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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2012 year, number 1

1.
Spatial-Typological Arrangement of Animal Assemblages (Results and Conclusions)

Y. S. Ravkin
Institute of Systematics and Ecoclogy of Animals SB RAS; Tomsk State University
zm@eco.nsc.ru
Keywords: zoogeography, ecology, factors, animal assemblages, fauna, ecosystems, West Siberia, Northern Eurasia
Pages: 3-25

Abstract >>
Results and conclusions of the investigations carried out by the laboratory of Zoological Monitoring (Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS) during 50 years of work in the area of factor zoogeography are reported in brief. The review deals with the distribution and number of land animals, changes in the appearance of their assemblages over the territory of West Siberian Plain, the Altay and adjacent territories, as well as faunistic regioning of Northern Eurasia.



2.
West Siberian Forest-Steppe as an Agglomeration of Biodiversity, Universal Biom and Reserve of Forthcoming Biogeographical Rearrangements

V. G. Mordkovich
Siberian Zoological Museum; Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS
mu4@eco.nsc.ru
Keywords: forest-steppe, biodiversity, community, landscape ecology, population structure
Pages: 27-34

Abstract >>
Forest-steppe is usually characterized as a mosaic marginal complex of biota at the junction of forest and steppe. Meanwhile, in the gradient of ecological conditions from the equator to the North Pole, the forest-steppe latitudes represent a band of ecological comfort for the biota. As a result, the maximum of the species diversity occurs here in the sequence of latitudinl zones. It is demonstrated that the fraction of insects in forest-steppe does not exceed 30 % as a total. The overwhelming majority of forest-steppe inhabitants are psychromesophiles with stress-tolerant vital strategy, able to penetrate the forest and steppe zones from the forest-steppe along the biotopes of transient positions.
Modern forest-steppe can be considered not as a faceless mix but a self-consistent biome that has, due to its universal properties, the decisive importance in maintaining the zonl order at the West Siberian Plain.



3.
Spatial-Typological Organization of the Soil Gamasina Mites (Acari, Mesostigmata) Population of the North-Eastern Altay II ommunication

I. I. Marchenko
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS
gamasin@rambler.ru
Keywords: soil Gamasina mites, Mesostigmata, population, abundance, species richness, environmental factors, spatial-typological organization, North-Eastern Altay
Pages: 35-47

Abstract >>
The second communication is devoted to the main features of the spatial nonuniformity of Mesostigmata mites populations at the territory of North-Eastern Altay according to the data of August 2006 and 2007. The dependence of changes in the population appearance on environmental factors is evaluated.



4.
Estimation of the Carry-Out of Matter from Water Bodies to Land by Dragonflies in the Forest-Steppe of West Siberia

O. N. Popova, A. Y. Haritonov
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS
popova.olga.nik@gmail.com
Keywords: dragonflies, water bodies, Baraba, forest-steppe, biomass, migration of matter in ecosystems
Pages: 49-56

Abstract >>
Results of the perennial monitoring of the number and distribution of dragonflies at the Chany ground in the Baraba forest-steppe are presented. Estimation of the carry-out of the biomass by dragonflies from water bodies to land ecosystems is given. The data presented provide evidence of the important role of dragonflies in the migration of matter from water bodies to land.



5.
Some Methodical Aspects of the Experiments Aimed at the Studies of Nutrition of Gipsy-Moth Caterpillars

E. M. Andreeva
Botanical Garden of UrB RAS, Laboratory of Plant Protection
e_m_andreeva@mail.ru
Keywords: gipsy-moth, trophic indices, population structure, duration of experiments
Pages: 57-64

Abstract >>
It is demonstrated that it is important to take into account a number of factors when planning experiments on the studies of trophic indices of gipsy-moth caterpillars. These factors include first of all the population characteristics of the species - sexual and age structure changing annually. The final results of the investigation are also affected by some methodical approaches and features of experiments, in particular duration (especially in the long-run ages of caterpillars) and the amount of sampling, which must increase with an increase in the age of caterpillars. The reasonability of using individual breeding of caterpillars in the studies of nutrition of the species is considered.



6.
Ecological Characterization of Calliphorides

S. D. Artamonov, S. D. Artamonov
Affiliation of the Far East Federal University
artamonov-sd@yandex.ru
Keywords: clliphorides, trophic groupings, ecological complexes, imaginal feeding, synnthropic species
Pages: 65-70

Abstract >>
Features of pre-imaginal and imaginal feeding of calliphorides of the Far Eastern region of Russia are considered, ecological complexes and trophic groupings are distinguished, their species composition is indicated. Aspects concerning synanthropism of calliphorides are discussed.



7.
Dynamics of Biological Indices of Nonmigratory and Invader Fish in the Basin of the Lower Tom River

V. I. Romanov1, I. B. Babkina1, O. G. Karmanova1, A. P. Petlina1, N. V. Skalon2, T. V. Yurakova1
1 Tomsk State University
2 Kemerovo State University
icht@bio.tsu.ru, nskalon@kemsu.ru
Keywords: species composition, distribution, fertility, size and age, invader fish
Pages: 71-80

Abstract >>
The species composition and dominating complexes of fish in catches are considered. The fraction of mass fish species in catches is shown (small rivers and the channel zone). The structural (size, age) and functional (fertility) indices of some nonmigratory and invader fish species are characterized. Over the widespread and numerous fish species, the major biological parameters are considered in the spatial-temporal aspect.



8.
Morphological Features of Amur Sleeper Perccottus glenii (Perciformes, Eleotrididae) Introduced into Waterbodies of the European Part of Russia

A. N. Kasyanov, . V. Goroshkva
I. D. Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS
kasyanov@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru, t_goroshkova@mail.ru
Keywords: amur sleeper, invader, meristic characters, waterbodies of different type, aquired range
Pages: 81-96

Abstract >>
Data on 8 morphological features of Amur sleeper populations of acquired (29 populations) (50.0-62.2) range in the European part of Russia and their comparison with those of the natural (4 populations) (43.5-48.2) range is given for the first time. It seems most probable that the formation of a certain number of vertebrae in the abdominal, transitional and caudal sections of the axial skeleton in the observed population groups of Amur sleeper is due to similar temperature regimes of these waterbodies.



9.
Wild Berry Plants and Carpophagous Birds in the Taiga Zone of the Southern Russian Far East

V. A. Nechaev1, A. A. Nechaev2
1 Institute of Biology and Soil Science FED RAS
2 Federal State Organization Far Eastern Forestry Research Institute
birds@ibss.dvo.ru, dvniilh@gmail.com
Keywords: wild berry plants, the south of Russian Far East taiga zone, carpophagous birds, role of birds in wild berry seed dissemination
Pages: 97-106

Abstract >>
Information about the role of birds in dissemination of wild berry plants in the south of the Russian Far East taiga zone is presented, based on the authors' long-term ecological investigations, and reviewed references are given. The dominant and subdominant species of carpophagous birds are determined. The participation of birds in dissemination of the seeds of wild berry plants during the periods of nomad and seasonal migrations is discussed.



10.
Spatial-Typological Structure of the Bird Population in the Coniferous-Deciduous Forests of Northern Privolzhje

O. S. Noskova
N. I. Labachevsky Nizhniy Novgorod State Universiry
luchico@mail.ru
Keywords: bird population, Northern Privolzhje, classification, spatial structure, factor
Pages: 107-114

Abstract >>
On the basis of the materials collected during continuous all-year-round routing censuses, the analysis of territorial non-uniformity of bird populations of the coniferous-deciduous forests in Northern Privolzhje was carried out for the first time, and the major factors defining it were revealed. The spatial-temporal classification of the bird population the surveyed territory was made, the quantitative estimation of force and the communication generality between the spatial non-uniformity of bird populations and the factors of environment is given. The spatial-temporal structure of bird populations is determined mainly by forestation and seasonal variability in heat presence, and also by the structure of forest breeds, building, and the relief.



11.
New Data on Birds and Mammals Population of the Sette-Daban Mountain Ridge

A. P. Isaev, V. K. Vasilieva, Z. Z. Borisov, I. M. Okhlopkov
Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone SB RAS
mountlab@ibpc.ysn.ru, mountlab@ibpc.ysn.ru, mountlab@ibpc.ysn.ru, mountlab@ibpc.ysn.ru
Keywords: Sette-Daban Mountain Ridge, birds, mammals, density of population, specific variety, rare species
Pages: 115-122

Abstract >>
Originl materials on the animal world of the northern macro-slope of the Sette-Daban Mountain Ridge are presented. The characteristics of birds and mammals population in different habitats in the basin of the Allah-Yun river are presented.



12.
Small mammals at the south-east of Tverskaia area. ommunication 2. Diversity, population density, and biomass

N. A. Shchipanov1, A. V. Kouptzov1, A. A. Kalinin1, T. B. Demidova1, V. Y. Oleinichenko2, M. G. Lyapina1, D. Y. Aleksandrov1, A. A. Raspopova1, S. V. Pavlova1, P. A. Tumasian1
1 A. N. Severtsov Institute of the Problems of Ecology and Evolution RAS
2 M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
shchia@mail.ru
Keywords: biodiversity, small mammals, fauna, Tverskaia area, pitfalls, snap-traps, life-traps
Pages: 123-129

Abstract >>
The anlyses of biotic diversity using pictographs show the difference in deviation of the diversity under long-term period of deforestation and under short-term violation of forest habitats. The biomass of small mammals was similar in all forest habitats; it was higher at the meadow and dropped in the young (9 years) forest at the former field. Though the numbers of species as well as the diversity of local communities of small mammals vary, the biomass of residents was similar in forest habitats. Nonresident population contributes to general biomass the more the greater habitat is deteriorated. The relevant sustainability of general biomass is regarded in terms of biocenotic compensation. Biocenosis is regarded as a system having an inclination to "autonomic" functioning.



13.
Perennial Dynamics and Structure of the Community of Shrews

V. V. Vinogradov
V. P. Astafyev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University
vlad-vin@yandex.ru
Keywords: shrews, community, perennial dynamics, environmental factors
Pages: 131-139

Abstract >>
The dynamics of shrew community in the mountainous taiga of the Eastern Sayan during the years 1981 to 2010 is considered. The work was carried out at the territory of Stolby reserve. The structure of the community, the duration of cyclic changes in different species, effect of succession and climatic processes on the composition and structure of the community are studied.



14.
On the Studies of the Selectivity of Marking Behavior of Brown Bear over the Tree Diameter

S. V. Puchkovskiy, M. S. Buynovskaya, D. K. Voronetskaya, G. V. Neustroev
Udmurt State University
svpuch@mail.ru
Keywords: selectivity, bear tree, mark
Pages: 141-147

Abstract >>
Original data on the diameter of bear trees and the trees in the stand were collected during the years 2002-2009 at the Upper Pechora and in the Western Sayan. The data were processed using the two-sample Stident's test and correlation analysis. For comparison, the published data on the thickness of bear trees are involved. Brown bears use the trees 2 to 89 cm in diameter for marking. As a rule, bear trees exceed the trees of the stand in the average diameter, which is the evidence of the selectivity of bears for the trees of larger diameter for marking.



15.
The Feeding of Stoat in Magadan Region

E. A. Dubinin
Institute of Biological Problems of the North FED RAS
edu@ibpn.ru
Keywords: stoat, feeding, seasonal and geographical variability, Magadan region
Pages: 149-155

Abstract >>
Common characteristics of stoats' diet in Magadan region are presented. It consists mainly of small murine rodents, namely red-backed voles of Clethrionomys genus; in Priokhotje it is C. rufocanus, and in the basin of the Kolyma river it is C. rutilus. The content of mammals in the diet of stoat decreases by approximately 20 % in the snow period of the year. The predator compensates this by feeding with fish collected from the bottom of the dried pools. Birds, insects, plant food play a small part in the feeding of stoat in Magadan region.



16.
Evaluation of the Effect of Ecological Factors on European Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1978) in Central Siberia

T. V. Kudryavtseva, M. N. Smirnov
Siberian Federal University
vik-okaemov@yandex.ru, vik-okaemov@yandex.ru
Keywords: Lepus europaeus, Central Siberia, ecological factors
Pages: 157-164

Abstract >>
Effect of climatic factors (height and density of snow cover, air temperature, precipitation), biotic factors (land and bird predators), and anthropogenic factors (agriculture, motor transport, hunting) on the dynamics of the number of Lepus europaeus in separate pockets of its habitation is evaluated.



17.
Marking Activity of Common Beaver (Castor fiber L.) in the Settlements of Channel Type. Dynamic Aspect

A. V. Emelyanov, N. A. Chernova, D. V. Zotov, . . Kireev, K. A. Starkov
G. R. Derzhavin Tambov State University
EmelyanovAV@yandex.ru
Keywords: Castor fiber L., population ecology, territorial behavior, marking activity, chemicommunication
Pages: 165-171

Abstract >>
Features of the marking activities of beavers in the channel-type settlements are considered. It is established on the basis of the statistical data that the signal hillocks can be recommended for the studies of the dynamic indices of scent marking by beavers. On the basis of quantitative methods, the role of the level mode of water streams in the appearance of olfactory marks is demonstrated; as a result, the reciprocal dependence between these parameters is revealed.