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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2009 year, number 1

Investigation of Mercury Content in Natural Objects of West Siberia

E. E. Lyapina, E. A. Golovatskaya, I. I. Ippolitov
Keywords: mercury, bioindicators, monitoring, ecotoxicity, concentration
Pages: 3-8

Abstract >>
The accumulating abilities of various natural indicators of mercury pollution present in marsh and urban ecosystems are compared. The experimental data on mercury content in the atmospheric air, urban soil, peat, lichens, mosses, mushrooms and berries are reported.

Forms of Zinc Compounds in the Soil of the Semipalatinsk Region Near the Irtysh River under Polyelement and Zinc Kinds of Pollution

M. S. Panin, N. V. Kalentyeva
Keywords: soil, modeling of industry-related pollution, polyelement pollution, monoelement pollution, forms of compounds, soil components, element fixation mechanisms, competitive relations
Pages: 9-16

Abstract >>
The forms of zinc compounds under the polyelement and zinc kinds of pollution of light- and dark-chestnut soil are studied. It is established that the initial relations between the element forms changes under any kind of pollution. Zinc accumulation in the most mobile forms with an increase in soil pollution was detected for both kinds of pollution. In the case of the polyelement soil pollution, the mobility of the element is much higher than that in the case of the monoelement pollution. Different capacities of the soil kinds under investigation to zinc fixation were determined. It was revealed that the basic mechanism of zinc fixation in polluted soil is ion exchange absorption.

Radioactive Elements Scattering in the Environment in Pribaikalia (Communication 1. Uranium)

V. I. Grebenshchikova, N. A. Kitaev, E. E. Lustenberg, V. I. Medvedev, I. S. Lomovosov, A. N. Karchevsky
Keywords: radioactive elements, environment, soil, water, bottom sediments, bedrock, natural and industry-related sources
Pages: 17-28

Abstract >>
The results of reconnaissance estimation of the occurrence and scattering of uranium over different environmental components (bedrock, soil, bottom sediments, surface water) of Pribaikalia are reported.  Wide occurrence and high variability of the content of this element in the environment of this region are demonstrated; in some anomalous regions the uranium content many times exceeds the regional background level. A dual genesis of anomalous fields was established; it is natural and industry-related. The re-distribution of uranium between different components of the environment of Pribaikalia is essential.

Distribution of Microorganisms over the Ground Polluted with Oil Products in the Vadose and Saturation Zones

I. V. Trusey, A. Y. Ozersky, V. P. Ladygina, Y. L. Gurevich
Pages: 29-35

Abstract >>
The ground polluted with oil products was analyzed at a depth of 0,5-7,8 m (loamy soil), 11,5-13,0 m (gravelite), 13,0-15,0 m (siltstone). It was shown that the distribution of oil products and microorganisms in the ground over the profile depends on the hydrogeological properties of the rock (porosity, filtration coefficient). The number of aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms varied from 10-10 ufc/g, the fraction of hydrocarbon-oxidizing ones increased with depth from 30 to 85 %. The number of anaerobic microorganisms was comparable with the number of aerobic ones. The number of psychrotrophs and psychrophiles increases with depth; in the lower horizon these organisms prevail over the number of mesophiles.

The Associations of Soil Microorganisms in the Zone of Uranium Deposits of Central Aldan (South Yakutia)

T. I. Ivanova, N. P. Kuzmina, S. V. Petrova, A. P. Chevychelov, A. P. D'yachkovsky
Keywords: permafrost, uranium, soil, microorganisms, filamentous fungi, cellulolitic organisms, stability
Pages: 37-44

Abstract >>
Specific features of microbial colonies in frozen mountainous taiga industry-affected landscapes in the Elkon uranium ore region at the territory of Southern Yakutia are revealed: the high number of ecological trophic groups of microorganisms (2,0  10 - 7,6  10 c/g), comparable with the density of microbes in meadow steppe soil of Central Yakutia, and a special character of their distribution over the soil profile depending on the uranium content of the soil. In the soil of uranium-polluted pit, an increase in the number of individuals in al the investigated groups of microorganisms with a decrease in uranium content to 161 mg/kg. In other samples of this pit, disappearance or a decrease in the number of microorganisms by 1-2 orders of magnitude with an increase in uranium content of soil is observed. Unlike for the polluted pit, the number of microorganisms in the soil of native landscape remains high over the entire soil profile. Estimated correlation of the number of individuals of the basic ecological trophic groups of microorganisms with such factors as uranium content, temperature and humidity of soil showed that the connection with the concentration of this radionuclide was strongly negative in the radiation-polluted alluvial soil ( = -0,6), while a strict dependence between the number of microorganisms and soil temperature was revealed for the non-polluted soil ( =

Effect of Ecological Conditions on the Distribution of Functional Groups of Microorganisms in the Mineral Springs Khoito-Gol (the East Sayan)

E. V. Danilova, D. D. Barkhutova, A. V. Bryanskaya, Z. B. Namsaraev, B. B. Namsaraev
Keywords: mineral springs, microorganisms, microbial communities, microbial mats, production and destruction of the organic matter
Pages: 45-53

Abstract >>
The structure and function

Effect of Industrial Pollution on Forest Communities of Road Beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the Shelekhovo District of the Irkutsk Region

A. V. Shavrin
Keywords: bioindication, industrial pollution, forest communities of Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, the Irkutsk Region
Pages: 55-61

Abstract >>
For roove beetles in the Shelekhovo district of the Irkutsk Region as an example, the effect of industrial pollution on the forest communities is demonstrated. The taxonomic composition, relic categories, life forms, ecological and size groups, biotope membership are revealed, the degree of generality of roove beetle complexes at the investigated grounds are analyzed. It is stated that the number of ubiquists and saprophages decreases with an increase in the distance from the source of pollution; the index of species sensitivity to the anthropogenic stress is close to the critical one at the ground laid in Shelekhovo.

Features of the Element Composition of Pileate Fungi of Mountainous Altay

I. A. Gorbunova, K. P. Kutsenogii, G. A. Kovalskaya, O. V. Chankina, T. I. Savchenko
Keywords: macromycetes, pileate fungi, elemental composition, heavy metals, saprotrophs, the Katun reserve, X-ray fluorescence analysis method
Pages: 63-69

Abstract >>
The element composition of seven species of pileate fungi from the Ust-Koksa region of Mountainous Altay was investigated by means of X-ray fluorescence analysis involving the synchrotron radiation (SRXRF method) for the purpose of revealing the species concentrating heavy metals and evaluating the ecological status of the territory.

Comparative Analysis of Oxyphilicity and Cold-Preferability of Some Endemic Baikal and Siberian Kinds of Hydrobionts in Experiment

D. I. Stom, A. A. Kluchevskay, A. D. Stom, A. E. Balayan
Keywords: Baikal, immiscibility, Trichoptera, Turbellaria, cold-preferability, oxyphilicity
Pages: 71-76

Abstract >>
The ecological features of some faunistic groups of hydrobionts of the Baikal and Siberian faun

Structural Functional Organization of Larch Phytocenosis after Postfire Restoration Succession at the North of Central Siberia

I. M. Danilin
Keywords: larch phytocenosis, structural functionаl organization, restoration pyrogenic succession, Middle Siberia
Pages: 77-90

Abstract >>
Peculiarities of the post-fire development of larch () phytocenosis in the north of Central Siberia in Evenkia are considered. Morphological parameters of trees, the structure, growth and biological productivity of the larch tree stand, shrub layer, ground floor vegetation, and the accumulation of dead organic mass are analyzed and discussed.

Soil Formation During the Progressive Succession of Forest Ecosystems in the North

I. A. Likhanova, I. B. Archegova
Keywords: ecosystem, succession, intensive recovery methods, secondary soil
Pages: 91-98

Abstract >>
The data on the recovery of soil as the component of the ecosystem on the experimental grounds differing from each other in the methods of recovery works are presented. It is shown that a substantial intensification of soil recovery occurs when a set of methods aimed at the recovery of the biological circulation of the plant material is used, n

About the Studies of Space Structure of Zooperiphyton from the Ob River

T. A. Sharapova
Keywords: zooperiphyton, the Ob river, biomass, community, pollution
Pages: 99-104

Abstract >>
The data on the qualitative and quantitative composition of zooperiphyton from the Ob river in its mid- and downstream are reported, revealing the basic factors affecting its growth. Over the major part of the river length, the zooperiphyton constitutes a continuum which is disturbed at the regions subject to pollution. It is found that the communities with the domin

Organic Impurities in the Natural Water of the Tom River Basin

P. B. Kadychagov, I. V. Russkikh, E. A. Belitskaya
Keywords: хроматоgas chromatography - mass spectrometry, IR spectrometry, natural water, organic impurities, the Tom river basin
Pages: 105-112

Abstract >>
It is shown by means of gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and IR spectrometry that the formation of the composition of organic impurities in the water system of the Tom river basin occurs under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. The precedence of the latter is evidenced by the prevalence of the organic impurities originating from oil in the river region under investigation (paraffins, isoparaffins, naphthenes, aromatic hydrocarbons); other pollutants of anthropogenic origin are also present (phthalates, carboxylic acids and their esters, phosphates). The qualitative and quantitative composition of organic pollutants disposed into the river from each industrial zone is investigated.

Phytocenotic Organization of Algae Groupings of the Natural Phytocenoses of Dumps in the Kuznetsk Basin

N. A. Malakhova
Keywords: algae flora, algae groupings, dominant complexes
Pages: 113-117

Abstract >>
The features of the phytocenotic organization of algae groupings of dumps in the Kuznetsk Basin are considered. Algae groupings differing in composition of dominant species and biological spectra were revealed. In addition, some features of the vertical distribution of algae species were detected.

Plants and Birds Coast of the Okhotsk Sea: Equilibrium, Crisis, Adaptations

M. G. Khoreva, O. A. Mochalova
Keywords: vegetation, marine colonial birds, ornitogenic action, variety, adaptation, biomorphology
Pages: 119-125

Abstract >>
The problems concerning mutual relations of the sea colonial birds and plants on the northern coast of the Okhotsk sea are considered. The birds form huge flocks on small islands thus transforming the island landscape and forming specific vegetation in nesting sites. Depending on the intensity of ornithogenic load, different relations between the productivity of plant communities and their species richness are observed. As a rule, flora depletion occurs. Specific ecobiomorphs are formed for the plants which are prosperous at rookeries as a response to the intensive action of birds. On the islands of the northern part of the Okhotsk sea, hummocky gramineous plants represented by pine purple grass existing on the majority of nesting colonies are of the highest significance.

Soil Formation and Soil Grouping in the Central Part of the Taiga Zone of West Siberia

A. I. Shepelev, L. F. Shepeleva, R. G. Mazitov
Keywords: sod soil, frozen ground, soil formation, soil grouping, genetic horizon, gleization, soil morphology
Pages: 127-133

Abstract >>
On the basis of an