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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2005 year, number 4

1.
"Bom-Bom" by P.V. Krusanov: Behaviour Motif and Intertext

Bolotova M.A.

Abstract >>
The paper considers the problem of correlation between the motif and the ways of interpreting fiction text as related to other types of literary works. For this purpose, the paper analyses the motif of degradation as represented in the novel "Bom-Bom" by P.V. Krusanov and its role in interpreting the reminiscences originating from a number of other literary works.



2.
The Problems of Phraseological Unit Polysemy in Russian, English, and French

Gritsko M.I.
Keywords: cross-linguistic studies, phraseological units, polysemy, semantic and connotative changes.

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the issues of polysemy of phraseological units in Russian, English, and French and attempts to reveal the similarities and idioethnic dissimilarities observed in the phraseological systems under study. The comparative meaning structure analysis of polysemic phraseological units makes it possible to draw conclusions concerning the sources and ways of polysemy development in various languages, i.e. to reveal the following issues: what phrasemes and their meanings developed independently and what phrasemes were loaned (loan translations), what semantic and connotative changes they underwent when borrowed by a different language system. Not only can this study of phraseological units give new evidence concerning the system organization of languages and the interdependence of language subsystems, but it allows to investigate some cross-cultural aspects of phraseology stocks of different languages.



3.
The Verb Category of Evidentials and the Problem of Universal Indicative Semantics

Il'ina L.A.
Keywords: Samoyedic languages, verb categories, evidentials, indicative.

Abstract >>
The paper provides evidence for the drastic specificity of the indicative witnessed in the languages possessing a highly developed verb category of evidentials. Using the Samoyedic language material, the paper analyses the following issues: 1) whether the meaning of objectively stating the reality of the fact irrespective of the source of information is universal or not, 2) whether the basic meaning of the verb category of evidentials is that of the Indicative or not. It is concluded that in the Samoyedic languages the opposition of direct and indirect evidentiality scopes over both past and present temporal spheres. It is required that the statements expressing real situations should, necessarily or typically, mark the information source. As a consequence, evidentials-neutral indicative is lacking or has not developed.



4.
Modus-Dictum Sentences with Intransitive Verbs and Nouns in the Prepositional Case

Koshkaryova N.B., Skorova O.V. Simple
Keywords: modus-dictum sentences, prepositional case, authorization, volition, metacategory of discourse conventionalities.

Abstract >>
The paper describes the sentence type having an intransitive verbal predicate governing a noun marked with the prepositional case. The sentences of this type convey various modus-dictum relations. The paper analyses the means of expressing authorization and volition. The sentences in question are not elementary for the verbal predicate has a modus meaning and the noun in the prepositional case represents a condensed proposition where it functions either as a predicate preserving its subject and object valency or as a subject. The paper considers in detail the ways of proposition condensing and the means of marking semantic roles within the condensed proposition.



5.
Types of Comments on Translated Versions of Folklore Texts

Limorenko Yu.V.
Keywords: scientific folklore text edition, translation, scientific comments, textual studies.

Abstract >>
The objective of the paper is to outline the principles of compiling comments on the translated versions of folklore texts and systematize the existing approaches to making comments. Scientific comments are an essential component of folklore text editions supplied with translation. The paper describes the existing principles of compiling comments on translation including the selection of the items to be commented on, comment aspects, and the objectives to be gained by a comment compiler. The author distinguishes four types of comments, taking into account the purposes of folklore text editions, the typical approaches to translation, and the specificity of folklore material.



6.
Structural and Morphological Characteristics of Simple but Semantically Complicated Sentence in the Orok Language

Ozolinya L.V.
Keywords: formal syntactic structure, semantic structure, polypredication, polypropositionality.

Abstract >>
The purpose of the paper is to describe the simple but semantically complicated sentence in the Orok language. The syntactic structure of the simple but semantically complicated sentence differs from that of the Russian equivalent in the aspect that an Orok monopredicative syntactic unit corresponds to a Russian polypredicative consruction with object or adverbial modifier clauses. Traditionally, these constructions having essentially a monopredicative syntactic structure but being semantically complicated ones have been treated as polypredicative syntactic contructions. The paper attempts to show the distinction between monopredicative polypropositional constructions and polypredicative ones. The syntactic and semantic structure of the Orok sentence has never been described before.



7.
The Folklore Collecting and Documenting Principles as Developed by G.U. Ergis

Petrova M.N.

Abstract >>
The paper describes the folklore collecting and documenting methods worked out by G.U. Ergis, a researcher from Yakutia (Saha). As a result of his folklore collecting and documenting activity, the stock of manuscript materials at Research Institute of Linguistics, Literature and History of the Yakutia Division of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, at present known as Institute of Humanities Research, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), has been considerably enriched. The paper is intended for specialists in Siberian and Yakut folklore.



8.
South-Siberian Turkic Consonantism: Common and Specific Features

Selyutina I., Subrakova V.
Keywords: phonetics, phonics, phonology, articulatory-acoustic base, consonantism, typology.

Abstract >>
The goal of the paper is to carry out a contrastive analysis of the consonant systems in the South-Siberian Turkic languages. The paper presents a contrastive study of the consonant systems in the languages in question and examines integrating and differentiating parameters of articulatory-acoustic bases. It is shown that the languages under investigation have different noise consonant inventories which are characterized by a specific system organization. Above all, these differences concern the phonemes which are treated as long units in Altai, Kumandy, Chalkan, Tuba, Sagai (Nizhne-Tyoj subdialect), as strong (fortis) consonants in Tuvin, as ajective-injective consonants in Shor, and as pharyngealized phonemes in Baraba Tatar. The Shor consonant system is organized on a trichotomy principle, other systems are dichotomic ones.



9.
On Historical Background of Cumulative Fairy Tales

Tretyakova Sh.K.
Keywords: ritual and game folklore, cumulative fairy tales.

Abstract >>
The objective of the paper is to study the origin of cumulative fairy tales. An assumption on the archaic nature of cumulation is made. The problems of the origin of cumulative fairy tales and the relations of cumulation to other composition techniques are touched upon. The origin of cumulative fairy tales is traced back to ancient ritual song games based on debate of the parties. This syncretic source is validated by a amoeba-like composition of fairy tales, their formula nature, laconic character, and rhythmic contour. Cumulation and "rhythmic and syntactic parallelism" are treated as the development stages of oral poetic tradition which is characterized by logical decomposition along with chain-like structure and cumulativeness.



10.
Consonantism in the Kalmak Language

Urtegeshev N.S., Babykova S.A.
Keywords: Siberian Turkic languages, Kalmak language, consonantism, phonic and phonologic description.

Abstract >>
The paper pioneers the investigation of the consonantism in the Kalmak language, which is one of the Siberian Turkic languages having the smallest number of native speakers. The paper reveals the inventory of consonant phonemes and describes the consonant system and its qualitative peculiarities. The investigation is based on the audio and visual observations resulting from a detailed phonic and phonologic description of the consonant system as a whole.



11.
The Plot and Composition Structure of Khakas Heroic Epos

Chistobaeva N.S.
Keywords: epics, exposition, entanglement, action development, culmination, denouement, motif, plot.

Abstract >>
The paper provides a detailed analysis of the Type III plot development based on the Altyn Chus epic in which each of the three characters is involved in his/her own scope of actions and events. Scientific comments include the description of special composition features of Khakas heroic epos which reveals the national specificity, originality, and peculiarities. The paper may be of interest for specialists in Turkic languages and folklore.