off their mechanical properties over the plate. Controlled recovery of the natural curvature of silicon multiplexer plates and photosensitive element arrays in hybrid photodetectors at 120 ºC extends their operation time. A sequence of technological operations on PD hybridization providing an increase in the efforts needed for separating photosensitive elements from silicon multiplexers at least by 75 % compared to the PD with fused indium bumps is proposed



14.
Response of Nanowire Sensors to Adsorption of Neutral Particles

M. A. Il’nitskii, O. V. Naumov, L. N. Safronov, V. P. Popov
Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrent’eva 13, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
ilnitsky@isp.nsc.ru
Keywords: nanowires, silicon-on-insulator, sensor, computer simulation
Pages: 119-125

Abstract >>
Results of numerical 2D and 3D-simulations of the performance of nanowire sensors on the basis of silicon-on-insulator structures aimed at determining the optimum conditions for the response to dielectric particles, are given. The effect of screening of nanowires by dielectric particles in solutions with pH = 7 used as a medium for transporting biological objects is considered